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VIII. 
A GLOSSARY OF WORDS AND PHRASES 



PERTAINING TO THK 



DIALECT OF CUMBERLAND. 



SERIES C. 
ORIGINAL GLOSSARIES, 

AND GLOSSARIES WITH FRESH ADDITIONS. 



VIII. 

A GLOSSAEY OF WOEDS AND PHEASES 



PERTAINING TO THE 



DIALECT OF CUMBERLAND. 



BY 

WILLIAM DICKINSON, F.L.S. 




LONDON: 

PUBLISHED FOR THE ENGLISH DIALECT SOCIETY, 

BY TRUBNEB, & CO., 57 & 59, LUDGATB HILL. 

1878. 



CLAY AND TAYLOR, PKTNTEKS. 



T r c T; n 

r- ,- T ,. /-, 

ri !i MH^.- . V. . . v c 

PE 



CONTENTS 



3lossaries:- 

I. fiords and Phrases pertainin? to the 
Dialect of Cumberland, and supplement 
by W. Dickinson. 

II. Words in use in Cornwall. 
West Cornwall 

&y Miss M.A. Courtnay 
East Cornwall 

by T.Q. Couch. 

III. Words in use in the Counties of Antrim 
and Down. 

by W.H. Patterson 



-IMC! 



03 



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s fcnp , tnpliscriiG lo :c?rff 



nl 

.A.V B8IV V- 

noT- .0.1 vc 
JnuoC ^rt nt ? 
jeC 



YC 



ni 



nl o 
.nwoC 






INTRODUCTION. 



THE present work is a second edition, revised and extended, of 



inglisb palwt jtodetg. 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 

EBBATA. 

Page v, Hue 20, for Eden read Ehen 

Page xxiii, line 9 from foot, for Gilpin read Coward 



passing the head of Borrowdale to Dunmail Eaise, thence along the 
south-east and eastern boundary of the county to Kirkland, and by the 
base of the Black Fell mountain range to Croglin, and turning west- 
ward through the once royal forest of Inglewood, by Warnel, Brockle- 
bank, and Aspatria, to Allonby, on the shore of the Solway. To the 
southward of this district the words and the mode of pronunciation and 
expression gradually merge into those of Lancashire ; to the northward, 
into the Scotch ; and to the extreme north-east, into the Northumbrian, 
partaking in some measure of the burr peculiar to parts of that 
county. 

A little to the north-east of the pleasant bathing village of Allonby, 
on the Solway, the dialect begins to vary, and chiefly in the long i 



"IHOi 



.nr 

^ejJeQ .>' yes 






INTRODUCTION. 



THE present work is a second edition, revised and extended, of .1 
Glossary of the Words and Phrases of Cumberland, published in White- 
haven, in 1859, -which has for some time been out of print. The changes 
in this new edition are numerous, both in the way of omission and 
addition. As regards the omissions, many words previously included 
were merely corruptions or peculiar pronunciations of ordinary current 
English. These it has not been deemed necessary to retain. The rule 
of exclusion, however, has not been absolutely or rigorously observed, 
because some Cumbrian forms of common English cannot without ex- 
planation be made intelligible to people living beyond the borders of the 
county. 

In treating of Cumberland words, it must be borne in mind that, 
small as the county is, having an area of only a little over fifteen 
hundred square miles, it possesses its geography of language, ranging 
across the county in tolerably distinct bands, and each preserving its 
substantive identity with the fidelity attaching to a national language, 
but occasionally shading into and blending with the others, its imme- 
diate neighbours. The most clearly defined band or belt of dialect ex- 
tends across the centre of the county, and its southern boundary may 
be traced on a map by a line commencing where the river Eden dis- 
charges its waters into the sea, ascending the course of that stream to 
Egremont, and along the water-shed of the ancient forest of Copeland, 
passing the head of Borrowdale to Dunmail Eaise, thence along the 
south-east and eastern boundary of the county to Kirkland, and by the 
base of the Black Fell mountain range to Croglin, and turning west- 
ward through the once royal forest of Inglewood, by Warnel, Brockle- 
bank, and Aspatria, to Allonby, on the shore of the Solway. To the 
southward of this district the words and the mode of pronunciation and 
expression gradually merge into those of Lancashire ; to the northward, 
into the Scotch ; and to the extreme north-east, into the Northumbrian, 
partaking in some measure of the burr peculiar to parts of that 
county. 

A little to the north-east of the pleasant bathing village of Allonby, 
on the Solway, the dialect begins to vary, and chiefly in the long / 



VI INTRODUCTION. 

being pronounced as ey meyne and theyne, Ac., and this continues 
northward along the whole border, stretching more or less into the 
county. 

There are many idiomatic peculiarities appertaining to the dialects, 
or rather to the varying dialect of the county, such as contracting the 
article the into ?, in the southern and central parts of the county, 1 but 
not in the north-eastern part. Another is the common note of assent, 
vm, pronounced with the lips closed. A third consists in the entire 
absence of the terminative ing in all words of more than one syllable, 
and in its being substituted by in, and more frequently an, and by its 
retention in monosyllabic words. The affix ed is compensated by an 
abbreviated 't, and those of ly and ish are in frequent use as approxim- 
ates or diminutives, e.g. coldly, coldish, wetly, wettish, &c. The 
terminative ght in right, tight, sight, and similar words, was formerly, 
and even within memory, pronounced resht, tesht, seesht, &c., or by 
aspirating the gh. Ho ! and Hoo ! are common expletives at the com- 
mencement of a reply, and especially if the replicant deems the question 
somewhat irrelevant or unimportant, as Ho nay ! Hoo ey ! 

The English language has no equivalent to the vowel sound in the 
way the word brust (burst) is pronounced. It is not the u, the e, nor 
the i, but a kind of compromise between the e and the i. The word run 
is in a similar predicament, it being frequently pronounced in a half- 
way sound between rin and ran, and partly approaching to ren, but not 
strictly coinciding with the sound of any of them. 

A few words are common to both extremes of the county which are 
not used centrally, as craa, haak, &c., for crow, hawk. 

Some words are differently pronounced in different parts of the 
county, although the spelling may indicate a similarity of sound ; and 
vice versa. Seathwaite in Borrowdale is pronounced as Sea-thwaite or 
whate, while Seathwaite on the Duddon is Seathet the e and a in sea 
being distinct. Calthwaite near Penrith, and Scothwaite near Ireby, 
are both pronounced as o long Cothet and Scothet : and a few other 
words and proper names are pronounced in an equally arbitrary 
manner. 

There are shades and variations of pronunciation and accent in the 
districtal dialects which are extremely difficult to explain ; and which 
can only bo properly understood on hearing the native speakers in 
unrestrained colloquial glee, or in angry recrimination. We of the 
county-born know them, but others of distant counties may require 
help to know them, as we should of theirs. Instances are not wanting 

1 By the uniting of the article to the Terb or substantive, the following ludicrous 
specimens become explanatory or puzzling, as the reader may fancy : 

! ' T wether an' twasps hes spoilt o' trasps 'The weather and the wasps have 
spoiled all the rasps. 

2. Shoemaker : 'Wife; whoaretwax?' 

Wife : ' It* a twatter a twinda, aside twatch,' 



INTRODUCTION. Vll 

in which the moddrn refined pronunciation is the innovation, and the 
homely word the original. Among the older residents of the vales there 
still lingers such old and uncertain, and surely doomed expressions, as 
laal, laal-ly, laalish ; girt, girtly, girtish ; and sundry others of kindred 
quaintness : and many of these are given with a peculiar inflexion which 
it is difficult to describe. These are easily understood when heard, and, 
excepting the leading word, are not easy to give an exact definition of, 
but they mostly act as diminutives or as degrees of comparison. 

The strangeness of some words and expressions cannot be duly 
estimated from the sound alone, and on seeing them set out in print 
their ludicrousness becomes manifest : for instance, ' yannanudder ' 
one another ; ' dudta ' did thou, &c. It is not enough to enumerate 
the words believed to be purely Cumbrian. There are many contrac- 
tions, corruptions, and combinations now current, which custom and 
time are gradually incorporating into the dialect, and which another 
generation or two will stamp as provincialisms ; and without a key to 
such,^a stranger would encounter many difficulties in ordinary conversa- 
tion with an untravelled native. 

It may here be remarked, that a considerable portion of the labouring 
population, occupied in mining, draining, and other earth- works, con- 
sists of Irishmen, who, with their families, make the western side of the 
county a permanent residence ; or at least till the labour market tempts 
a removal to better paid localities. And notwithstanding this influx, 
the Irishisms engrafted on the native dialect are singularly few, if indeed 
any. Their children reared here acquire the dialect as perfect as the 
natives, and soon use not a trace of their mother tongue : and even the 
parents, in many instances, abandon their own idiom, and learn to use 
the speech of their adopted country. It is somewhat different with the 
Scotch and the labourers from the borders, who nearly all retain the 
expressions and the peculiar inflexions of their national speech to their 
dying day. And some of their descendants are known to retain suffi- 
cient to distinguish their nationality over more than one generation. 
There is, at least, one creditable peculiarity in the dialect of Cumber- 
land ; and this is, its comparative freedom, except among the labouring 
classes in towns, from the contemptible slang engrafted into most 
others. 

An attempt has been made (necessarily imperfect in the absence of a 
knowledge of the Grlossic system) to convey an idea of the pronunciation. 
The chief orthographical alteration will be found in the introduction of 
an additional or duplicate consonant as expressive of emphasis or accent, 
and in part as a phonetic accommodation. Thus, the Cumberland 
equivalents for the word ' hot ' are ' het ' and ' heatt,' and the latter 
would be 'heat,' and would convey a different meaning, but for the 
additional and accented letter ; and so with many similar words. The 
whole collection has been made in the intervals of business, extending 



viii INTRODUCTION. 

over many years, and has been found an agreeable change, and a 
serviceable relaxation. All the glossaries and publications in the 
county dialect, hitherto met with by the author, are local, and unavoid- 
ably provincial ; or are indiscriminately intermixed, and consequently 
imperfect. An attempt is made to render this one more perfect, by 
localizing each word and phrase. The sources from which information 
has been derived are, a frequent, or rather an almost continuous, 
personal business intercourse with nearly all classes of the rural 
inhabitants of nearly every parish in the county during the greater 
part of a half- century ; the inspection of various glossaries of Cumber- 
land and north-country words ; a rigid search through the publications 
met with in the dialect of the county ; the contributions of friends ; an 
intimate acquaintance with the mother tongue of the county, and a life- 
long residence in the central district described. 

I am indebted for a few ancient words, still partially in use here, to 
' A Restitvtion of Decayed Intelligence in antiquities. By the study, 
and travell of E. V. (Kichard Verstegan.) London, 1634.' For a 
revisal of the words and phrases of the south-western district, I am 
indebted to the kindness of the late John Caddy, Esq., of Eougholrn, 
near Bavenglass ; and of those of the extreme north-eastern district, to 
the very competent assistance of Mr. D. Tweddle, of Workington, a 
native of the parish of Stapleton. The kindness of Mr. John Dixon, of 
Whitehaven, is gratefully acknowledged, in foregoing his intention to 
publish a work of a similar kind, and in placing the basis of his collec- 
tion at my disposal. The late Mr. Barker, of Greystoke, heartily 
contributed the benefit of his intimate knowledge of the dialect of his 
neighbourhood, and of its geographical limits ; and to the late William 
Randleson, Esq., of Croft-Hill, Whitehaven, a native of Scotby, near 
Carlisle, I am indebted for a perusal of Brockett's Glossary, containing 
sundry valuable manuscript notes and memorandums, relating to the 
subject. 



BY way of facilitating the objects of the Glossary it has been thought 
advisable to tabulate some of the subjects, as follows: 

DIALECTAL PRONUNCIATIONS OF CTORENT OR ORDINARY 
ENGLISH WORDS. 



A 



Abba abbey 

adveyce, N.W. advice 

afword afford 

airm, N. arm 

fikkorn acorn 



aleann alone 

alliblaster alabaster 

arnang among 

ayqual, s.W. equal 

B 

Beakk bake 



PRONUNCIATIONS. 



IX 



bearr 


bare 


cliwer, N. 


clever 


beeast, S.W. 


beast 


cofe 


calf 


beeans, S.W. 
belliz 


beans 
bellows 


cofl, c. ) 
cowgh, nr. J 


cough 


bennish, N. 


banish 


coo, c., N. ) 


cow 


beukk 


book 


caww, s.w. ) 




booakj s.w. 


book 






beutts 


boots 


D 




booats, s.w. 
beyble, N.W. 
beyont 
beyt, N.W. 
binsh 
bizzom, N. 
blaa, s.w. 
bleadd 


boots 
bible 
beyond 
bite 
bench 
besom 
blow 
blade 


Dowter 
dreakk 
dreeam 
dreyve, N.W. 
driss, C., druss, N. 
droven, drurven 
drukken 


daughter 
drake 
dream 
drive 
dress 
driven 
drunken 


bleakken 
bleanim 


blacken 
blame 


du, s.w. 
durs n't 


do 
durst not 


bleeak, S.W. 


bleak 


durt 


dirt 


bleeat, s.w. 


bleat 


dwoat 


doat 


bleeze 


blaze 






bleight, s.w. 


blight 


E 




bleudd 


blood 






bleumm 


bloom 


Eeals, S.W. 


eels 


bliss, N. 


bless 


eeast, s.w. 
eeat, s.w. 


east 
eat 


C 




eernin' 


earning 






eyce, Tf.w. 


ice 


Cairds, sr. 


cards 


eydle, N.w. 


idle 


cannel 


candle 






car 


cart 


F 




carran 


carrion 






cassel 


castle 


Fassen 


fasten 


'cause 


because 


feale, N. 


fail 


cawm, come 


calm 


feeast, s.w. 


feast 


cawwshin, C., s.w. 


caution 


feels, N. 


fields 


ceakk 


cake 


feester 


fester 


ceapp 


cape 


fellies 


felloes 


cearr 


care 


fent 


faint 


ceass 


case 


fewl 


fowl 


ceestern 


cistern 


fift 


fifth 


cest 


cast 


filly fwol 


female foal 


ceukk 


cook 


fing-er 


finger 


cheeap, s.W. 


cheap 


flannin 


flannel 


cheeat, S.W. 


cheat 


flee 


fly 


chennel 


channel 


fleean 


flymg . 


chern, s.w. 


churn 


fleudd 


flood 


chimla 


chimney 


forseakk 


forsake 


cbist 


chest 


fote, c., faat, s.w. 


fault 


chooaz, s.w. 


choose 


fourt 


fourth 


ckurry 


cherry 


fower 


four 


cb.wose 


chose 


freeten 


frighten 


death 


cloth 


frind, freend, N. 


friend 


cleean, s.w. 


clean 


fur 


fir 



INTRODUCTION. 



furkin 


firkin 


L 




furst 
fwoal 


first 
foal 


Laa, s.w. 
laan, Ian', N. 


low, law 
land 


n. 




laylac 


lilac 


\J> 




leamm 


lame 


Geann 


gone 


leatt 


late 


geudd, N. 
geyde, N.W. 


good 
guide 


leaydy, leddy, N. 
lee 


lady 
lie 


gezlin 


gosling 


leear 


liar 


glazener, glasser 


glazier 


leeas, s/W. 


lease 


gleuvv, N. 
good eb'n 
gran, N. 
granny 


glove 
good evening 
grand 
grandmother 


leeav, s.W. 
leed, c., N. ) 
leead, s.w. ) 
eetnin' 


leave 
lead (metal) 
lightning 


greeas, s."W. 


grease 


eev 


to live 


growan' 


growing 


eukk,c.,N. ) 


1OO K 


growe 


grow 


eeak, s.w. ) 


JAJ<Jlx 


grummel 
gurth 


grumble 
girth 


ikly, leykly, N. 
u-warm 


likely 
lukewarm 


gwoat 


goat 


woze 


lose 


H 












M 




Han] 


. 
hand 






harrish 


harass 


VTangrel 


mongrel 


heasst 


haste 


mannish 


manage 


hed 


had 


marcy 


mercy 


bed n't 


had not 


mair, mearr 


more 


heeals, s.w. 


heels 


massy cree 


massacre 


heet 


height 


mayn't 


may not 


hemmer, N. 


hammer 


meadd 


made 


heerin' 


herring 


meakk, C. mek, N. 


make 


hilth 


health 


meall 


a meal 






meann 


mane 


J 




measst, c., S.w. ) 


most 






maist, N. ) 




Jeelas, N. 


jealous 


measson 


mason 


jeest, jyst 


joist 


meean, S.W. 


mean 


jeybe, N.w. 


jibe 


meer 


mare 


jing-el 
jollop, X. 


jingle 
jalap 


'mend, C., s.w. J 
'men, N. 


amend 


jwoke 


joke 


meooldy 


mouldy 






meoor, mure, K". 


moor 


K 




meudd, c., S.W. 


mud, moot 






meuzz 


to muse 


Kay, c. keah, s.w. key 


mey, N.w. 


my 


keull 


cool 


meyne, N.w. 


mine 


keynd, keyn',N.w. kind 


meyre, N.w. 


mire 


kill 


kiln 


meyse, N.w. 


mice 


kneaww, S.W. 
kneyf, N.w. 


knew 
knife 


mezzer, c., s.w. ) 
mizzer, N. j 


measure 


knockles 
kurnel 


knuckles 
kernel 


mezsdes, c., S.w. 
mizzles, N 


[ measles 



PRONUNCIATIONS. 



XI 



milkas 


dairy, milk- 


peeas, s.w. 


peace, peas 




house 


peeat, s.w. 


peat 


millreet 


millwright 


peer, peur, N. 


poor 


minsh 


mince 


pennerth 


pennyworth 


mistakken ) 
misteann ) 


mistaken 


pen'lam 
pent 


pendulum 
paint 


myzert, N. ) 


miser 


peull, N. 


pool 


meyzer, N.W. ) 




peye, N. 


py e 


morgidge 


mortgage 


peype, N. 


pipe 


mote, c., maat 


malt 


plad 


plaid 


mowd 


soil, mould 


pleague, N.E. 


plague 


mwotes 


dust, motes 


pleass 


place 


my Id, c., meyle, N. mile 


pleeaz, s.w. 


please 






pleesant, N. 


pleasant 


N 




plet 


plat 


Neakk't 


naked 


plu, c., s.w. ) 
pleugh, N. } 


plough 


neainm 
neavvel 

necklath 

ne.eadles, s.w. 
nevvy 


name 
navel 
( neckcloth 
( handkerchief 
needles 
nephew 


porpas, S.w. 
portcher 
pot 't, s.w. 
powny 
prent 
prentas' 


purpose 
poacher 
put it 
pony 
print 
apprentice 


neyce, N.W. 


nice 


preuw 


prove 


neyne, N.W. 
nieberheed, N. 


nine 
neighbourhood 


preyce, N.W. 
preyd, N.W. 


price 
pride 


nin, c. ^ 




preym, N.W. 


prime 


neean, s.W. > 
neann, N. j 


none 


pruzzently ) 
prizzeutly ) 


presently 


neunn 


noon 










puzzen 


poison 


noo, c., N. J 


now 


pworch 


porch 


naww, s.w. j 








nwotish, nwotis 


notice 


Q 




nwoze 


nose 










'Quentance 


acquaintance 







queyt, N. 


quite 


Oblege 
oft, c., s.w. > 
offen, N. i 


oblige 
often 


'quit 
quo' 


acquit 
quoth 


ofter, c., s.w. ) 
of'ner, N. ] 


oftener 


E 

Eackan 


reckon 


ogre 


ochre 


rack'nin 


reckoning 


onder 


under 


; rang 


wrong 


oor, c., N. ) 


our, hour 


reakk 


rake 


awwer, s.w. J 




reapp 


rope 


oot, c., N. ) 


* " J 


reass 


race 


awwt, s.w. ) 


out 


'reatt 


wrote 


ower, c., N. ) 




reavven 


raven 


oor, s.w. j 


over 


reet 


right 


P 




reg'lar ) 
reggylar J 


regular 






reggalate 


regulate 


Parjery 


perjury 


resk 


risk 


peasst 


paste reuff 


roof 



Xll 



INTRODUCTION. 



reydo, N.w. 
reyme, N.w. 


ride 
rhyme 


shwort, N.w. 
sing-el 


short 
single 


ribbin 


ribbon 


sizes 


assizes 


riddy, ruddy 
rinje 


ready 
rinse 


skeapp 
skearce 


escape 
scarce 


roostit 


rusted 


skeet, c., s.w. ) 


to skate 


rost, c., s.w. ) 
rwost, N. ) 
rosy, rwosy 
rowe, c. ) 


roast 
a rose 


skeatt, N. J 
skelf, E. 
skooal, s.w. 
skool, N. 


shelf 
school 
scowl 


raa, s.W., N. J 


raw 


skooar 


score 


rowl 


roll 


skreapp 


scrape 


rowm, s.w. 


room 


skreuf 


scurf 


ruddy, riddy 


ready 


slippy 


slippery 

_i 


rwoag, if. 
rwoan, N. 


rogue 
roan 


slee, N. 
sleep't 


sly 
slept 


rwoar, c. } 




slopstan 


sinkstone 


> 
rooar, S.w. J 


roar 


slowp 


slope 






smeukk, C., s.w. \ 


smoke 


s 




smeeak, N. ) 








smiddy 


smithy 


Sallar, N. 


cellar 


smo', c. 


small 


san', N. 


sand 


smaa, s.W., N. ) 




sang 


song 


sneel 


snail 


sarman, c., s.w. ) 




snaa't, S.w. 


snowed 


sarmant, E. J 


sermon 


snwoar, c. 7 


snore 


sarvant 


servant 


snoor, s.w. ) 




sarvice 


service 


soam 


psalm 


satisfys't, N. 


satisfied 


soder, sowder, E. 


solder 


screapp 


scrape 


somewhoars 


somewhere 


ecworn 


scorn 


sook 


suck 


sea, seah 


so 


soor, c., N. ) 




seakk 


sake 


sawwer, s.w. j 


sour 


seamm 


same 


sote, c. } 


salt 


seapp 


soap 


saat, s.w., N. } 




seb'm, sebben, } 




sove 


salve 


c., s.w. > 


seven 


sowjer, N. 


soldier 


seeven, N. ) 




spar, s.W. 


spare 


sek 


sack 


'sparragrass 


asparagus 


seeat, s.w. 


seat 


speadd 


spade 


sect, c., s.w. ) 
seeght, N. j 
sel' 


sight 
[self 


speeak, S.W. 
speunn, c., N.E. \ 
spooan, s.W. ) 


speak 
spoon 


setchelt 


^satchel 


speyse, N.w. 


spice 


seunn, c. ) 




spittle 


saliva 


seean, s.w. j 


soon 


spokkan, spok'n 


spoken 


seyde, N.W. 
seutt 


side 
soot 


spreckel't < 
sprickel't j c -' s -^ 


T . speckled 


shavs, sheaws 
shawwer 


sheaves 
shower 


spreed, c., N. ) 
spreead, s.w. ) 


spread 


sheyn, N.w. 


shine 


spwort 


sport 


shippert 


shepherd 


squash 


quash 


shuk, sheukk 


shook starn 


stern 



PRONUNCIATIONS. 



Xlll 



'stait, C., S.W. ) 
'steatt, N. J 


estate 


teann, tukkan 
teasst 


taken 

taste 


steabble 


stable 


tedder 


tether 


steakk 


stake, steak 


tent' 


tenth 


steall, c., s.w. ) 


_j i 


teukk 


took 


steull, N. J 


stole 


teull 


tool 


steeal, s.w. 


steel, steal 


teunn 


tune 


steeam, s.W. 


steam 


teutth 


tooth 


steappel, c. ) 




teydy, N.W. 


tidy 


stappel, s.w. > 


staple 


teyt, N.W. 


tight 


steeple, N. ) 




teym, N.W. 


time 


steel 


stile 


teyny, N.W. 


tiny 


steudd, steadd 


stood 


teyth, N.W. 


tithe 


steyl, N.W. 


style 


teytel, N.W. ] 


title 


stown 


stolen 


than 


then 


strea, c. \ 




theeaf, S.W. 


thief 


streaa, s.w. 5 


straw 


thaim, N. 


them 


stree, N. 




thenk 


thank 


street, streight 


straight 


thissel 


thistle 


streuvv 


strove 


thoo, C., N. ) 


., 


streyk, N.W. 


strike 


thaww, S.W. ) 


tnou 


streyve, N.W. 


strive 


thoom 


thumb 


strinkle 
strinklin' 


sprinkle 
sprinkling 


thoosan', C., N. ) 
thawwsan', S.W. j 


thousand 


strop 
sturrups 


strap 
stirrups 


thowe, c., N. 
thaww, thaa, S.W. 


{ thaw 


stutter 


stammer 


thraa, S.W. 


throw 


su, c., sewe, s.w. 


) 


threaw 


throve 


SOO, N. 

suppwose 


> a sow 
suppose 


threed, c., N. ) 
threead, S.W. ) 


thread 


sweer 


swear , 


threeten 


threaten 


swearr 


swore 


threy, N. 


three 


sweyn, N.W. 


swine 


thrwoat, N. 


throat 


swin'ler 


swindler 


thunner 


thunder 


swint 


squint 


thurd, c., N. 


third 


swoak 
swober, N. 


soak 
sober 


thurty, c. ) 
thairty, N. ) 


thirty 


swory 


sorry 


thworn, N. 


thorn 


swun, N. 


swoon 


'tice 


entice 


swurd 


sword. 


tiddious 


tedious 






timmer 


timber 


m 




to' 


tall 


Taak, s.w. 


talk 


tooa, c., s.w. ) 


4-m^ 


tarrier 


terrier 


twee, tweea, N. J 


two 


'taty 
taylear, c., s.w. ) 


potato 

fanlm* 


toon, C.,N. ) 
tawwn, s.w. j 


town 


teaylear, N. f 


muuji 


'torious, N. 


notorious 


teabbel 


table 


'tossicatit, N. 


intoxicated 


teadd 
teakk, teukk 


toad 
took 


towerts, c. ) 
to'rts, s.w. ) 


towards 


teah, s.w. 


tea , 


treeacle, s.w. 


treacle 


teall 


tale 


treadd, c., s.w. ) 


i l 


teamm 


tame 


treudd, N. j 


trode 



XIV 



INTRODUCTION. 



treass 
troot, C. , N. ) 
trawwt, s.w. ) 


trace 
trout 


whatsomiver 
whedder 
wheeat, s.w. 


whatsoever 
whether 
wheat 


tuk, teukk, teakk 


took 


whissel, c., S.W. 


- whistle 


twoast 


toast 


whussel, N. 


i 


twenty, N. 


twenty 


whissenday, C.," 
S.W. 


> whitsuntide 


u 




whussenday, N. 


[ 


Upreet 


upright 


whoar, c.,whaar, 
s.w. 


> where 






wheer, N. 


! 






whol 


hole 


Vagran' 
vally 


vagrant 
value 


whornpipe, N. 
whornpeyp, N.W. 


> hornpipe 


vannan, varment 


vermin 


whup 


whip 


varse 
veeal, S.W. 


verse 
veal 


wid, c., s.w. ) 
wud, wuth, N. ) 


with 


vinekar 


vinegar 


widder 


wither 


vit'lin' 


victualling 


wid-in 


within 


vittels 


victuals 


wizzel 


weasel 


vwoat 


vote 


wo', c., N. | 


wall 






waa, s.w. ) 




W 




woath 


oath 






woats, c., aits, N 


oats 


Wake, c., s.w. 
wand'ren' 


weak 
wandering 


wo-er, c. 
waa-er, s.w., N. 


| waller 


war, c., s.w. ) 


were 


wreyt, N.W. 


write 


wor, wur, N. \ 
'ward 


award 


wordy, N. 


worthy 


warmness 


warmth 


Y 




weage, N. 
weager, N. 


wage 
wager 


Yalla 


yellow 


wearr 
weaystcwoat 
weel 


wore 
waistcoat 
well 


yerd, c., s.w. ) 
yurd, N. ] 
yernest 


yard 

earnest 


wee n't 


will not 


yer-sel 


yourself 


well, c. , s.w. | 


weld 


yerth 


earth 


wol, N. ) 




yis 


yes 


wesh, c., N. ) 
weysn, s.w. ) 


wash 


yist, c. ) 
yast, s.w. j 


yeast 


weyd, N.W. 


wide 


yit 


yet 


weyf, N.W. 
weyl, N.W. 


wife 
wile 


yooar, c., N. ) 
yawwar, s.w. j 


your 


weyn, N.W. 


wine 


yowl, gowl 


howl 



WOEDS APPLIED TO BEATING OE STEIKING. 

THE number of words and terms applied to beating and striking is 
sufficiently remarkable to deserve separate enumeration. As some 
proof of the combative proclivities of our ancestors, when wars were 



WORDS APPLIED TO BEATING OR STRIKING. XV 

frequent ; and rapine, at times almost a necessity, as well as a powerful 
incentive on the borders ; the following list of their words, still in use, 
with a small mixture of later date relating to personal conflict, and of 
beating and correcting, are surprising from their number and variety ; 
and are very expressive of sundry degrees of intensity in the different 
sections of the county. Some of the words have other meanings as well. 
Words signifying the use of the spear in warfare are so few as to indi- 
cate that the club, the stone, the battle-axe, the bow and arrow, the 
sword, and the fist, were the prevailing weapons. 



Bang ... ... to beat 

Bat ... ... a blow, a stroke 

Batter ... ... to strike repeatedly 

Bash away ! ... strike vigorously 

Beasst ... ... to beat 

Beat to thrash with fist or stick . 

Bensal to beat 

Blaa, S. W. ... ... a blow 

Bray ... ... to bruise or beat 

Breakk ... ... to thrash 

Bump ... ... a blow 

Clink ... ... a sharp blow 

Clonk ... ... a sounding blow 

Cloot ... ... a blow not repeated : 

Clowe ... ... to attack and scratch 

Cob ... ... to kick 

Cuff ... ... to strike without malice 

Dander a blow on the head 

Dang ... ... to push or strike 

Ding ... ... to knock 

Doose ... ... a slap 

Down to knock down 

Drub ... ... to thrash 

Dump ... ... to butt with the head 

Dust ... ... to beat till dust rises 

Flail ... ... to hit with a down stroke 

Flap, Flop a blow scarcely in earnest 

Floor ... ... to knock down 

Fluet ... ... a smart blow 

Heftin' an effective attack, such as driving a dagger up 

to the haft 

Hide ... ... to beat the skin or hide 

Hit to strike 

Kange, Kainje, E. "... (g soft) to flog severely 

Kelk ... ... to hit roughly with hand, elbow, knee, or foot 

Knap ... ... to strike gently and quickly 

Knock ... ... a hard blow 

Lam, E. ... ... to beat 

Larrop ... ... to flog with a strap, &c. 

Lash ... ... to whip 

Leass ... ... to thrash 

Ledder ... ... to beat 

Lickin' ... ... a thrashing 



XVI 



INTRODUCTION. 



Lig at 

Lounder 

Mak at 

Mash 

Massacree 

Maul 

Nap 

Nope 

Paika 

Pay 



Pelk 

Pelt 

Prick, Prod ... 

Pum, Pummel 

Quilt 

Rap 

Eozzel 

Scop 

Settle 

Skaitch 

Skelp 

Slaister 

Slap 

Slash 

Slouch. 

Smack 

Smash 

Spankin' 

Stirrup oil 

Strop 

Switch 

Tan 

Tap 

Targe 

Thud 

Thump 

Towel 

Trim 

Trounce 

Twilt 

Wallop 

Warm 

Weft 

Whack 

Whale 

Whap, Whop 

Whelk 

Whup 

Wipe 

Yark 



to strike at 

to thrash clumsily 

go and attack 

to disfigure by blows 

to all but kill 

to abuse greatly 

a slight blow on the head 

to strike on the head 

a boyish term for a thrashing 

to beat 

a thump with the fist 

to beat query from pelt 

to beat 

to wound with the spear 

to pound or beat with the fists 

to beat keenly 

a hard stroke 

to whip 

to hit with a stone, or by a sling 

to quiet a person by a thrashing 

to thrash with a stick or rod 

to whip or beat 

to disfigure without serious injury 

to beat with the open hand 

to wound with the sword 

a blow clumsily struck 

a stroke on the face with the open hand 

to break a man down 

a clever beating 

punishment with a strap 

to apply the strap 

to flog with a rod or switch 

to belabour the body 

a sharp stroke on the head 

to whip or thrash severely 

a heavy blow with a dull sound 

a hard stroke with the fist 

to beat with a stick 

to whip a child 

to punish by beating 

to beat keenly 

to beat roughly 

to slap a child 

to beat 

a strong and sounding blow 

to apply a cudgel 

a smart blow 

a thump with the fist 

to whip 

a back -handed stroke 

the fiercest of blows 



PLACE NAMES AND THEIR PRONUNCIATION. XV11 



PLACE NAMES. 

THE following is a list of places in Cumberland the pronunciation of 
which differs from the spelling. Some are corruptions, and others are 
simply abbreviations : 



Spelled. 


Pronounced. 


Spelled. 


Pronounced. 


Abbey 


Abba 


Ehen 


End 


Acrewalls 


Yakkerwo's 


Eskdale 


Eshdal 


Aldby 


Oalby 






Arlecdon 


Aarelton 


Fallen Cross 


Fo'en Cross 


Aspatria 


Speattry 






Aughertree 


Affatree 


Gamblesby 


Gammersby, E. 






Gatesgarth 


Gasket 


Barkhouse 


Barkas 


Gilcrux 


Gilcroos 


Beaumont 


Bemont 


Glencoin 


Glenkeunn 


Bewaldeth 


Bewodeth 


Graysouthen 


Grayseunn 


Blackball 


Bleckel, N. 


Greystoke 


Graystick 


Blennerhasset 


Blinrayset 


Guardhouse 


Gardess 


Bolton 


Bowton 






Boonwood 


Beunwood 


Haile 


HeaU 


Bothel 


Bwol 


Hallsenna 


Ho'sena 


Brampton 


Branton 


Hensingham 


Hensigem 


Branthwaite 


Branthet 


Hope 


Whope 


Brotherilkeld 


Butterilket 


Holme, as a termination, is usually 






pronounced ' 


am.' 


Caldbeck 


Coadbeck 


Hopebeck 


Hobbek 


Calder 


Coder 


Huddlesceugh 


Huddleska 


Caldew 


Coda 


Hutton soil 


Hutton seiill 


Calthwaite 


Cothet 






Calva 


Cova 


Johnby 


Jwonby, E. 


Carlisle 


( Caarel, a. 








( Cairel, N. 


Keswick 


Kezzick 


Castlerigg 
Coldale 


Castrigg 
Cowdal 


Kidburngill 
Kirkbanton 


Kiprangill 
Kerbanton 


Cow lane 


Coo Iwon, N.W. 


Kirksanton 


Kersanton, s.w. 


Crookdake 
Cumberland 


Creukdake 
Cummerlan 


Kirsgillhow 


Kerskilla 


Cuthwaite or ) 
Kirkthwaite j 


Curthat 


Lanefoot 
Longwathby 


Lonninfeutt 
Langanby, E. 






Lowscales 


Laskels, S.W. 


Dalehead 
Dalston 


Deall Heed 
Dostan 


Lucyclose 


Lustyclwose 


Derwent 
Devoke 
Dirt hole 


Daaren 
Duvvok 
Durt whol 


Melmerby 
Middlesceugh 
Moat 


Mellerby, E. 
Middleska 
Mwoat, N. 


Distington 


Dissenton 


Mockerkin 


Mowerkin 


Dryholme 


Dryam 


Moota 


Meuta 


Duncow fold 


Dunkafoald, N, 










Oakshaw 


Yaksha 


Edenhall 


Eadnal, E. 


Oldscale 


Askel 


Egremont 


Eggermoth 


Oulton 


Ootan 






1 



XVI 11 



INTRODUCTION. 



Spelled. 
Pardshaw 
Pelutho 
Penrith 
Pickthall, s.W. 
Plumbland 
Plumpton 
Ponsonby 
Poolfoot 

Ravenglass 
Redmain 
Rockcliff 
Rothmire 

Sandwith 

Saltcoats 

Salter 

Scaleby 

Scales 

Scalesceugh 

Scothwaite 

Seathwaite 

Seathwaite 

Skinburness 

Smaithwaite 



Pronounced. 
Pardza 
Pellyda, N.w. 
Peerath 
Pyk't baa 
Plimlan' 
Plunton 
Punsaby 
Poo fooat, s.w. 

Reb'nglass 
Reedmeann 
Rowcla 
Rowmer 

Sannatb 

Sote cwoats 

Soter 

Skealby 

Skealls 

Skelska 

Skotbet 

Seatbet, s.w. 

Sea whate, c. 

Skinbernees 

Smekttbwate 



Spelled. 


Pronounced. 


Small tbwaite 


Smaa wbate, s.w. 


Stanwix 


Stannix 


Stapleton 


Steappelton 


Stonybeugb. 


Steanny beugb 


Talkin 


Tokin, E. 


Threlkeld 


Tbrelkat 


Tbursby 


Tbeursby 


Toadbole ) 
Todbole ) 


Tekddel 


Toot HiU 


Teiitt HiU 


Torpenhow 


Trapenna 


Tortolacate 


Tortla-cate 


Ulpba 


Oofa, s.w. 


Ulverston 


Oostan, s.w. 


Wartbol 


Wardel 


Waverton 


( Warton 
( Waerton 


Welbolme 


Weddam 


Wbitebaven 


Wbitten 


Wildcat bank 


Wulcat bank 


Workington 


Workiton 


Wytbburn 


Wybern 


Wytbmoor 


Wymer 



In some of tbe nortbern parishes tbere are farm-bouses called towns, 
as Justus' town, Nixon's town, Gibby's town, Pbillip's town, Jerry's 
town, &c. Otbers are onsets, as, Netber Onset, Upper Onset, &c. Very 
many otber names of places are more or less altered, but are recog- 
nizable. 



PLANT NAMES. 
Cumberland names of British plants. 



Agrostemma Gitbago 
Agrostis vulgaris 
Aira coespitosa 

Allium ursinum. 
Alnus glutinosa 
Anagallis arvensis 
Angelica sylvestris 
Arctium Lappa 



Popple 

Water twitch 

Bull toppins, Bull feasses. Bull 

fronts 
Ramps 
Eller 

Poor man's weather-glass 
Water kesb, Kesks 
Bur, Crockelty bur, Clot bur, Bur 

dockin, Eldin a general term 

for dry stems used for lighting 

fires 



CUMBERLAND NAMES OF BRITISH PLANTS. 



XIX 



Armeria maritima 
Arrhenatherum avenaceuin 
Arum maculatum 
Asparagus officinalis 
A vena 



Bellis perennis 
Betula alba 
Botrychium Lunaria 
Brassica Napus 
, , Rapa 
Brassica 



Briza media 
Bromus mollis 
Bunium flexuosum 



Caltha palustris 
Campanula rotundifolia 
Cardamine pratensis 

Carduus lanceolatus 
Carex prcecox 
Centaurea nigra 
Chenopodium album 
Chrysanthemum segetum 

,, leucanthemum 

Cnicus palustris 

,, arvensis 

,, heterophyllus ... 
Conium maculatum ... , 

Digitalis purpurea ... - , 

Epilobium hirsutum 

Equiseti are all called , 

Erythrsea centaurium ... , 

Eriophorum vaginatum ... , 

Euphorbia Helioscopia ... 

Fraxinus excelsior ... , 

Fritillaria meleagris ... , 



N.w. Marsh daisy 
Hawer grass 
Lords and ladies 
Sparragrass 

Havver, Woats, Aits, Cworn, and 
the stems Strea 

Dog daisy, Ben-wort, Bennert 

Birk tree, Burk tree 

Shoe the horse, Unshoe the horse 

Roap 

N.W. Turmet 

The seeds of the tribe are called 

Popple, and the plants Field 

kale and Wild mustard 
Dadder grass, Dotherin grass, Dod- 

derin Nancy, Dodderin Dicky 
Havver grass, Goose grass, N.W. 

Duck havver 
The roots are Yowe yorlins, Yowe 

yornals, Jocky jurnals, Jack dur- 

nils; and the plants Scabley hands 

Open gowan, Water gowan 

Blue bells 

Lamb lakins, Bonny bird een, Bird 

eye 

Bur thistle 
Pry, Little seg 
Horse nops 
Meols, Fat hen 
Yellow gull, Gull 
Dog flower. White gull, Dog daisy, 

Great daisy 
Water thistle 
Sharp thistle 
Fish belly 
N.w. Umlik 

Thimble, N.w. Fairy fingers 

Codlins and cream 

Teadd pipes, Paddock pipes, Scrub 

grass 

Mountain flox 
Cat tails, Catlocks, and the early 

blossoms Mosscrops 
Wart grass, Wart weed, Churnstaff 

Esh 

Guinea-hen flower, N.W. Pheasant 
lily 



XX 



INTRODUCTION. 



Galixim aparine 



Galium verum . 

Geranium Eobertianum 



Hedera helix ... 
Heracleum spondylium 

Holcus avenaceus ... ... 

mollis and lanatus 
Hydrocotyle vulgaris ... 
Hyoscyamus niger 

Ilex aquifolium 
Iris pseudacorus 

Juncus conglomeratus, effusus and 

glaucus 
Juncus lampocarpus 

,, squarrosus 
Juniperus coinmunis ... 

Lamium purpureum 
Lastrea all the species 
Linaria vulgaris 
,, cymbalaria 

Linum usitatissimum ... 
Lycopodium clavatum ... 

selago 
Lychnis diurna 
Lysiinachia nummularia 

Malva sylvestris 

Myrica gale 
Myrrhis odorata 

Narcissus, Pseudo-narcissus 
Nasturtium officinale ... 

CEgopodium podagraria 

CEkianthe crocata 

Ononis arvensis ... ... 

Orchis mascula 

Osmunda regalis 
Oxalis ascetosella 



Goose grass, Cleavers, Clawer 
grass, Bob run up dyke, Eobin 
run the dyke, Sticky back, Sol- 



diers' buttons 
Bennet, Steep 
Bloodwort, Death come 

Stinkin Bobby 



quickly, 



Ivin, Hyvin 

Dry kesh, Kesk. The dried stems 
are Bunnels and Candle Lighters 
Button twitch, Button grass 
N.w. Wheyte (white) top't grass 
Sheep rot, Eot grass 
N.TE. Stinkin Eoger 

Hollin 

Mekkin, Seggin, w. Seag 



Seaves, Eeshes 

Gloss 

Whirlbent, Star bent 

Sawin 

Black- man's posies 

Fearn brackins 

Butter and eggs, Chopt eggs 

Eambling sailor, N.w. Mother of 

thousands 
Line 

Buck horn moss 
Fox feet 
Lousy beds 
Wandering Jenny 

Common Mallow, erroneously called 

Marsh Mallow 
Gale, Gawel, Moss wythan 
Sweet brackin 

Dafly, Dafty-down-dilly 
Water crashes 

Kesh. N.W. weyl (wild) esh 
Deed (dead) tongue, Water hemlock 
N.w. Weyl (wild) liquorice, Spanish 

reutt 
In the north called Craa teazz = 

Crow toes 
Bog onion 
Cuckoo cheese and bread 



CUMBERLAND NAMES OP BRITISH PLANTS. 



XXI 



Paris quadrifolia 
Poeonia corallina ... 

Petasites vulgaris 
Peucedanum Ostrutliiiim 

Pinus sylyestris 

Pisum sativum 

Plantago major 

,, minor 

Polemonium coeruleum. 
Polygonum Bistorta 

,, Hydropiper 

Populus tremulus 
Potentilla anserina 
Primula farinosa 

veris 
Primus institia 
,, padus ... 

,, spinosa 

Pulmonaria officinalis ... 
Pyrus Aucuparia 



Quercus robur and sessiflora 
Ranunculus repens 



Bhinanthus Crista-galli 
Eibes grossularia . 

nigrum ... 

,, rubrum . 

Bosa canina 



Bubus fruticosus 



,, idaeus ... 
,, saxatilis 
Bumex alpinus 

,, ascetosa and ascetosella 
,, obtusifolius 

Salicornia herbacea 
Salices any of the trees 

,, ,, shrubs 

Salix pentandra 
Sambucus nigra 



True lover's knot 

Piannet 

Water dockin 

Felon wood, Felon wort, Felon 



N.w. Fur, and^the cones Fur apples 

N.W. Pez 

Battan tails 

Cockfeighters 

Charity 

Easter mun-jiands, Easter May 

giants, Waster ledges 
Arse-smart, Bity tongue 
Esp 

Goose tansy, Wild tansy 
Bonny bird een 
Cow struplin 
Bullister 
Ekberry, Eggberry, Heckberry, 

Bird cherry 
Slea tree, Slea thorn 
Bottle of all sorts 
Boan tree, Bowantree, Witchwood, 

Cock drink, Hen drunks 

Yak, N. Yek 

Meg wi' many feet, Meg wi' many 
teazz, Crowfeet, Buttercups, N. 
Hod the rake 

Hen pens, Horse pens 

Grossers in the north-east 

Blackberries 

Wineberries 

Choop tree. The fruit is called 
Choops, and N.w. Cat choops. 
A g^rl from Norway called the 
fruit Chubem, in her native 
tongue 

Brear, and the fruit Black kites, 
Bummel kites, Bummelty kites, 
Bumly kites, Brummel kites 

Hine berry 

Bunch berry 

Butter leaves 

Sour dockins 

Dockin 

Pickle plant 

Safftrees, Saughtrees, Willy trees 

Wythes, Willies, N.w. Wans 

Sweet willy 

Bulltree, Burtree, sr. Boretree 



XXII 



INTRODUCTION. 



Scabiosa succisa 
Schrophularia nodosa 
Sedum acre 
Senecio Jacobsea 

Sinapis arvensis 
Solanum dulcamara 
Sonchus oleraceus 
Spergula arvensis 
Spiraea Ulmaria 



Statice Armeria 

Taraxacum officinale 
Thymus serpyllum 
Tragopogon pratensis 
Triticum repens 
Trollius europseus 
Tussilago farfara 



Ulex europaeus 

,, iianus 
Ulmus campestris and inontana 

Vaccinium myrtillus 

,, oxycoccus ... 
Verbascum thapsus 

Veronica Beccabunga . . . 
,, chamaedrys 

Vicia cracca ... 
,, sativa 



Blue buttons 

Stinkin Eoger, Stinkin Christopher 

Little houseleek 

Booin, Grundswaith, Agreen, B. 

Muggert 

Field kale, Wild mustard 
Felon wood, Bitter sweet 
Swine thistle 
Yur, N.W. Dodder 
Courtship and matrimony from 

the scent of the flower before 

and after being bruised 
Sea pink 

Clocks, Pissybeds 
Mother of thyme, Wild thyme 
Nap at noon 

Twitch grass, Winnelstrea 
Lockin gowan, N. Lockity gowaii 
Gleets, Fwoal feet, Clatter clogs, 
Son afoor f f adder 

Whin 
Cat whin 
Ome tree 

Blebbery, Bleaberry 

Crones, Croneberry, Crowberry 

Jacob's staff, Beggar's stalk, Beg- 
gar's blanket 

Well ink, Water purple 

Bonny bird ee, Poor man's tea, Cat 
eyes 

Huggaback 

Wild fitch, N.W. Weyl (wild) fitch 



As regards the proper names and sirnames of the county, many are 
conventionally altered, and contraction seems to be the guiding prin- 
ciple. Many will be corruptions ; some are nicknames ; others may 
have crept in from the nursery ; and all may not greatly differ from the 
usages of other counties. 



Tharncroft, Workington, Auyust, 1877. 



AUTHORITIES CONSULTED- XX111 



AUTHOKITIES CONSULTED. 

Anderson's Songs and Ballads in the Cumberland Dialect. 

Blamire (Miss) : Poetical Works. 1842. 

Boucher (Eev. Jonathan) : Glossary of Archaic and Provincial Words. 
1832-3. 

Brockett's Glossary of North Country Words. 1846. 

Chaucer's Poetical Works. 

Clark (Ewan) : Miscellaneous Poems. 1779. 

Clarke's Survey of the Lakes. 1787. 

Dyer's Ancient Modes of Bestowing Names on the Eivers, Hills, &c., 
1805. 

Dialect of Craven. 2 vols. 1828. 

Ferguson (Eobert) : Dialect of Cumberland. 1873. 

Gibson, A. C. : Folk-Speech of Cumberland. 1869. 

Grose's Provincial Glossary, 1811 ; and Supplement, 1814. 

Halli well's Dictionary of Archaic and Provincial Words. 1855. 

Hutchinson's History of the County of Cumberland. 1794. 

Lonsdale, Mark : Th' Upshot. 1780. 

Lonsdale (Dr) : Worthies of Cumberland. 

Mackenzie. 

Matchell's MS. 

Nicolson, Bishop: Miscellany Accounts of the Diocese of Carlisle. 1877. 

Peacock's Lonsdale Glossary. 1869. 

Powley (Miss) : Echoes of Old Cumberland. 1876. 

Bay's Glossary. 

Eayson (John) : Poems and Songs in the Cumberland Dialect. 1830. 

Eichardson (John) : Cummerland Mak' o'talk. 1871 and 1876. 

Eelph (Eev. Josiah) : Poems. 

Songs and Ballads of Cumberland (Gilpin of Carlisle). 1846 and 1874. 

Spenser's Poetical Works. 

Stagg (John) : Miscellaneous Poems. 1804. 

Sullivan, J. : Cumberland and Westmorland, Ancient and Modern, 1857. 

Toone's Glossary and Etymological Dictionary. 1832. 

Turner (Sharon) : Works. 

Verstegan (Eichard) : Eestitution of Decayed Intelligence in Antiqui- 
ties. 1634. 

Williamson's Local Etymology. Carlisle, 1849. 



XXIV INTRODUCTION. 



THE WOEDS OF OALD CUMMEELAN'. 

YA neet aa was takkan a rist an' a smeukk, 
ATI' snoozlan an' beekan my shins at t' grate neukk, 
When aa thowt aa wad knock up a bit ov a beukk 
Aboot t' words 'at we use in oald Cummerlan'. 

Aa boddert my brains thinkan some o' them ower, 
An' than set to wark an' wreatt doon three or fower 
0' t' kaymtest an' t' creuktest, like ' garrak,' ' dyke stower,' 
Sek like as we use in oald Cummerlan.' 

It turnt oot three-corner't, cantankeras wark, 
An' keep't yan at thinkan fray dayleet till dark ; 
An' at times a queer word would lowp up wid a yark, 
'At was reet ebm doon like oald Cummerlan'. 

John Dixon, o' Whitt'en, poo't oot ov his kist, 
Ov words 'at he thowt to hev prentit, a list ; 
An' rayder ner enny reet word sud be mist 

Yan wad ratch ivry neukk ov oald Cummerlan'. 

Than Deawy fray Steappleton hitcht in a lock, 
An' Jwony ov Euffom gev some to my stock ; 
Than, fray Cassel Graystick a list com, fray Jock ; 
They o' eekt a share for oald Cummerlan'. 

Friend Eannelson offer't his beukks, an' o' f rest 
(O man! bit he 's full ov oald stories the best) ; 
Aa teukk am at word, an' aa harry't his nest 
Ov oald-farrant words ov oald Cummerlan'. 

Than naybers an' friends browt words in sa fast, 
An' chattert an' laft till they varra nar brast, 
To think what a beukk wad come oot on't at last 
Full o' nowt bit oald words ov oald Cummerlan'. 

Than, who can e'er read it can enny yan tell ? 
Nay, niwer a body bit f writer his sel ! 
An' what can be t' use, if it o' be to spell 

Afoor yan can read its oald Cummerlan' ?J 

Workington, July 15th, 1859. 



GLOSSARY 



DIALECT OF CUMBERLAND. 



[The letter Q. denotes the word or phrase to be in use generally over the county ; 
the letter c. indicates the use in the central parts ; B.C. in the east-central ; N.w. 
Abbey Holme and upper shores of the Solway Frith ; s.w. south-west ; and 
E. and N.E. in the east and north-east.] 



Aa, G. I, pronounced as in harm. 
Aapral (formerly general), April. 
Aa'z, Ize, G. I is, I am. 
Aback, G. behind. 
Aback o' beyont, G. no where, 

lost in the distance. ' Whoar t' 

meer fwoal't t' fidler.' 

A-bed, G. in bed. 

Abeunn, c., Abooan, s.w., Aboon, 
N.E. above. 

Abeunn wid Ms sel, c. rejoicing 
beyond reasonable control. 

Abide, c., s.w. to bear, stay, re- 
main, suffer, withstand. 'I 
caa-n't abide sek wark.' 

Abreed, Abraid, c. extended, 
spread. 

Ac, G. to heed. See Neer ak. 

Acram, N.E. a sort of ancient 
Border judicature wherein a per- 
son (plaintiff or defendant) lay 
bound till his champion's victory 
or fall in combat determined his 
fate, to death or freedom. Bp. 
Nicolson. 

Afear't, c. afraid. Not often 

heard. 
Afeutt, c., Afooat, s.w., Afitt, 

N. on foot. 

Afoor, c., Afwore, s.w., Afore, 
N. before. 



Age, c., Yage, N. to grow old. 

' He begins to age.' ' He ages 

fast.' 
Ageann, c., N., Again, s.w. 

again, against, before. ' Tom 

agednn t' field.' 
Ageann t'hand, c. inconveniently 

placed, interfering with pro- 
gress. 
Ageatt, G. going, on the way, on 

foot again, progressing. 
Aglet, Tag, c., s.w., Tiglet, N. 

the metalled end of a boot-lace, 

&c. 

Agreeable, G. assenting to. 
Ahint, Bebint, G. behind. 

Aim, c. to intend, to purpose. 

' He aims to be a gentleman.' 
Airs, c. humours. 'He's in his 

airs to-day ' out of humour. 
Airy, G. breezy. 'It's rayder 

airy to-day.' 
A-jar, G. partly open. 

A-jye, G. on one side, awry, ob- 
lique. 

A-lag, N.E. a term used in calling 
geese together. 

Alang, Lang, G. along. ' It was 
o' alang o' Dick.' 

Aleb'm, c., s.w., Aleeven, N. 
eleven. 

1 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



Allan, G. a bit of land nearly sur- 
rounded by water ; an island. 

Ally, G. the aisle of a church. 

A-loddin, G. not engaged, on offer. 
' She's still a-loddin.' 

Alongst, c. along. Used in old 
deeds. 

Am, G. him. ' Catch am, an' hod 
am, an' whack am weel.' 

Amackily, G. in some fashion, 
partly. 

Amang hands, G. among other 
things. 

Ameast, c., s.w., Ameeast, N. 
almost. 

Amess, c. a kind of oath ; a note 
of verification. ' Amess it is.' 

Amiss, G. used in a slight (nega- 
tive) approval. 'It's nut seah 
far amiss.' 

Amry, Aumry, N.E. a cupboard, 
or place where victuals and some- 
times plate and other valuables 
are kept. Nearly obsolete. 

An, G. ing as a terminative is pro- 
nounced an. Rising, risan', &c. 

Anenst, c., s.w., Fornenst, N.E. 
opposite to ; over against. An- 
emst in some old writings. 

Aneuff, c., Anoo, s.w., Aneugh, 
N.E. enough (as relating to 
quantity). 

Anew, G. enough (as relating to 
number). 

Ang nails, c., Ang-er nails, N. 
jags round the nails ; nails grown 
into the flesh. 

Angry, G. inflamed and painful. 

An' o', G. also, and all, too. 
'We'd breed an' butter, an' 
cheese an' o', an' o' maks o' 
drink.' 

Anonder, In anonder, G. under ; 
beneath. 

1 Ten schypmen to lond yede, 
To see the yle in length and 
brede, 



And fet water as hem was nede, 
The rocke anondyr.' 

Rom. of Octavian Imp. 

Anters, N.W., Ananters, K. in 
case (? perhaps). ' Or anters in 
yon mouldering heap.' Stagg's 
Poems. 

April gowk, April noddy, c., 
April feull, N., April fool. 
This term is provincial, but the 
application is of wider extent. 

Arbitry, o. arbitrary. Applied 
to manorial customs. 

Arch whol, c., Slit whol, s.w., 
Bowel whol, N. a vent-hole in 
the wall of a barn, &c. 

Ard, aird, N.E. high.(]) Buucher 
says, in his Glossary: 'It is, 
however, in Cumberland only 
that I happen to have heard the 
term used abstractedly, to de- 
scribe the quality of a place, a 
country, or a field ; thus, ard 
land means a dry, parched, arid 
soil, which no doubt is but its 
secondary sense, such lands being 
dry, parched, &c., only because 
they lie high.' I never heard the 
term in Cumberland. [I think 
Boucher is wrong. W. W. S.~\ 

Argify, G. to debate. 

Argy, G. argue, signify. 'It 
doesn't argy'-^-it does not sig- 
nify. 

Ark, G., Airk, N. a chest, as meal- 
ark, &c. 

Armin chair, G. an arm-chair, or 
elbow-chair. 

Arr, c., s.w., Err, N. a scar from 
a wound, a cicatrice. 

Ar ridge, G. an angular edge. 
Arris, in architecture. 

Arse-beurd, N. the end board of 

a cart. 

Arse-breed, G. a contemptible 
width or extent. 'His heall 
land 's nobbet a arse-breed.' 

Arse-smart, c. the Pepperwort 
plant Polygonum Hydropiper. 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



Arsewurts, G. backwards. An 
early Methodist preacher in 
Workington used to enlighten 
his hearers with 'Aa wad as 
seunn expect a swine to gang 
arsewurts up a tree and whissle 
like a throssle, as a rich man to 
git to heaven.' 

Art, c., s.w., Airt, N. point of the 
compass ; quarter. 

Arvel breed, N. bread prepared 
for a funeral. Arvel also re- 
lates to other funeral matters. 

As how, c. that. 'He said as 
how he wad niwer gang near 
them.' 

Aside, c. beside ; near to. ' Par- 
ton aside Whitten.' 

Ask, G. the lizard or newt. 

A-slew, Aswint, G. one-sided; out 
of truth ; diagonal. 

As-ley, E. ' as asly ' ; as willingly ; 

as soon that way as the other. 
A-spar, G. wide apart. 'He set 

his feet a-spar.' 
A-spole, c. asplay ; wide asunder 

in reference to the feet. 
Ass, G. ashes. 

Ass, Ax, c., Aas, x., E., s.w., ask ; 
inquire. 

Assel-teuth, G. one of the grinders 
or molars. 

Assel-tree, G. axle-tree. 
Ass-grate, c. a grating through 

which ashes pass from the fire 

into a sunken cell. 

Ass-trug, c., s.w., Ass-beurd, N. 
ashes box. 

Asteed, G. instead. 
A-swint, G. aslant. 
At, s.w., and some fell-dales, to. 

Ts gaan at git my poddish.' 

Barely heard. 
'At is aa, 'At is e, G. that I am. 

' Aa's cum to advise tha, 'at is e.' 

Anderson, 



'At is 't, G. that it is. ' It's gay 
bad wark 'at is 't.' 

Atomy, c. a skeleton. 'She's 
dwinnelt away til a atomy.' 

Attercop, c., speyder wob ; N. 
cock web, s.w. spider's web. 

A-varst, G. a vast deal. 

Away, G. to go away. ' I'll away 
to t' church.' 

Awsom, o. appalling, awful. 

Ax't at church, Hung in t' bell 
reapp, c., Cry 't i' the kirk, 
N.E. having had the banns pub- 
lished. 

Ax't out, c. the banns having 
been three times proclaimed. 

Ayder, Ider, Owder, G. either. 

Ayder syne mak, c. not a pair ; 

different kinds. 
Aydle, c., Addle, s.w., Ettle, N. 

to earn. 

Aydlins, c., Adlins, s.w., Etlins, 

N. earnings. 

Ayga, c., s.w., Yigga, N. ague. 
Ayont, N.W. beyond. 
Aywas, c., N. anywise, always. 

Baal, Baald, x. bold, impudent. 
Babblement, G. silly discourse. 

Babby lakins, G. children's play- 
things. 

Bachelor buttons, c. the double 
white or yellow ranunculus. 

Back-boord, G. a board to roll 
dough upon ; a bake board. 

Back-bred, G. bred late in the 
year or season. 

Back-dyke, c. Many of the 
fences against commons were 
formerly breasted with stone on 
the exposed side, or with stone 
and sod, and backed up with 
earth on the inner side, hence 
the name. 

Back end, c. the autumn. ' On 
about t' back end.' 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



Backen, o. to retard. 

Back kest, <;., Back fling, E. a 
relapse. ' He was m endan' nicely, 
but he gat a sair back kest i' 
winter.' 

Back nor edge, c. 'I can mak 
nought on him nowder back nor 
edge.' Unmanageable ; useless ; 
' like an oald knife.' 

Back rackonin', G. an unpleasant 
reference to an old grievance. 

Back-set, G. a reserve ; something 
to fall back upon. 

Back-set and foor-set, G. sur- 
rounded with difficulties. 

Back-side, G. the back yard. 

Back-stick, G. the rod connecting 
the foot-board of the spinning- 
wheel with the crank. N. sword. 

Backstone, c. an iron plate or slate 
to bake cakes upon. 

Back up, G. an angry cat elevates 
its back, and so an angry person 
is said to set his back up. 

Back watter't, G. When the 
tail race of a wheel is flooded 
the stream above is unable to 
keep the wheel moving, and the 
mill is back-watered. 

Back-word, G. a countermanding. 
' They ax't us to t' tea yaa day, 
and than they sent us back-word? 

Bad bread, c. To be out of favour 
is to be in bad bread. 

Baddan, c., Baddin, N. bad one ; 
the evil one. 

B adder, G. worse. 'Many a 
badder thing med happen.' 

Saddest, G. worst. ' It's t 1 bad- 
dest thing 'at could hev hap pen' t.' 

Badger, c., s.w., Badger body, N. 
a person who buys corn and re- 
tails the meal ground at the mill 
of another; a travelling dealer 
in butter, &c. 

Badly, c. poorly ; out of health. 



Baffle, c. to confound ; to defeat 
by stratagem. Boucher says, 
' to treat with indignity, to ex- 
pose.' I have not heard the word 
so used. 

Bag, G. the belly ; the udder of 

the cow. 
Baggin', c. provisions taken into 

the field for workmen. 

Baggish, G. baggage. A term of 
reproach to a child or a female ; 
' a dirty baggish I ' 

Bag shakkins, G. short supply; 
the last of it. 

Bagwesh, o. poverty and disre- 
pute. ' He's gone to bayivesh.' 

Baily, Bumbaily, c., Bum, s.w., 
Bally, N. bailiff; a sheriffs 
officer. 

Bain, c., N.E., Grain, s.w. handy, 
willing, near. ' It's a bain lad, 
poor thing ! ' ' Yon's f bainest 
way.' 

Bait, G. a lunch, or intermediate 
meal ; a feed for a horse in 
travelling. 

Ball money, N. money given by 
wedding parties at the church 
gates to children to buy balls. 
In some parishes the scholars 
buy coals with this money for 
the school fires. The men give 
each, if booted and spurred, six- 
pence ; women nothing. In the 
west the money is given without 
rule, and is spent in sweets, &c. 

Bally rag, G. to bully and scold. 

Baltute, Bellcute, c. the bald 
coot. 

Bam, c. a jesting falsehood, trick, 
cheat. 

Ban, N.E. band. 

Band, c. a boundary on high and 

unenclosed land. 
Bandylowe, c. a prostitute. 
Bang, G. to beat, to excel, an act 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



of haste. ' He was bad to bang.' 
' He com in wid a bang.' 

Banger, G. anything great. ' It 
is a banger.' 

Bannock, c., Bannick, N. thick 
oat-cake usually made for the 
harvest-home or kern supper. 

Bannock feass't, G. having a flat 
face and a short nose. 

Banty, c. the bantam ; a dwarfish 
person or animal. 

Banty cocks, c. intermediate- 
sized cocks of hay . 

Bare gorps, c. unfledged birds. 

Barfet, c. feet naked. 

Bark, G. to peel the skin or bark 
off, to unbark. 'He bark't his 
- nockles ower tudder fellow's 
skope.' 

Bark at t' heck, c. to wait out- 
side the door. 

Barken't, c. dirt hardened on; 
to make crisp like bark ; hide- 
bound, stiff. 

Barley play, c. a term used by 
boys bespeaking a cessation of 
their game. 

Barn, c., s.w., Bairn, K. a child, 
a term of familiarity. ' Barn, 
thou mun come in, thou's like.' 

Barnicles, G. an old name for 
spectacles; irons put on the 
noses of horses to make them 
stand quietly. 

Barnish, G. childish. 

Barn time, c. the period of fruit- 
fulness in women. 

Barrin', c. except. 'You may 
hev any of my kye barrin' t' 
black an'.' 

Barrin' out, G. School-boys bar 
the teacher out at Christmas and 
negociate for holidays before ad- 
mitting him. 

Bash, c. to spoil the appearance. 
'Her bonnet was hasn't in t' 
rain.' 



Bash away! c., N.W. work vigor- 
ously ; strike hard. 
Bass, G. the perch. 

Bat, G. a blow; a stroke; the 
sweep of a scythe ; condition. 
See Oald bat. 

Batch, c., N. a sack of corn pre- 
pared for being ground at the 
mill ; a pack of cards. 

'Bateable lands, N. lands claimed 
by adverse parties. In a treaty 
of Truce held by the Commis- 
sioners of England and Scotland, 
at Newcastle, on the 13th Au- 
gust, 1451, the Scotch Commis- 
sioners declare that ' touching the 
Saleable lands or Threpelands 
in the West Marches,' &c. 
Matchell MS. 

Batlin' steann, c. a stone used to 
beat the coarse hempen shirts of 
old times upon, to soften them 
previous to being worn. 

Batten, G. to fatten; to thrive. 
' Here's good battemn' to t' barn, 
and good mends to t' mother,' 
a usual toast on the occasion of 
a birth. 

Batter, G. to slope ; to incline ; 
to beat. Field walls are built 
wider at the bottom than at the 
top, and this constitutes the 
batter. 

Battins, c. corn in a half-thrashed 
state. 

Baum, Beam, G. to bask in the 
sun or by the fire ; balm. 
' Baum in t' sun like a hag- 
worm.' 

Baurgh, c. a horse- way up a steep 
hill. Halliwell. 

Baze, c. to prize or lift with a 
lever. 

Beaddless, c. impatient of suffer- 
ing. 

Beanns, G. bones ; bad people. 

' He's a bad bednn.' 
Beard, c. to lay short brushwood 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



to project over the edge of a wall 
to prevent sheep going over. 
Sods or stones are laid on the 
wall to keep it firm. 

Bearr, c., Bwore, s.w., Beur, N. 

bore ; did bear. 
Beasst, o. to baste a roasting 

joint ; to sew loosely ; to beat. 
Beatt, G. abate ; did bite. ' Our 

dog bedtt a lump out o' Tommy 

Tidy lad leg.' ' Aa'll nut bedtt a 

single fardin'.' 

Beatth, c., s.w., Beeath, N. both. 

Beat t' yub'm, c. to supply sticks, 
&c., to the oven while heating. 

Beck, c., s.w., Burn, N. brook, 
streamlet. 

Bed-gown, C. a woman's outside 
dress, reaching only to the hips, 
common in the early part of the 
19th century, and worn only by 
day. 

Bee-bink, E. a stand for bee- 
hives. 

Beek, c., N., Beeak, s.w. to heat 
hazel or other rods to cause them 
to bend more easily for basket- 
making purposes; to bask by 
the fire. 

Beel, c., N., Beeal, s.w. to bel- 
low ; to bawl. 

Beeld, Bield, G. a place of shelter; 
a fox den. 

Beeldin', N. building. 

Beer, G. to bear. 

Beermouth, Barramouth, c. an 
adit or level dug in a hill-side. 

Beese, c., Bceas, s.w. beasts, 
cattle. 

Beestins, Beast milk, c. the milk 

of a new-calved cow. 
Behodden, c., s.w., Behadden, N. 

beholden, obligated. 
Belangs, Belongs, Perlangs, G. 

belongs. 

Belk, c., if. belch ; an eructation. 
Bellar, G. to bellow. 



Bellican, c. an obese person or 
animal. 

Bellt, N. bald. 

Belly rine, c., Belly rim, N. the 
membrane inclosing the intes- 
tines. 

Belyve, G. after a while. 'Aa'l 
pay thee belyve.' 

Benk, c., Bink, N. a low bank or 
ledge of rock. 

Bennert, Benwort, Dogdaisy, c. 
the daisy Bellis perennis. 

Bensal, c. to beat. ' Aa'l bensal 
ta' I'll beat thee. 

Bent, c. bleak. ' Yon's a bent 
pleass o' yours.' 

Berries, c., Grossers, K.E. goose- 
berries. 

Berry, c. to thrash corn with the 
flail. 

Berryin' skin, c., s.w. a dried 
(horse's) skin used for thrashing 
upon, to prevent the grain stick- 
ing into the clay flooring of the 
barn. 

Besom out, G. a signal that open 
house is kept the wife being 
from home. 

Bessy blackcap, c. the black- 
headed bunting. 

Bessy blakelin, c., Yalla yow- 
derin', N. the yellow-hammer or 
yellow bunting. 

Bessy dooker, E. the water-ouzel. 
Better, c. more. 'Theer was 

better ner twenty.' 
Better it, G. improve it. 'He 

wad n't hev done 't if he could 

hev better't it.' 

Bettermer, G. of the better sort. 
The bettermer swort sat snug in the 
parlour. ' An derson. 

Betterness, G. amendment. 
' Theer nea better ness in t' weather 

yit.' 
Between whiles, Atween whiles, 

G. at intervals. 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



Beiinn days, Belinns, Boon days 
or Bovmd days, G. days on which 
the customary tenants are bound 
to work for the lord of the 
manor. 

Beunn days, G. boons or gifts in 
work of ploughing, &c., when a 
young man or a stranger enters 
on a farm. 

Beunnmest, c., Boonmest, s.w. 
uppermost. 

Beuss, c., N., Booas, s.w. a stall 
for a cow or horse. 

Beutless, c. bootless. 'He's 
gaan a beutless eran'.' 

Beiitt money, Boot money, G. 
money given to equalise an ex- 
change. (Bate. It is yielding 
amends or supplying a defect. 
Verstegan.} 

Beiitt stockins, c., Hoggers, 
Fots, N. upper stockings devoid 
of feet, made long enough to 
cover half the thigh. Much 
worn by elderly men when on 
horseback about and before 
1800. 

Bever, E. to tremble. 

Bew, Bu, G. a bough or branch. 

Bicker, c., N. a small wooden 
vessel used for porridge, &c., 
made with staves, one of which 
is longer than the rest as a 
handle. ' Aa'l tak a stap out o' 
thy bicker.' ' I'll reduce the size 
of the vessel thy food is supplied 
in.' ' I'll give thee less food and 

. more correction.' c. a quarrel, 
G. to hurry. 

Bid, G. to invite. See Bride- 
wain. 

Biddable, G. obedient; tractable. 

Bidden, c. occupied ; taken. ' It's 
bidden a mort o' time, but it's 
deunn at last.' 

Biddy, c. a nursery name for a 
louse. 



Bide, c., s.w., Beyd, N.W., N. to 

abide, &c. See Abide. 
Big, G. build. 
Biggan, s.w., N. the act of 

building. 

Biggin', G. building. 
Biggie, c. to blindfold. 

Biggly, c. blindman's buff. When 
the boy is blindfolded, another 
turns him gently round to con- 
fuse his ideas of the locality, and 
says 'Antony blindman kens 
ta me, sen I bought butter and 
cheese o' thee ? I ga' tha my 
pot, I ga' tha my pan, I ga' tha 
o' I hed but a rap ho'penny I 
gave a poor oald man.' 

Bile, c., Beel. N. a boil ; an in- 
flammation preparing to sup- 
purate. 

Bindin', c. a long rod or binder, 
used in hedge-making. 

Bink, N. a row of peats, &c., 
piled up ; a ledge of rock. 

Bir, Bur, G. any rapid whirling 
motion; also the sound produced 
by the motion. 

Birk, Burk, G. birch. 

Birtlin', c. a small and sweet 

summer apple. 

Bishop't, G. burnt in the pan. 
Bisky, G. biscuit. 
Bit, G. but. ' Knock' t to bits, 

bit don't waste it.' 
Bit, G. position ; station. ' He's 

gittan poorish and pinch't to hod 

his bit.' 
Bit, N. little. ' The bit lad.' 

Bit thing, N. small and insigni- 
ficant. 

Bite, G. a mouthful; a hasty 
repast. ' He gat a bite, and than 
to wark he went.' 

Bitter-bump, Mire drum, c. the 

bittern. This bird is now a very 
rare visitor, and is not known to 



B 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



breed here. The writer has a 
recollection of being called to 
listen to the booming of a bittern 
in a mild spring evening, about 
the year 1804, in the mosses of 
Arlecdon. 

Bittock,* s. a bit. 'It's twea 
meyl an' a bittock.' 

Bizzen, Bysen, N.E. ugly or ill- 
made; shameful. 'Skinner writes 
it Beezan, or Beesen, or Bison : 
blinded from by, signifying be- 
sides, and the Dutch word sin, 
signifying sense,' a mistaken 
etymology, corrected in E. D. S. 
Glos B. 15, p. 33. In Cumber- 
land it is seldom heard, except 
as ' a sham and a by sen.' 

Blab, o. to let out a secret. 

Blabberskite, N.E. a vain-talking 
fellow. 

Black an' white, G. writing. 
' Put it down in black an' white.' 
'Nay, aa'l keep my hand frae 
paper.' 

Black-a-vyz't, c. dark-com- 
plexioned. 

Black berries, c. black currants. 

Black dog, c. the sulks. <T 
black dog's on his back,' he's in 
a bad humour. 

Black feutt, c. a go-between in 
love affairs ; 6ne who courts for 
another. 

Blackjack, G. a leathern tankard. 
'There is preserved at Eden 
Hall, and in constant use in the 
servants' hall on New-Year's- 
Day, a good specimen of the old 
leathern tankard, or jack. Black 
jack, indeed, is its familiar ap- 
pellation.' Rev. B. Portetis. 

Black kites, c., Bummel kites, 
N.,Bummelty kites, E. bramble- 
berries. 

* Although this word is a prominenl 
Scotticism, it is used in the same mean 
ing in South Warwickshire. 



Blacks, o. flying flakes of soot. 
Bladder, c., Blether, K. idle 

talk. ' A bletheran' feulL' 
Blake, G. pale yellow. ' Blake 

as May butter.' 

Blare, c., Bledder, TS. to roar 
violently ; to bellow. ' He Hares 
like a billy gwoat.' 

Slash, G. to splash. ; Blish, E. an 

attack of purging. 
Bleary, c. windy, cold, and 

showery. 
Bleatt, c., N. bashful ; timid. 
Blebbery, c. the bleaberry 

Vaccinium myrtillus. 
Blebs, c. bubbles; watery 

blisters. 
Bledder, G. the bladder; to talk 

nonsense. 
Blenk, Blink, c., N. a gleam. ' A 

blenk o' sunshine.' 

Blin, N. blind. 

Blind man's holiday, G. evening 
twilight. 

Blink, c. to move the eye-lids ; 
' a blink o' blue sky ' an opening 
in the clouds. 

Blinkers, K., Blinders, c., Wink- 
ers, Gloppers, s.w. eye-shades 
used on horses' bridles. 

Blinnd lonnin', c. a green lane 
used as an occupation way. 

Blishes, c. small blisters. 
Blitter't, c. torn by winds. 
Blob, c. to take eels by a bait of 
strung worms. 

Blob, G. the best of it. 'He 
teuk t' blob onV 

Blob nukkel't, c. newly calved 
and in full milk. 

Blocker, c. a butcher's pole-axe. 
Blow, G. to let out a secret. 

Blow low, G. do not publish it ; 
keep silence. 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



Blown fruit, G. fruit blown down 
by the wind. 

Blown milk, G. milk from which 
the cream is blown. A practice 
seldom used now. 

Blue buttons, c. the Scaliosa 

succisa plant. 
Blur, G. blot; to defame. 

Blurt, c. to tell or speak out 
something unexpected. 

Bo, c., Baa, s.w. ball. 

Boar seg, G. a castrated boar. 

Bobberous, c. boastful ; proud. 

Bob tail't, c. a waggish tail, and 

thickest at the end. 
Boddam, G. bottom ; low ground ; 

a small valley or hollow. 
Boddamest, G. the lowest. 

Bodderment, G. perplexity. 
See Gibson's ' Bobby Banks' bod- 
derment.' 

Boddersom, G. troublesome. 

Boggle, c., 8.w., Boogie, N.E. a 
ghost ; something to be avoided. 
' You needn't doggie at me, I'll nit 
hurt ye.' 

Bogie, G. a sledge on wheels. 

Bog onion, c. the Osmunda Re- 
galia or flowering fern. 

Boilies, c. food boiled for infants. 

Boilin', G. the whole quantity. 

' The heall boilm' o' them.' 
Bok, c. a motion of the throat, 

&c., denoting an attempt to vomit 

from nausea. 

Boke, Bawk, c. a ridge of land 
left for division of ownership. 

Bokes, c. a hay-loft, &c., of rough 
poles, and turf or branches in 
place of boards. ' Fork that hay 
on ta t' bokes.' 

Boly, c., s.w. a horse having 
white legs and white face. 

Bo man, c. the name of an im- 



aginary person used to frighten 
children. 

Bond sucken, G. Some farms are 
bound by tenure to take their 
corn to the manorial mill to be 
multured and ground, and are 
bond sucken to that mill. 

Bonnily, G. prettily. 

Bonny, G. pretty. Sometimes 
ironically used in a contrary 
sense. ' It's a bonny consarn ! ' 

Bonny burd-een, G. the cuckoo- 
flower, Cardamine pratensis. In 
some parts the mealy primrose, 
Primula farinosa, is so called. 

Boo, c., N., Baww, s.w. to bow. 
Booer, N. (bower) a parlour, also 
a house or shelter. 

Booin, Grundswathe, c., Mug- 
gert, E., Grunsel, Agreen, N. 
ragwort, Senecio Jacobcea. 

Book, G. bulk. ' Will't rain to- 
day ? ' ' Nay, nea girt book.' 

Booky, Booksom, G. bulky. 

Bool, c., N., Booal, s.w. to bowl. 
' Bool in, lads,' go boldly in. 

Boon, G. service done by a cus- 
tomary tenant to the lord of the 
manor. 

Boonce, c., Bawnce, s.w., Bunce, 
N. bounce. 

Boor staff, c. the pin the hand- 
weaver turns his beam with. 

Boot, G. bout ; a turn. ' Let him 
have a boot at threshin' ; ' a con- 
test ; an entertainment. 

Booze, c. a carouse. 

Boozy, c. elevated by liquor. 

Borran, c. a cairn; a large heap 
or extent of stones tumbled pro- 
miscuously together, generally 
ancient funereal piles. 

Bosom wind, G. an eddying or 
whirling wind. 

Boss, Sop, c., Waze, N. a milk- 
maid's cushion for the head. 



10 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



Botch, o. to mismanage. 'Thou 
hez meadd a botch on 't now.' 

Botcher, c. a drink made by 
pouring water on honey-comb 
after the honey has been drained. 
' Sweet as botcher,' was an ex- 
pression formerly in use. 

Bottom wind, c. The waters of 
Derwent lake are sometimes con- 
siderably agitated even in a calm 
day, and are seen to swell into 
high waves rolling easterly, and 
this is called a bottom wind. 

Bounder, c. boundary. A term 
found in old deeds. 

Bout, G. A bcmt with a plough is 
twice the length of the field, or 
once about. 

Bowze, c. the recoil of a gust of 
wind against a wall, &c. ' T' 
wind com wid a girt bowze an' 
whemmelt ma.' 

Brack, c. briue. 'This bacon's 
as sote as brack.' 

Brackin clock, G. a small brown 
beetle, used as a bait for trout in 
June. 

Brackins, G. the fern family. 

Braffam, c., Barryham, s.w., 
Breigham, N. a neck-collar for 
a horse when drawing. (Befu- 
ham, Barkhaam. Boucher.) 

Braid, N.W. to spread ; to throw 
about. 

Braid, c. A cow is said to braid 
during the throws of parturition. 
The Saxon meaning is, to re- 
semble ; to favour. 

Brak, G. broke. 

Brake, c., Breakk, s.w., Breeak, 

if. to beat. 
Brake-sowt, c., Brakshy, N. 

inflammatory fever in young 

sheep. 

Brandied, c., Brannit, N. brin- 
dled. 

Brandreth, c. an iron frame for 



supporting the baking-plate or 
girdle at a proper distance above 
the fire ; a trivet. 

Brang, c., s.w., Brong, N. 

brought. 'An' Kursty brong 

his lug a whang.' Anderson. 
Branglan 1 , N.E. wrangling. 

Nicolson's Leges Marchiorum. 
Brank, c. to hold the head 

proudly and affectedly. ' Brank- 

an' like a steg swan.' 
B ranks, N., a kind of halter, 

having an iron nose-band which 

tightens when the horse pulls. 

Bran new, G. never having been 
used ; having the maker's brand. 

Brannigan, c. a fat puify infant 

boy. 
Brant, c., s.w., Brent, N. steep. 

' As brant as a house side.' 

Brash, c. rash, headlong. ' He's 
a brashan' body, and runs heid 
and neck still.' 

Brash, E. a spell or turn of work. 
' Kursty, come kurn a brash.' 

Brashy, c. weak; delicate. 
Brass, G. copper money ; riches. 

Brass, G. impudence ; assurance. 
' He's plenty o' brass in his feass.' 

Brast, Brust, Brist, G. burst. 
' That with the strain his weas- 
and nigh he brast.' Spenser's 
Fairy Queen. 

Brat, c. a coarse apron ; a con- 
temptuous term for a troublesome 
child. In Borrowdale they have 
a saying that ' when it rains on 
Maudlin (Magdalen) day, Jenny 
Maudlin is bleaching her brat' 
This is the 2nd August. 

Brattle, G. the loud rattling noise 
of thunder, &c. 

Brave, G. superior ; fine ; of a 

good sort. 
Bravely, c., N.E. quite well. 

' I's bravely ; how's thou ? ' 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



11 



Brayin' steann, c., K. a rounded 
stone used for pounding sand- 
stone to sand floors with. 

Brayzent, c. brazen; impudent; 
excess of assurance. 

Brazzle, c. to press into a crowd, 
&c. ; to scorch. 

Brazzled or Brizled, or Bruzled 
pez. X.E. scorched peas scrambled 
for by boys. A glorious feast 
for the youngsters ! A sly urchin 
steals a sheaf of peas ; notice of 
the fact spreads quicker than the 
progress of the Fiery Cross in 
old times, and the village green 
is soon peopled by joyous faces. 
The sheaf is readily in a blaze, 
and this subsided, down go the 
boys on hands and knees amongst 
the yet hot ashes, seeking as for 
hidden treasure. The peas, some 
still green, some only scorched, 
others charred to a cinder, are all 
excellent to the anxious j uveniles, 
who rise from the scramble with 
hands and faces black as sweeps. 

Breadd, s.w., Braid, N.E. broad. 

Bread sticks, N. a wooden frame 
for drying bread-cakes upon be- 
fore the fire. 

Breakk, c. to thrash. 

Bree, w.w. good. ' He's no bree,' 

he's not good. 
Breear, a. briar. 'Now in the 

croppe, now down in the breres' 

Chaucer. 

Breed, c., N.E., Bread, s.w. 
bread. 

Breekin', c. the space behind the 

udder of a sheep ; the fork. 
Breeks, G. breeches. 

Breest, Brist, c., N.E., Breeast, 
s.w. breast. 

Breet, c., s.w. Breeght, N. bright. 
Breeth, c., s.w. Braith, N. breath. 

Brek, c. to break ; fun ; a prac- 
tical joke. ' Sek breks ! ' 



Brek, Break, c. the portion of 
land ploughed oxit of ley in the 
year. 

Brek of a frost, o. a thaw. 

Breme, N.E. to froth. ' It bremes 
ower ; ' it froths over the brim. 

Brenth, Q. breadth. 

Breuk't, c. A white sheep having 
the belly and legs black is a 
breuk't sheep in colour. 

Breuzz, Briz, c., Breeze, N. 
bruise. 

Bridewain, Bidden weddin 1 , c. 

A wedding custom, now obsolete, 
at which subscriptions were made 
for the newly married pair, and 
sports held for the amusement of 
all. The following is copied from 
a local paper of 1786, and is part 
. of an advertisement relating to a 
Bridewain. ' Notice is hereby 
given, that the marriage of Isaac 
Pearson and Frances Atkinson 
will be solemnised in due form 
in the parish church of Lam- 
plugh, in Cumberland, on Tues- 
day next, the 30th May, 1786; 
immediately after which the 
bride and bridegroom, with 
their attendants, will proceed to 
Lanefoot, in the said parish, 
where the nuptials will be cele- 
brated by a variety of entertain- 
ments.' And doubtless a hand- 
some collection would find its 
way, according to custom, into 
the napkin-covered pewter-dish 
upon the bride's lap. (The bride 
and bridegroom were known to 
the writer.) Seventy pounds 
was contributed at Henry Stod- 
dart's bridewain at Keswick ; 
and* one hundred pounds at a 
similar fete at the Beck in Holm 
Cultram, both in the early part 
of the 19th century. 

Broo, c., Breaa, s.w., Breea, N. 
brow. ' T' beck's broo full.' 

Broon leemers, c. nuts browned 



12 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



with ripeness and ready to drop 
out of the husks. 
Brooy, G. being on the edges or 

sides of hills. 

Brossen, c., s.w., Brussan, Ernst, 
N. burst. 

Brossen hackin, E. a corpulent, 
gluttonous person. 

Brossen kern, G. This term is ap- 
plied in ridicule when the harvest- 
home is held prematurely. 

Brot, c. refuse corn; odds and 
ends. 

Brot out, c. Corn is said to ~brot 
out when the grain is shed 
through over ripeness. 

Browse, c. friable; mellow. 
'You may begin to sow, for t' 
land's browse now.' 

Brugh, N.E., Bur, c., s.w. a halo 
round the sun or moon. ' A far 
off brugh tells of a near hand 
storm.' 

Brully, c., Brulliment, N. broil ; 
disturbance. 

Brumstan, c., Brunstan, N. brim- 
stone. 

Brunt, G. burnt. 

Brusey, c. an overgrown female. 

Bruz, Briz, c. bruise. 

Buckel't, c. A saw is buckeVt 
which has lost its pliancy from 
being over-bent. 

Buck i' t' neucks, E. a mde game 
among boys. 

Buckle, c. order; condition; 
health. ' He's i' girt buckle to- 
day.' 

Buckle, c., s.w. to marry ; fasten 

upon; attack. 
Buckle beggar, N. the Gretna 

Green parson. His office became 

extinct by Act of Parliament in 

1857. 
Buckle teah, G. begin ; take in 

hand. ' Buckle teah, men, ye're 

varra welcome.' 



Buck up, c. to subscribe ; help or 

assist ; to advance. ' Buck up 

tiU her, lad.' 
Buff, G. nakedness. 'Strip't into 

buff: 
Bule, c. the bow of a basket, or 

corfe, or pan. See Yetlin. 
Bullace, G. the wild plum 

Prunus imtitia. 
Bull-grips, G. iron clampers for 

leading bulls by the nose. 
Bull-heed, c. the tadpole. 

Bullister, N.E. the fruit of the 

bullace-tree. 
Bull-jumpins, c. the second day's 

milk of a newly-calved cow 

boiled till it curdles. 

Bull-ring, G. the ring to which 
bulls were formerly secured pre- 
vious to being baited or slaugh- 
tered, as at Penrith, Keswick, 
&c. ; also a place of public chal- 
lenge. To ' shak t? bull ring ' 
was, some threescore years ago, 
to challenge the village, or town, 
or fair-stead to produce a cham- 
pion to fight the ' shakker ' : 
similar to the Irishman dragging 
his coat through the fair for an- 
other to tread upon. 

Bull-stang, G. the dragon fly 
Libellulce. 

Bull-toppins, c., Bull feasses, 
8.W., Bull fronts, N. tufts of the 
Aira ccespitosa a very coarse 
grass. 

Bully-rag, Bally-rag, G. to scold 
or reproach ; to rally contemptu- 
ously. 

Bultree, c., Burtree, s.w., Bore- 
tree, N. the elder-tree Sam- 
bucua nigra. 

Bultree gun, c. a boy's pop-gun, 
made of a young stem of the 
elder. 

Bum, G. to be furiously busy. 
' Bumman about like a bee in a 
bottle.' 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



13 



Bumly, c. the humble-bee, 

Bomba. 

Bummel, c. to bungle ; blunder. 
Bump, c. a blow; a hump. 
Bumper, G. a large one. 

Bunch berry, N.E. the fruit of 
the stone-bramble Rubus saxa- 
tilis. 

Bund, c., Bawnnd, s.w., Bun, N. 
bound. 

Bunnels, c., Bullens, Spoots, N. 
dry stems of the kesh or cow- 
parsnip, or of hemp, used for 
candle-lighters. 

Bur, c. a wheel-stopper. 

Bur, Cockly bur, c. the rough 
seed-ball of the burdock used by 
children to stick upon each 
other's hair or clothes. 

Bur, Runnan' bur, c. a short 
run to gain impetus for a leap. 

Burn, N. a brook ; a rivulet. 

Burn t' beck, G. having taken no 
fish. 

Burnt Ms fingers, G. applied to 
persons having failed in some 
object, or having been over- 
reached. 

Burnywind, N. burn the wind; 

the blacksmith. 
Burr, c. a sudden hurry. 'He 

went off wid a burr.' 

Buryin' t' oald wife, G. the 

treat by an apprentice on attain- 
ing his freedom. 

Busk, c., Buss, N. bush. Nearly 
obsolete. 

But and ben, n. the outer and 
inner rooms of the Border farm- 
houses. 

Butch, G. to slaughter cattle for 
the shambles. 

Buts, G. short ridges of land of 
unequal and decreasing lengths. 

Butter and eggs, c. the Toadflax 
plant Antirrhinum Linaria. 



Butter bwoat, c. a small tureen 
having a handle at one end and 
a spout at the other. 

Butter finger't, G. having a care- 
less habit of allowing things to 
drop through the hands. 

Butter kits, c. square boxes used 
for conveying butter to market 
in a wallet on horseback. 

Butter leaves, G. the leaves of 
the mountain dock, Rumex al- 
pinus, used for packing pounds 
of butter in the market- basket. 

Butter shag, c. bread and butter 
spread with the thumb, and 
sometimes called a thumb- shag. 

Butter sops, c., N. wheat or oat 
bread steeped in melted butter 
and sugar. 

Button twitch, E. couch grass 
Holcus avenaceus. 

Butts, c. earthen mounds at bow- 
shot distance for bow and arrow 
practice. 

Butt-welt, G. to turn the butt- 
ends of corn sheaves to the wind 
to dry. 

Butty, G. bulky at the butt or 
lower end, ' like oald Bennett 
wife.' 

Buzzer t, c. the buzzard or bus- 
tard ; a timid person. ' She's a 
fair buzzert at 'neets.' 

Bworn days, c. ' In o' my bworn 
days ; ' in the whole course of my 
lite. 

Bye -blow, G. a bastard. 

By-neamm, G. nickname. 

Byse-pel, Byse-ful, G. full of 
vice ; mischievous. Perhaps 
By -spell, i. e. begotten by a spell, 
or by an evil spirit or demon. 
Byspel in Middle English means 
' an example,' and by way of re- 
proach ' a sad example.' 

By-set, c. anything set aside till 

wanted. 
By- wipe, c. an insinuation. 



14 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



Caan't, c., Caat, s.w., Canna, N. 

cannot. 
Caaw't, G. twisted ; said of shoes 

when worn down on one side. 
Cabbish, G. cabbage. 

Cabbish runt or skmnt, c., Cas- 
tick, N.E., a cabbage-stalk, and 
N.E. the inside of it. 

Cad, c., s.w. to mat or felt toge- 
ther. ' Her hair was caddit till 
it cud niver be cwom't mair.' 

Cadger, c. a hard biscuit, N. a 
retailer of small wares having a 
cart. ' A peat cadger. ' A nderson. 

Caff, G. chaff. 

Calavine, N. a black-lead pencil. 

Caleever, E. energetic and un- 
graceful action. 'He's a calee- 
veran' dancer is Ned.' 

Callas't, c. hardened skin; cal- 
loused. 

Caller, N. fresh, cool. 

Cammarel, c. the heel or hock- 
joint of animals; a wooden stretch- 
er used for suspending carcases 
by the hocks. 

Campers, G. persons who sleep in 
tents or camps ; vagrants. 

Cample, c. to reply pertly to a 
superior. 

Camps, Kemps, c. hairs growing 
among wool. 

Cams, c. the top stones of a rub- 
ble wall ; coping stones. 

Canker't, G. ill-conditioned : rust- 
ed. 

Cannel-bark, c. a small box made 
of bark and used for holding can- 
dles now made of tin or wood 
and retaining the name. 

Cannel-leet, G. candle-light. 
'When harrows begin to hop, 
cannel-leet mun stop.' 'Efter 
oald Cannelmas neet ceukks find 
cannel-leet.' 

Cannel-sieyes, c. rushes used for 
candle wicks. 



Cannel stick, G. Candlestick 
evidently took its name from a 
stick having a split side-branch 
wherein a lighted candle could 
be stuck. 

Canny, G. a term of praise or en- 
couragement. ' Canny Bob ! Kg 
at him till he giz in.' 

Canny bit, G. an uncertain term 
of comparison ; as ' a canny bit 
better ;' ' a canny bit warse.' 

Canny come off, c. ludicrous and 
unexpected turn of affairs. 

Canny, Conny, G. pretty, nice, 
suitable, gentle, cautious. 'Be 
canny,' or cautious. 

Cant, G. to overturn ; to lean to 

one side. ' It's gitten a cant to 

ya side.' 

Canty, G. merry, lively, cheerful. 
Caper corner way, c. diagonally. 
Capes, Ceapps, c. light grains of 

wheat with the husks on. 
Capper, G. one who excels. 
Cappers, G. something difficult. 

' Aa'l set thee thy cappers' 
Caps cnt lugs, c. anything unex- 
pectedly puzzling or droll. 
Cap't, c. overcome, puzzled. ' He's 

fairly cap't now.' 
Car clout nails, c. broad-headed 

nails formerly in use for securing 

the tire of wheels. 
Care, G. ' I do n't care ; ' I pay 

no respect ; I am not afraid. 
Car end-board, Coop board, c., 

Car scut, s.w., Heck board, N. 

the board closing the hinder end 

of the cart. 

Car-house, c., Carras, N. a house 
to shelter carts in. 

Carkish, G. a corruption of car- 
case. 

Carl, G. a coarse unmannerly fel- 
low. ' A rough carl.' 

Carl cat, E. a male cat, a master 
cat. 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



15 



Carl hemp, G. the coarsest of 
hemp. 

Carlin' pez, N.W. grey pease soft- 
ened in water and fried in butter, 
and eaten on the Sunday next 
before Palm Sunday. Seldom 
practised now. 

Carr, c. a rather extensive hollow 
place where water stands in win- 
ter ; as ' Brayton Carr, Eller 
Carr, Kirkland Carr,' &c. 

Car rack, G. a cart-rut or track of 
the wheels. 

Car reet, c., Car reeght, N. cart- 
wright. 

Carry, G. to drive or convey. 
' He carry't his yowes to sell and 
hed them to carry back ageann.' 

Carry, c. the movement or direc- 
tion of the clouds. ' It'll be fair 
to-day because t' carry's i' t'west.' 

Carry on, c. to be playful or 
rompish. ' They'd fine carryin's 
on.' 

Carry on the war ! c. continue 
the fun. 

Car-stangs, c., Car-limmers, s.w. 
cart-shafts. 

Cash., c. friable shale in coal 
strata. ' A varra cashy reuff.' 

Casly, G. a spinning-top. 

Castick, N.E. cabbage-stalk. See 
Cabbage runt. 

Cat,* G. an implement having six 
legs projecting from a central 
ball. It is so called from the 
impossibility of its being upset. 
Used in supporting the plate of 
toast before a fire. 

Catch't, G. caught. 

Catchy, c. capricious. ' Catchy 
weather' is when the crops are 
necessitated to be secured in 
small quantities as they become 
dry between the showers. 

* The caltrop used for spiking the 
feet of the enemy's horse is of this kind. 



Cat collop, c. the spleen. 

Cat gallas, G. two sticks set up- 
right with one across in the form 
of a gallows; used for boys to 
leap over. 

Cat geatt, c. a narrow space 
separating the buildings of ad- 
joining owners; a space left 
around a corn mow in barns. 

Cat lowp, G. in near proximity; 
' within a cat lowp.' 

Cat mallison, c. and E. a cup- 
board which cats cannot rob ; a 
dog given to worry cats. 

Catscope, Catscalp, c. clay iron- 
stone in nodules. 

Cat-tails, c. the cotton grass. 

Eriophorum vaginatum. 
Cat-talk, c. idle conversation; 

small talk. ' They talk't nought 

bit a heap o' cat-talk.' 

Cat- whin, c. the dwarf whin. 

Ulex nanus. 
Cat-wittit, c. silly and conceited. 

'Cay shin, G. occasion. 'Nay, 
thank ye, I've neah 'cay shin' 

Ceass hardent, insensible to shame 

or remorse. 
Cellar op'nin', G. a benefit night 

for the new occupier of a public 

house. 
Cennel (c hard), G. cannel coal. 

Cessen (c hard), G., and Cassen, 
N. cast, overturned. ' Bob meer 
was kessen in a gutter.' 

Ceiill (c hard), G. cool. 

Chaffer, c. to tease in bargaining. 

Chafts, G. jaws. 

Chalks, Chokes, G. marks. 'Bet- 
ter by chalks.' 1 Wagers are some- 
times made to determine who 
can reach farthest or highest, 
and there make a chalk mark. 

Champ, c. to bruise or crush. 
' He champ't his thoom in a yat 
sneck.' 



16 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



Chance barn, o. an illegitimate 
child. 

Chang, o. the cry of a pack of 
hounds; the conversation of num- 
bers. 

Charm, G. Since 1850, James 
Bunting of Cockermouth, a man 
of seventy, charmed a scorbutic 
sore on a carter named Telford ! 
He took an ashen stick and burnt 
its end, and with it drew a circle 
around the sore. He said some- 
thing to himself which Telford 
did not understand, ' bit it dud 
nea good.' 

Chasser, o., s.w. chaser. A de- 
fective male sheep much given 
to annoy the females. See Huxn- 
lin and Biggelt. 

Chats, c. small potatoes ; ash-tree 

seedlings. 
Chatter, c. to shatter. * Chatter't 

into splinters.' 

Chatter hen, E. the wren. 

Chatter wallet, c. a talkative 

child. 
Cha-waww, c. abundance of silly 

talk. 
Cheelie, c., Cheel, N. a droll 

young fellow. 
Cheeny, G. china ware. 

Cheese rennet, c. the plant Ga- 
lium verum. The infusion has 
been used as rennet. 

Cheg, c. to pull sharply or sud- 
denly ; to champ with the teeth ; 
to chew without dividing. 

Chemmerly, c., N., Chammerly, 
E., 8.W. chamber-lye; stale urine. 

Cheppel Sundays, c. Sundays set 
apart annually in August or Sep- 
tember at Bassenthwaite, Thorn- 
thwaite, Newlands, &c., when 
people assemble from a distance, 
attend Divine service, dine with 
their friends, and then adjourn 
to the inns to make merry in 



honour of the saint to whom the 
chapel was dedicated. 

Cherts o' grass, c. the first blades 
of grass in the spring. 

Chess, c., Chass, s.w., Cheass, N. 

chase. 
Chihies, N. onions. 

Chiggle, c. to cut wood unskil- 
fully. 

Chillip, G. the cry of a young 
bird. 

Chillipers, c. nut coals. 

Chip, c. to trip; a term in wrest- 
ling; the first breaking of the 
shell by the young bird. 

Chirm, c. to chirp; abundant fe- 
male gossip ; ' chirman like as 
many sparrows.' 

Chirrup, c. chirp ; the noisy chat- 
ter of incipient inebriety. 

Chit, G. the note used in calling a 
cat. 

Chitter, G. animated whisperings. 

Chitters, c. the small entrails of 

the goose or sheep. 
Chitter waaw, c. the amorous 

language of cats. 

Chitty, Chitty wren, G. the wren. 
Chitty feasst, G. baby faced. 

Chives, c. the plant Allium 
schcenoprasum. 

Chock fall, c. full to the top. 

Chollers, c. fatty jaws and double 
chin. 

Chopp, Shoop, c. the fruit of the 

wild rose. 
Chop, to barter ; to change. ' T* 

wind chops round to t' north.' 
Choppers, s.w. snuffers. 

Chops, G. jaws. 'Aa'l slap thy 

chops for tha.' 
Chowe, G. chew. 
Chowk, C.N. to choke or strangle. 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



17 



Chowl, c. the fleshy part of the 
cheek. 

Chris'mas cannel, G. a candle 
given by grocers to each cus- 
tomer at that season. Nutmegs 
or other spices are occasionally 
substituted. 

Chris'mas shaf, c. the sheaf of 
corn given to each cow and horse 
on Christmas morning. 

Chuckle-head, c. a stupid person. 

Chufty, o. a person having fat 

cheeks; chubby. 
Chump, c. the first note of a 

hound on scenting game. ' Wo 

try't o' t' day and niver hod a 

chump.' 

Chuns, N. the sprouts of the po- 
tato. 

Chunter, c. to reply angrily and 
weeping. 

Chur, c. the subdued growl of 
the dog; the prolonged note of 
the night-jar. 

Churchwarner, c., Kirkmaister, 

s.w., Kirkwarden, N. church- 
warden. 

Clabber, c. dirt in a pasty state. 

Clack, G. a low, quick sound. 
' She listened and heard the soft 
clack of the mill.' Blamire. 

Clag, G. to stick to. 
Claggy, G. clammy, adhesive. 
Clam, G. did climb. 'He clam 
out at t' fell heed like a crow 
* fleean.' 

Clammer, Clawer, c. to climb. 

Clammers, s.w. a yoke for the 
neck of a cow to prevent her 
leaping hedges. 

Clammersom, c. clamorous. 

Clamper, Clonter, c. to make a 
clattering noise with the feet. 

Clam up, c. to satiate; to cloy- 
' Aa's fairly clam't up wi' sweets.' 



Sullivan says to starve; from 

Dan. Jclemme, to pinch. 
Clap, G. to pat ; to squat as the 

hare does. ' He clap't his sel 

down on t' settle without iver. 

bein' as't.' 
Clap bread, c. cakes beat and 

clapped out with the hands. 
Clap on, c. to put on a lid or hat, 

&c. 

'Seek th' aul' grey yad, clap on 
the pad, 

She's deun lile wark t' year.' 

Anderson. 

Clart, G. adhesive dirt ; anything 
clammy; a scrap. ' Ho still leaves 
a dart on his plate.' 

Clash, c. to abuse; to weary; 
to throw or strike furiously; 
gossip. 

Clash't, c. fatigued and exposed 
in bad weather. 

Clashy, c., s.w. showery. ' Claslty 
weather.' 

Clat, c., Clash, N. news; a fe- 
male newsmonger. 

Clatch, c. a brood of chickens. 

Clatter clogs, E., coltsfoot Tus- 
silago farfara ; and C. a noisy 
walker in clogs or pattens. 

Clawer, G. to climb; N. clover. 

Clawer grass, c. goose grass 
Galium aparine. 

Clay daubin', c., Clay biggin', 

N.w. and N. a house built of clay. 
Cleadd, c., Cleed, Clethe, N. and 

E. to clothe. 
Clean heel't, G. active with the 

feet. 
Cleanin' time, G. the gen oral house 

cleaning before Martinmas and 

Whitsuntide. 

Cleazz, c., Cleeaz, s.w. clothes. 
Cleckin, G. a shuttlecock. 'As. 

leet as a cletfcin.' 
Cled, G. clad, clothed. 

2 



18 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



Cled score, N. and E. twenty-one 
to the score. Double cled, twenty- 
two. 

Cleenin', Clensin, G. the after- 
birth of animals. 

Cleet, c. a cross rib in carpentry ; 
a batten. 

Gleets, Fwoalfeet, G., Clatter 
clogs, E. the coltsfoot plant 
Tussilago farfara. The young 
leaf resembles the impression of 
the foot of a foal in outline. 

Cleg, c. the sting fly Clirysops. 
To ' stick like a cleg ' is a com- 
mon expression for a close adhe- 
sion. 

Cleps, c., Weedsticks, N. tongs 
for polling up weeds. 

Cleii*, c., Cleea, s.w., Cleutt, N. 

claw, hoof. 
Cleiigh, N. a ravine or cleft. 

' Clough, a kind of breach downe 

along the side of a hill.' Verste- 

gan. 

Cliar't, c. the lungs adhering to 
the ribs of cattle ; consumption. 

Click, c., s.w., Cleek, N. to snatch; 
a steep part of a road. 'It's a 
sharp dick up Workiton Ho' 
brow.' 

dim, a. to climb. 

Clinch, G. to rivet the point of a 
nail. 

Clincher, G. a positive fact. 
' Theer, that is a dincher.' 

Clink, G. a blow, a jingling sound. 

Clip, G. to cut with scissors. 

Clip, G. to shear sheep ; the wool 
of a whole flock. ' Ned Nelson 
hes a parlish dip o' woo' at Gas- 
ket.' 

Clipper, o., s.w. a clever one. 

Clippin, G. the annual sheep-shear- 
ing. 

I am unable to give the proper 
sound. It is between o and u. 



Clip't, c. shortened. ' T days is 
dip't in a bit.' 

Clip't and heel't, G. in proper 
trim like a game cock prepared 
for battle. 

Clock, c. a beetle ; a head of dan- 
delion seeds. Children pretend 
to tell the hour by the number 
of puffs required to blow off all 
the seeds from a ripe head. 

Clocker, E. a hen when disposed 
to sit. 

Clock lound, c. very still. See 
Lownd. 

Clog, c. a block of wood to hang 
to the neck of an uneasy cow or 
to the leg of a rambling horse. 

Cloggins, is. and E. snowballs on 
the feet. 

Cloggy, G. fat and heavy. 'As 
doggy as a fat su.' 

Clog wheels, c. cart wheels of 
thick plank and without spokes. 
In. common use in the 18th cen- 
tury. 

Clonk, c. a sounding blow. 

Clonter, G. to walk clumsily and 
make a clattering noise with the 
feet. 

Cloor heed, E. a sluice at the 
head of a mill-dam. 

Cloot, c., N., Clawt, s.w. a blow; a 
patch ; a rag. 

Closs, c. the Juncus lampocarpus 
plant. 

Clot, c., N. a clod ; to throw clods, 
&c. ' They dottit t' lasses wid 
apples and hed sec fun ! ' 

Clot, c. to strew. ' Her cleazz 
and things is o' dottan about like 
hay and strea.' 

Clot bur, N. the burdock 

Arctium Lappa. 
Clotch, c. to shake roughly. 
Clotchin, c., Cleekin, Cleckin, N. 

a brood of chickens, &c., or the 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



19 



set of eggs from which the brood 
is produced. 

Clot-heed, o. a stupid person. 
Clout-nails, c. broad-headed nails 

used for attaching the iron hoop 

to the old clog wheel. 
Clowen, c. when a sheep is fit 

for slaughter the fat on the rump 

is indented or ' dowen at t' tail 

heed.' 
Clowe, c., s.w. to scratch ; to 

beat. ' She gev him a clowin.' 
Glower, c. a quick worker. ' A 

clowan knitter.' 
Clowk, c. to snatch. 

Cludder, o. to crowd together; 
cluster. 

Clud nut, Club nut, o. two or 

more nuts united in growth. 

Clum, c., Clom, s.w. having climb- 
ed. 

Clum (Borrowdale, &c.), a wo- 
man who acted as guide over a 
mountain said to a tourist on 
completing the journey, ' I claim 
t' clum,' i. e. the fee as guide for 
the climb. 

Chinch, c. a heavy stupid person 

or animal. 
Clunter, c. to walk noisily in 

ironed shoes or clogs. 

Clwose, G. sultry, close. 

Clwoze, c., Clooaz, s.w. close; 
an inclosure. 

Co', c., Caa, s.w., N. to call, scold, 
proclaim. ' I' th' kurk garth the 
clarkco'f'asealL' 

Co', Cuh, c. come. 'He co' to- 
wert me and I said cuh narder.' 

Coald, c., Caald, s.w., Caald, Col, 
N. cold. ' If s cdald an' raa to- 
day;' 's.w. 'It's parlish coald.' 
' Ey, fit to skin a teadd.' 

Coald pie, c., Penny pie, K. a 

fall on the ice. 
Cob, a. to kick ; to beat. 



Cobble steann, a. a boulder stone. 

' With staves or with clubs, or 

els with cobble atones.' Gammer 

Gurtoris needle. 
Cobble up, G. to perform roughly 

and hastily. 

Cock, c., s.w. to sit bashfully or 

unobserved. 

' When o'was nar blinditwi'smeuk, 
And they jwok't and they 

laugh't i' their fun, 
Laal Dicky sat cockan' i' t' neuk, 
Takkan t' in, ey, as suer as a 

gun.' Old Song. 

Cock-a-lilty, c. in a merry mood. 
Cockan', G. cock-fighting. 
Cock-crow-land, E. superior croft- 
land over which the cock exult- 
ingly leads his harem. 

Cock drunks, c. the fruit of the 

mountain ash. 
Cocker, G. a cock-fighter. 

Cockfeighters, the seed stems of 
Plantago minor, used by boys in 
play. 

Cock gard, c., Cock dyke, IT. 

and E. a mode of hedging ; the 
same as Stower and Yedder. 

Cock-loft, c. the top attic where 
cocks have occasionally been kept 
in cock-fighting times. 

Cockly, c., N., Cockelty, s.w. un- 
steady ; on a precarious founda- 
tion. 

Cockly-jock, E. a game among 
boys. Stones are loosely placed 
one upon another, at which other 
stones are thrown to knock tho 
pile down. 

Cock-me-dainty, Prick-me- 

dainty, E. a pert and showily 
dressed girl or young man. 

Cocks dillies ! Cockswunters ! 

G. exclamations of surprise. 
Cock-steull, G. a kind of stocks 

for the punishment of female 

scolds. 



20 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY- 



Cock sure, c. perfectly certain. 

Cock walk, G. during the rage 
for cock-fighting, young game 
cocks were sent out with one or 

; two hens each among the friends 
of the owner, to he kept at some 
retired shed or hut till ready to 
bo trained, and this was the 
'walk.' 

Cod, G. a pillow, hassock, pin- 
cushion. 

Coddle, G. to embrace with the 
arms. 

Codikel, c. a corruption of codi- 
cil. 

Cofe-lick't, c. when the human 
hair grows perversely, it is said 
to be calf licked. The hair of a 
calf or cow remains for some 
time in the direction of the last 
licking by the animal's tongue. 

Cofe lye, Cofe Iyer, c. the womb 

of the cow. 
Cofe trnnnels, E. entrails of the 

calf selected and cleansed, shred 

and seasoned, and made into a 

pie. 

Co' i' the court, K. The custom- 
ary tenants are required to an- 
swer to their names when called 
in the manorial court, and this 
is termed having a co' f the court, 
and implies being a yeoman or 
his representative. 

Cokers, c., Caakers, s.w., N. calk- 
ers ; irons for clog bottoms. 

Cokes, c. heels and toes sharp- 
ened to prevent slipping. 

Colfins, c. gun wads. 

Collogue, c. to plot ; to confed- 
erate. 

Collop Monday, G. the day after 
Shrove Sunday, when collops are 
usually prepared for dinner. 

Collorake, Colrake, G. See 
Scrapple. 

Com, c., s.w., Cam, y. came. 



Come at, c. to obtain. ' I wantit 

to hev 't bit I couldn't come at it.' 
Come on, G. to prosecute. 'He 

come on Jemmy for brekkan a 

yat and gat seb'm shillin'.' 
Comers and gangers, G. visitors, 

&c., coming and going. 
Come't, c. came. ' He's come't in.' 

He came in. 
Come thy ways, o. an usual 

invitation. ' Come thy ways in, 

bonny laal barn.' 
Come t' time, o. when the clay 

or time comes. 'It'll be three 

year come f time' 

Con, c., s.w. a squirrel. 

Conk, c. the nose or profile. 

Connily, c., s.w. prettily. 

Conny, c., s.w. pretty. 

Consate, G. conceit, pride. 

Consate, G. to suppose, 'I con- 
sate you're a stranger hereaway ?' 

Coo, c., Cowe, s.w. to intimidate ; 
to place in subjection. 

Cooas, c., Cawwas, s.w. cow- 
house. 

Coo clap, c. the firm dung of the 
cow as dropped in the field. 

Coom, or Coomb, a hollow scooped 
out of the side of a mountain. 

Coom cardins, Coomins, N. wool 
once carded. 

Coom cards, N. the first and 
coarsest cards used in carding 
wool. 

Coop, c., Cowp, s.w. a small fell- 
side cart. 

Coor, c., Cawwer, s.w. cower, 
crouch. 

Coo skarn, c. cow-dung. 

Coo struplin, c. the cowslip. 
(Nearly obsolete.) 

Coo swat, c. the semi-fluid dung 

of the cow as dropped in the field. 

Coo tee, G. cow tie; a rope to 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



21 



fasten the hind logs of a kicking 
cow during the operation of 
milking. 

Cooler, Q. coulter. 

Cop, c. the top ; a peak ; a coni- 
cal bin ; as Coulderton cop, Kin- 
niside cop, &c. 

Coppy, a. coppice. 

Copt, c. pert ; set up ; proud. 

Copy steull, c. a child's stool. 

Corby, N., Dawp, E. the carrion 
crow. 

Corker, o. something very appro- 

i priate. ' That ia a corker ! ' 

Corlak, c., Cowrak, s.w. coal 
rake. See Scrapple. 

Cornage, G. a rent paid by cer- 
tain customary lands towards the 
cost of a person to watch and 
give notice, by blowing a horn, 
of the approach of an enemy. 

Cornish, G. cornice. 

Corp, c., s.w., to die ; K. corpse. 

Cot, c. did cut ; has cut. ' He 
cot his thoom.wid his sickle.' 

Cot, s.w. to wait on a sick per- 
son; to saunter about home. 
' He cots on about heainm.' See 
Teutt. 

Cot, a. a hut ; a humble dwelling. 

Cotter, c. to entangle ; to mat 
together. ' It was cotter't like an 
oald wig.' 

Cotterel, a. a pin for preventing 
the withdrawing of a bolt ; coin. 

Cottit, c. short-tempered. 

Count, c., N. Cawwnt, s.w. 
count ; account. ' I count nought 
o' sec wark ' I hold it in no 
esteem. 

'Countin', a. arithmetic. 
Country side, G. neighbourhood. 

' Our country-side lads ageann o' 

Ingland.' 
Courts, G. small railed-in spaces 

in front of houses. 



Courtship and matrimony, o. 

the plant Spirea Ulmaria has 

been so called from the scent of 

the flower before and after being 

bruised. 
Cower, G. to recover. * Ho cov- 

ver't five pund darnmish.' 
Cow clog, c. a clog of wood to 

hang on the neck of a ' lowp-i- 

diko' cow. 
Cowdy, c. better fed than taught ; 

in high spirits. 
Cowey, Cow't cow, c., Doddy, 

N. and E., Polly, s.w. a cow 

without horns. 
Cowk, Gowk, G. the core. ' It's 

badly burnt lime it's nought bit 

cowks.' 
Cowl, s.w. to rake together. 

Cowp, G., Swap, s.w. to ex- 
change. (' Ceapman. For this wo 
now say Chapman, which is aa 
much as to say a Merchant, or 
Copeman' Verstegan.) 

Cowp, N. to overturn. 

Cowp, s.w. a cart. 

Cowper hand, N. the upper hand ; 
the advantage as of a practised 
chapman. 

Cowper word, G. having the first 
word, or the word that gives the 
advantage. 

Cowpress, c. the fulcrum. 

Cowshin, c., Cawwshin, s.w. 

caution. 

Cowt, G. colt ; a petted child 
' mother's coivtj 

Cow't, c. bare, without ornament 
or shelter ; without horns. 

Cow't dyke, c. an earthen fence 
devoid of growing wood. 

Cow't leady, E. a pudding made 
of flour and lumps of suet. 

Cow t' lowe, c. snuff the candle. 

Cow't Iword, c. a pudding made 

of oatmeal and lumps of suet. 



22 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



Coyds, c. quoits. 

Coze house, Cwoze house, G. the 

house where a corpse is within. 
Craa teazz, N. the early purple 

Orchis mascula. 
Craawl, c., N., Craal, s.w. crawl. 

Crack, G-. a conversation, con- 
ference, challenge to do quickly. 
' Come, Nichol lad, give us thy 
cracks' ' Aa will, in a crack.' 

Crack, G. to boast; to restrain. 
' He's nought to crack on, for he 
set his dog on a bit lad and wad 
n't crack't off ageann. 

Cracker, c. a small hard biscuit. 

Cracket, c. cricket. A super- 
stition used to prevail that pros- 
perity comes and goes with the 
crickets. 

Crad, Craddagh, c. a troublesome 
child ; an inferior animal. 

Crag, c. the face ; the neck or 
countenance. ' He hang a lang 
crag when t' news com.' 

Crag starlin', E. the King Ouzel. 

Crammel, c. to walk as if the 
feet were sore. 

Crammelly, c. tottery, unsteady. 

Cranch, c., Crunch, N. to crush 
with the teeth. Coarse sand 
cranches under the feet. 

Cranky, G., Granky, E. crotch- 
ety; sickly and complaining. 
' How's thy mudder ?' ' Nobbet 
varra cranky to-day.' 

Cranky, c., N. The grandfather 
of the compiler of this was called 
out as a cavalry or yeomanry 
soldier in 1745 ; and, like his 
neighbours, wore a check linen 
shirt with white frills on the 
breast then called a ' cranky 
sark : ' but the ancient garmen 
of that name was made of home- 
grown and home-spun hemp. 

Crater, Creeter, c., Crater, N. 
Creeater, s.w. creature. 



Jreapp, Crop, c., Crap, Creupp, 

N. crept. 
Jree, G. to crush or break into 

fragments. 

Jreean' trough, G. Old stone 
troughs of circular or semi-globu- 
lar form may still be found about 
some ancient farm-houses, which 
have been used in creeing or 
crushing barley for making bread 
of. 
Jreel, c. an ancient horse pack- 

,ge ; a wicker basket. 
Jreelin', E. cowering, crouching. 
!reukk,.c., Creeak, s.w., N.W. 
crook. 
3reunn, c., N., Crecan, s.w. the 

subdued roar of the bull. 
Mb, Crub, Kerb, c. the curb of 
a bridle. 

rine, E. to overdo in frying or 
roasting. ' Thou's cmie't it tul 
a cinder.' 

Crinkelty Crankelty, c. very 
crooked, zigzag. ' O' in's an' 
outs.' 

Cro, c., Craa, s.w., N.W. crow. 
Croab't, c. drunk. 
Crobbek, c., Crowik, s.w., Crav- 
vik, N. a disease in the stomach 
of cattle occasioned by want of 
change of pasture. 

Crobs, Crob lambs, c., s.w., 
Shots, Shot lambs, N. and E. 
the worst of the flock. 

Crock, Crock yowe, c., s.w. an 
old ewe. To crock, is to grow 
feeble and decrepit with age. 

Croft, G. a field next the house, 
commonly level and of good qual- 
ity. Verstegan, in 1634, says, 
' A croft we esteem some little 
plot of ground, and both the 
name and the thing are yet in 
ordinary knowledge. ' 

Croft land, G. a range of fields 
near the house, of equally good 
quality with the croft. 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



23 



Croful, C. a very lean person is 
said to have not a croful* of 
flesh on his bones. 

Crones, Mossberries, c., Creanns, 

N. cranberries. 

Cronk, c. the hollow note uttered 
by the raven when on the wing. 
Croodle, c. to crouch. 

Croon, c., N., Crawwn,- s.w. 

crown ; the top of the head. 
Crooner, G. coroner. 

Croopin, c., Crippin, s.w., Crip- 
pel, N. crupper. 

Croose, c., N. haughty ; set up ; 
elated. 

Croppen, c., s.w. crept. ' He was 
lang varra wankle bit he gat 
croppen out ageann.' ' T 7 oald 
woman's sare croppen in,' or fail- 
ing in bodily appearance. 

Crop sick, c. disordered in the 

stomach. 

Crottelly, Crockly, c. crumbly. 
Crottels, c., N. small lumps. 

Crow, G. a trivet for supporting 
a pan on the fire. 

Crowdy, G. oatmeal mixed with 
the fat of broth; a horse's mess of 
seeds and meal, &c. See Stick 
by t' rib. 

Crowfeet, G. the plant Ranun- 
culus repens. 

Crowk, c. to croak. 'The guts 
crowk ' when the bowels make a 
rumbling noise. 

Crowkins, G. greaves from melted 

fat. 
Crowl, c., N., and E., Crawwl, 

s.w. to crawl. 
Crub, c. a crib or manger. 

Crub, c., K., Kerb, s.w. to curb ; 

restrain. 
Crud, G. curd. 

* Probably not so much as would 
satisfy the appetite of a carrion crow. 



Cruddle, G. to turn into curd ; to 

coagulate. 
Crummy, Cram horn't, G. horns 

turned towards the eyes. 
Crump, c. brittle; crumbling; 

the sound of horse's teeth when 

eating. 

Crusty, G. ill-tempered. 

Cry, N. call. ' Cry the lad back.' 
' Cry in as ye come back.' 

Cuckelty burs, c. the seed heads 
of the burdock, Arctium Lappa, 
which mischievous boys stick 
into each other's hair. 

Cuckoo bread and cheese, c. the 

leaves and flowers of the wood 
sorrel Oxalis Acetosella. 

Cuckoo spit, Teadd spit, c. frothy 
matter seen on plants in early 
summer ; the breeding places of 
the Tettigonia, a species of beetle. 

Cuddy, G. Cuthbert. Also an 

ass. 

Cue, o. trim, temper. ' He's i' 
girt cue to-day.' 

Cuff, c., Cluff, N., Clawwt, s.w. a 
blow. 

Cum, G. a useless expletive fre- 
quently preceding a remark, &c. 
' Cum. What hes ta to say ? ' 
' Cum. O' yer healths aa wish.' 

Cum-atable, G. attainable. Query 
a modern coinage ? 

Cum bye, c. reprisal. ' It'l cum 
bye him.' It will visit him here- 
after. 

Cum-mether, Cummiter, c. god- 
mother. Seldom used. 

Cum't milk, c. milk curdled with 
rennet and seasoned. 

Cum what cum may, c. let the 

consequence be what it may. 

Cum yer ways in, c. come in and 

welcome. 
Cun, c. come. 'Peter's cun 

heamm.' 



24 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY- 



Cundeth, Cundert, o. conduit or 

culvert. 
Cup down, c. It was formerly 

the custom to turn the cup down, 

or place the spoon across it when 

a person had done tea. 
Curl, G. the ripple on water 

caused by a slight wind. 
Curly kue, G. a flourish in 

writing, &c. 
Curly powe, G. a curled poll or 

head of hair. 'Dainty Davie, 

curly powe.' 1 Old Song. 
Currock, N.E. a heap of stones 

used as a land-mark, &c. 
Cursen, Kersen, G. christen. 
Cursenmas, Cursmas, Kersen- 

inas, G. Christmas. ' At Christe- 

masse mery may ye dance.' 

Chaucer. 
Cush ! Scush ! c. exclamations of 

wonder; a kind of oath. The 

first is a call note for cattle. 
Cushy, c. a pet name for a cow. 
Custa ? c. comest thou ? 
' Kursty, whoar custa frae ? custa 
wi' kye ? 

Ey, twenty good nowt an' ya 

yoad forbye.' 
Cut, G. to castrate. 
'Cute, G. acute, clever. 
Cut lugs, G. = Short-ears, but I 

don't know who he was. There 

is an old saying relative to any 
stroke of great cunning, that ' it 
caps cut lugs, and cut lugs caps 
thede'il.' 
Cut'n, G. has been cut. 

Cuts, G. pieces of straw, &c., used 
in drawing lots. 

Cutter, G. to whisper or talk 
softly. ' I" th' pantry tho sweet- 
hear tors cutter' t quite soft.' An- 
derson. 

Cuttery coo, c. secret conversa- 
tion ; tho note of tho male pigeon. 
Cuttle, N. to chat or gossip. 



Cutty, jr. short. See Skutty. 
Cuwins, c. perriwinkle shell-fish. 
Cuz, G. comes. ' He cuz ower to 

see us now and than.' 
'Cuze, G. accuse. 
Cwoam, c., s.w., Keamm, N.E. 

comb. 
Cwoaty pin, c. a large brass pin 

used to fasten tho cloak or coat 

collar with. 
Cwol greuvv, c. an old name for 

a coal work. 
Cwol-greuw law, c. the rule of 

turn. ' Furst como furst sarv't.' 
Cwolly, c., N.E. the shepherd's 

dog; colley. 
Cwoorse, c., N., and E., Cawwrse, 

s.w. coarse, course. 

Cwoort, c., N.E., Cawwrt, s.w. 

court. 
Cworn, c., IT., and E., corn; s.w. 

oats, com. 

Cworn creakk, G. the corn-crake 
or landrail. 

Cworn later, c. a person begging 
for corn. It was the custom till 
lately for a poor man beginning 
the world on a small farm, to go 
round among his neighbours 
soliciting for seed corn, when one 
or two gallons would bo given 
him at nearly every farm- house. 

Daab, G. daub; bedaub. 

Daad, c. a slight covering of snow, 

&c. ' A laal ddad o' snow on t' 

grand.' 

Daarent, c., Darna, N. dare not. 

Daarenwatter leets, o. On the 

night of the execution of the 
Earl of Derwentwater the aurora 
borealis flashed with remarkable 
brilliancy, and has since been so 
named in remembrance of him. 

Dab, G. an expert one. 

Ladder, c., s.w., Didder, Dod- 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



der, N. and E. to shiver; to 

tromblo. 
Dadder grass, c.,Dotherin grass, 

N. quaking grass Briza media. 
D addle, G. to walk or work 

slowly; to trifle; the hand. 
' And give us a shak o' thy daddle' 
Badge, E. to trudge. 
DafFan', G. joking, bantering. 

Daffy-doon-dilly, Daffy, c. the 
daffodil 

Daft, G. idiotic. 'He's nobbut 
daftish.' ' Ey, daft as a besom.' 

Daft, G. silly, wanton. ' He's 
fairly daft about her.' 

Daggy, N. wet and misty wea- 
ther. 

Dally, c., Tally, N., Tee tak up 
o', G. a wooden toy. 

' Tee tak o\ dally an' o'.' 

Dance, c. a country party where 
dancing is the chief amusement. 

Dander, G. passion, excitement ; 
a blow. ' His dander's up.' 

Dander, N. to hobble, to wander 
' danderan about.' 

Dang, N. to push, to strike. 
' Dang him for a foull ! Aa'll 
ding him owor, and efter he's 
dung ower aa'll dang his silly 
heed off.' 

Dar, Darrat, Dar-zonn ! c. oaths 
real or implied. 

Dark, G. to lurk; to listen in the 
back ground ; ' like a pig in a 
strea heap.' 

Darkan', G. lurking ; listening 
without seeming to attend. 

Darken, c. to stand or be in the 
way. ' He sal niver darken my 
door na mair.' 

Darknin', G. evening twilight. 

Darrak, c., Dark, s.w., Darg, TS. 
day's work. 

Darter, c. a quick person. 



Dass, N. a cutting in a hay-stack. 

Daud, Dode, c. daub, dot; a 
lump or rough quantity Mumps 
o' puddin' and dauds o' pan- 
ceakk.' 

Dawp, c. the carrion crow. 

Day, G. a mining term for the 
surface. 

Day leet'nin', e. morning twi- 
light; daybreak. 

Dayz't, c., Deaz't, s.w. pasty, 
half-baked, exhausted, stupid. 
Literally, dazed. 

Dea, Deuh, c., Du, s.w., Dee, 
Du, N. and E. do. 

Deaa nettle, Deea nettle, Dee 
nettle, c. the dead nettle La- 
mium album. 

Deal, a. very much; a great 
number or quantity. 

Deall land, G. land held in de- 
fined but unfenced parcels in an 
open field. 

Deall meall, c. Dale mail, a tri- 
bute formerly paid by the cus- 
tomary tenants of the manor of 
Eunerdale for permission to put 
sheep and cattle on the forest. 

Deumm, c., s.w. dame; mistress 
of the house ; wife. 

Deary me ! c. an exclamation of 
lament. 'Deary me!' said Daniel 
Fidler, ' Three girt lasses and 
cannot o' mak a taty puddin' ! ' 

Death come quickly, c. the plant 
Geranium Robertianum used to 
be so called. 

Decent, c., Day cent, s.w. worthy, 
favourable. ' A varra decent-man.' 
1 A decent swort of a day.' 

Deddy, c., Daddy, s.w., Dady, 

Dade, N. dada, father. 
Dee, G. die, do. 

Deean', c., Duan, s.w., N. doing. 
Deed, c., N., Deead, s.w. dead. 
Deed drunk, c. when a man can 



26 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



' nowther gang, ner stand, ner 

hod by t' girse.' 
Deed horse wark, c. paying off 

an old debt by labour. 
Deed lift, c. the moving of an 

inert body; a difficulty without 

assistance. 
Deed ripe, G. over ripe and ready 

to drop. 
Deed tongue, c., s.w., the water 

hemlock or dropwort plant 

(Enanthe crocata. 

Deef, c., N., Deeaf, s.w. deaf. 
Applied to corn, it means light 
grain; and to land, weak and 
unproductive. 

Deef-nut, G. a nut without a ker- 
nel. ' He cracks nea deef-nuta ' 
said of a well-fed person or 
animal. 

De'el bin ! N. a mode of oath. 

Deepness, c. depth. 

Deer, c., Duer, s.w. door. 

Deet, c., Deeght, IT. to winnow 
or dress corn ; to wipe or make 
clean. 

Deeth, c., ST., Deeath, s.w. death. 

Deetin' death, c. a cloth used to 
dress corn upon. 

Deetin' hill, c. a hill used to 
dress corn upon by throwing the 
grain up against the wind. An- 
cient barns had opposite doors, 
between which the grain could 
be cleared of chaff in the draught 
when the weather was unsuited 
for the use of the deeting hill. 

Deeve, c., N., Dceav, s.w. to 
deafen ; to stun with noise. 

Deft, c. quiet, silent ; N. handy 

pretty in old times. 
Deg, c., Dag, N. to ooze ; to flow 

slowly like a moist ulcer or ' deg- 

gan sare.' 

Dem, o. a dam or weir. 
Dench, c. squeamish, delicate. 



Despart, C.,' Dispart, N. des- 
perate, inveterate, great. ' He's 
a despart fellow for drinkin'.' 

Dess, c. to adorn ; to build up as 
applied to cocks of hay, &c. 

Deukt, G. cattle blotched with 
white are deukt. 

Dewe, s.w. do, dew ; pronounced 
day-oo, quickly. 

Deyl't, K. moped; spiritless; 
with faculties impaired. 

Dibble, G. to plant seed. Some- 
times applied to the burial of a 
corpse in hope to rise again. 

Dickadee, Willy lilt, c. the com- 
mon sandpiper Tringa alpina. 

Dickey, c. the hedge-sparrow 
Accentor modularis. 

Dicky, G. ' It's dicky wid him ' 
he's ruined, or dead. 

Difficulter, c. more difficult. 

Dilly dally, c. to waste time. 

Din, N. dun colour. 

Ding! c. a kind of oath; to 
knock. 

Ding dew, E. a person who Avalks 
with his toes much turned out ; 
splay-footed. 

Ding drive, c., N. full drive; 
full speed. 

Ding ower, G. to upset ; to knock 
or push down. 

Dinnel, c. to tremble with cold. 

Dint, E. to indent; vigour; 
energy ; thrift. ' He hez some 
dint in him ' he will make his 
mark. 

Dintless, E. lacking in energy. 

Dirl, c., N. a tremulous sound. 
' Sek a dirlin' and a birlin' it 
meadd.' 

Dish feasst, G. hollow-faced; 
feminine. 

Dish't, G. defeated, overcome. 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



27 



Disjest, c. digest. Doubtless a 
corruption. 

Dis'nan', c. distancing. A cor- 
ruption. 

Diwal, c., s.w. Deel, Dceval, 
N. devil. 

Diz, N. and E. does. 

Dizzen, N. and E. dozen; to be- 
deck, to decorate. 

Dobby, G. a dotard ; a boggle. 

Dockin', G. the dock plant. 

Dod, G. a round topped fell, 
generally an offshoot from a 
larger or higher mountain. 

Dodder, N., Yur, c. the corn 
spurrey plant Spergulaarvensis. 

Doddy, N. and E. a cow without 
horns. 

Doff, G. to do off; to undress. 

Doffboy, Doughboy, c. a stiff 
pudding without fruit. 

Dog cheap, G. much within its 
value. 

Dog daisy, c. the daisy Bellis 
perennis. See Benwort. 

Dog dyke, c. E. a boundary with- 
out a fence, where dogs are used 
to hound back trespassers. 

Dog flower, E. the ox-eye daisy 
Chrysanthemum Leucanthemum. 

Dog fo', G. an undecided fall in 

wrestling ; the advantages being 

equal. 

Dogger't, c. beggared. 
Dog nwose, E. a compound of 

hot ale and gin, formerly cold 

ale and gin. 
Dog pig, G. a castrated male pig. 

Dog trail, G. a hound race. 
Doldrums, c. low spirits. 
Dollop, c. a lump ; a large share. 

Dolly, o. an instrument to twirl 
clothes with in the wash-tub. 



Don, G. to do on ; to dress. 
Done out, c. fatigued. 
Donky dank. 

Donky weather, c. mist and rain. 
' It's a donlcy day, Ben.' ' Ey, 
rayder slattery.' ' Yesterday waa 
varra slashy.' ' Ey , parlish soft. ' 

Donnat, G. devil; an unruly per- 
son or animal. ' She's that o' t' 
donnat.' From dow nought ; seo 
Dow. 

Donnican, E. a privy. See Laal 
house. 

Doo, c., Du, s.w. a feast or merry 

making ; something exciting. 

' We'd a grand doo tudder neet.' 
Dooer, c., Deer, Deur, s.w., N.E. 

door. 
Dook, G. to bathe ; to duck ; to 

dive. 
Doon, c., IT., E., Duwwn, s.w. 

down. 

Doon at mouth, c. dejected ; dis- 
pirited. 
Doonbank, c., N. downwards. 

Doon come, c., N. a fall in price 
or station. 

Doon fo', G. the low parts around 
mountains where sheep retire to 
for shelter in bad weather ; a fall 
of rain. ' We'll hev some doon fo' 
er' lang.' 

Doon him, c. knock him down. 
Doon liggin', G. lying in. 
Doon't, G. knocked down ; felled. 

' Aa doon't him at t' furst bat.' 
Doon thump, G. honest, truthful. 

Doors, c. the fold yard before 
the door. 

Door stearin, Door step, G. the 

threshold. 

Doose, c., N. a slap. ' Aa'll doose 

thy chops.' 
Doose, c., N. jolly, hospitable, 



28 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



open-handed ; having a good ap- 
pearance. 

Boot, c., N., Dawwt, s.w. doubt. 

Dootsam, c., N. doubtful 

Dope, Dopy, c. a simpleton. 

Dote, c. dalt; a specified share 
in an open field, &c. ; as, a peat 
dote ; a bracken dote ; a hay dote ; 
a tangle dote, on the sea-shore : 
and also of a fence or road ; as, a 
dyke dote, a road dote, a beck 
dote, &c. 

Do th.ee, c. a command. ' Do thee 

gang to thy wark. ' 
Dottle, N. the small portion of 

tobacco remaining unconsumed 

in the pipe. 

Dow, G. doing. ' Mair din nor 
dow ' more noise than work. 

Dow, G. to be useful orgood. 'He's 
nought at dow ' not reliable. 

Dowdy, G. slovenly. 

Dowly, c., Dowy, N. downheart- 
ed, sorrowful. 

Down, c. to knock down. 

Dowp, C. a bay in a lake ; a re- 
cess. 

Dozen't, N. spiritless and impo- 
tent; stupified. 

Dozzle, c., N. a shapeless lump. 

Drabble, G. draggle; to make 
wet and dirty. 

Draff, G. brewer's grains. 
Draft, G. a team of horses or oxen. 
Draft sheep, c., s.w., Tops, N. a 

selection of the best annually. 
Drag, G. a three-pronged fork 

used for drawing manure from 

the cart. 

Draik't, a. wet. 

Drammock, E. a mixture of oat- 
meal and water. 

Draw, c., Draa, s.w. to overtake. 
1 He's off, bit we'll sounn draio 
him.' 



Dree, G. slow, lasting, lengthy. 

' It's a dree rwoad 'at niver hes a 

turn.' 
Dreed, c., N.E., Dreead, s.w. 

dread. ' He niver dreedit sec a 

thing.' 
Dreen, Dreann, c. the gratified 

note of the cow during milking. 
Dreesom', N. tiresome, lengthy. 

Dreuv't, c., Dreeav't, s.w. 
Drayk't, Dreak't, N. saturated 
with water. This term is com- 
monly applied to slaked lirno 
when very wet. The old namo 
was muddy. 

Driddle, c. a corruption of drib- 
ble; a dropping or slow running. 
Dridge, c. dredge; to sprinkle. 

Drift road, G. a way over which 
a person has a right of driving 
cattle, &c., through his neigh- 
bour's field, but not for other 
purposes. 

Drip, G. 'white as drip 1 bril- 
liantly white as the driven or 
new dripped (dropped) snow. 

Driss butter, c. to work up and 
make fresh butter into cakes and 
pounds. 

Drisser, G. the crockery shelf. 
Drissin', c. a whipping. 

Drive, G. force, action. ' Our 
hay-knife's square mouth't and 
hez nea drive wid it.' 

Drook't, c. severely wet. 

Drop dry, G. a waterproof roof is 
drop dry. 

Droppy, G. rainy ; beginning to 
rain. 

Drush down, c. to rush down; 
to fall suddenly. 

Druv, Dreuv, Dreav, c., N. drove; 
did drive. 

Dry, Dryish, c., s.w. thirsty. 

Dry wo', G. a wall built without 
mortar. 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSATIY. 



29 



Dub, G. a small pond or pool. 

Dub-a-cock, c. to clip off the 
comb and -wattles preparatory 
to fighting. 

Dubersom', c. dubious ; in some 
doubt. 

Dubler, c., Dibler, *r. a large 
earthenware dish. 07. a double- 
sized one. 

Dud, G. did. 

Duddy fuddiel, K. a ragged fellow. 

Dudn't, G. did not. 

Duds, G. clotbes. ' Bits o' duds ' 
the scanty wardrobe of indi- 
gence. 

Dud ta? G. didst thou? 

Duffy, c. spongy ; soft and woolly ; 
finest dust. 

Dulbert, c. a dull person of the 
male sex ; a dunce. 

Dumbwife, N. and E. formerly 
a dumb person was believed to 

; have a knowledge of futurity, 
and hence fortune-tellers were 
called dumb-wives. 

Dummel heead, s.w. a block- 
head. 

Dump, c. to butt with the head. 

Dumpty, Dumpy, c. short and 

thick. 
Dumpy cow, Putty cow, c., 

Bunsan COW,"N. a cow given to 

attack people. 
Dunder heed, G. a blockhead. 

Dunnecan, E. a privy. Origin- 
ally a fixed raft was used in- 
stead of a seat-board. 

Dunsh, Dump, Nub, Nudge, G. 

to butt with elbow or knee. 
Durdum, G. disturbance. 

Durtment, G. anything valueles 
or despicable. 

Dust, one of the provincial terms 
denoting money. 

Dust, G. uproar, disturbance 



'Kick up a dust.' Scand. a 

tumult. 
Dus ta, Dis ta, G. dost thou; 

thou does. ' Thou behaves badly, 

'at dus ta.' 

Dust his jacket, c. thrash him. 
Duv, c., Div, w. and E. do. Used 

chiefly in asking questions in 

the first person singular, as ' Duv 

I?' 
Dwalla, c. to wither; to turn 

yellow with decay. 
Dwam, c., N. swoon. Rarely used. 
Dwine, Dwinnel, G. to wither 

slowly; to dwindle. (Dunned, 

also For-dwined, vanished away. 

Verstegan.) 
Dyke, c., s.w., Deyke, N. a hedge. 

A.S. die. 
Dyster, G. a dyer. 

E, c. the eye, I. 

'Wa Jwohn, what mannishment's 

tis, 
At tou's gawn to dee for a 

hizzy ! 

Aw hard o' this torrable fiss, 
An' aVs cum't to advise theo 
at is ee' 

Mark Lonsdale's Poems. 

E, s.w. in. 'He'll rin or feyt 
iwer a yan e' aa Cummerlan.' 

Earan, G. errand. 

Ear brig, G. the bar across the 
hind end of a cart. 

Ear fat, Near fat, c. the fat sur- 
rounding the kidneys. 

Easter-mun-jiands, c., Waster- 
ledges, N. and E. the Polygonum 
listorta plant, a common ingre- 
dient in herb puddings. 

Eb'm, G. 'a bad eb'm' one of 
bad character or habits. 

Eb'm endways, G. even end- 
wise, continuous, without in- 
terruption. ' He mendi't eb'm 
endways' 

Eb'm fornenst, Eb'm anenst, o. 



30 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



directly opposite. ' It's eVmfor- 

nenst yon oald smiddy.' 
Eb'n down thump, c. honestly 

and truly. 

Eb'n, E'bn, G. even. 
Eck berry, Egg berry, c. Heck- 
berry, N. and E. the bird cherry 

Pr units padus. 
Edder, Ether, K. the adder. 
Edge o' dark, Edge o' t' ib'nin, 

C. evening twilight. 
Eeb'nin', Ib'nin', G. evening. 
Een, G. eyes. 
Efter, G. after. Efter 't min 

an' git hod on't.' 
Efter a bit, G. after a while. 
Efter fetches, c. after thoughts 

or actions. 
Egbattle, c. a person who urges 

others to quarrel and fight. 
Eg on, c. to urge; encourage. 

Elba' grease, G. hard rubbing; 

using hands and elbows. 
Eldin', c. fuel. ' Fire eldin.' 
Eldin', K. and E. the butter bur 

as used in lighting fires Peta- 

sites vulgaris. 

Ellar, G. the alder Alnus gluti- 

nosa. 

Elson, G. a shoemaker's awl. 
En', N. end. 
En, s.w. than. Ts gittan mair 

en I ex't.' 

End, G. part. ' It's a girt end of 
a year sen.' 

End, G. to set upright. ' End him 
up, lads.' The river Ehen is 
pronounced end. 

End lang, c. without interruption. 

End nor side, G. something so 
very puzzling 'he could nowder 
mak end nor side on't.' 

End on, c. right away. 

End whol, c. the ventilating hole 



in the peak of a barn or other 
building. 

Enny, c., Anny, s.w., Onny, N. 

any. 
Enny way, c. every way. ' This 

is enny way as good as that.' 

Er, N.W. nor. 'Mey peyp's langer 
er theyn.' 

Er, Ur, c. are. Hoo ur ye to- 
day?' 
Ern, N.E. iron. 

Ern fork, N.E. a pitchfork or 

iron fork. 
Esh, c., Eysh, s.w. the ash-tree. 

Esp, c. the aspen-tree Populus 
tremulus. ' He trimmert like an 
esp leaf.' 

Est, N. nest. 

Et, At, c., s.w. to. 'Gang et 
thresh.' Nearly obsolete, but 
common in the 18th century. 

Ettle, N. to intend ; to aim ; to 
earn. 

Eustat', s.w. Easthwaite in Ne- 
therwastdale. Thwaite is thus 
shortened in some instances, but 
not in all. 

Ex, s.w. ask. 

Expect, c. to suppose. 'I ex- 
pect it's reet.' 
Ey, G. yes, aye. 
Ey an' away, N. right away. 

Eye sare, G. a blemish that may 
be seen. 

Ezins, G. eaves. 

Fadder, c., s.w., Fayther, * 
father. 'And carf before his 
fader at the table.' Chaucer. 

Fadder, c., s.w. a child having 
features resembling those of its 
father; '/adders it sel,' and is 
' t' fodder's oan barn.' 

Fadge, c. a slow trot. ' Fadge- 
te-fadge, like t' market-trot.' 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



31 



Faff, Faugh, K. fallow. 

Faffle, c. to trifle; imperfect 

fallow. 
Faffle, E. a spring fallow for a 

barley crop. 
Fafflement, Fiffle-fafflement, c. 

trifling and unnecessary work. 

Fag, G. fatigue; to hang back. 
'He was eairfag't.' 

Fag end, G. the worthless re- 
mains ; the last. 

Faggot, o. a term of opprobrium. 
' An oald faggot I ' 

Faikins, Faix, c. a kind of oath. 

Fail, a. to be unsuccessful in 

business ; to die. 
Fain, G. glad, anxious, eager. 

Fair, G. positive. 'It's a fair 
sham.' 

Fairday dyke, c. a boyish at- 
tempt to extort gifts from people 
returning from the fair by ob- 
structing the road with a rope or 
brushwood. 

Fairin's, a. sweets, &c., bought 
at or brought from a fair for 
presents. 

Fairish, G. tolerably good. 

Fairly, G. positively. ' It's fairly 
good ta nought.' 

Fairy rings, G. the dark green 
rings observable in grass lands 
caused by fungi enlarging the 
circle year by year. These were 
formerly believed to be the danc- 
ing rings of fairies. 

Fal-lals, Falderment, c. trumpery 

ornaments of dress, &c. 
Fallops, c. rags hanging about a 

dress; the dress of an untidy 

woman. 

Fallopy, Fally like, c. untidy. 
Famish, G. famous, notable. 

Fancical, G. abounding infancies; 
subject to change. 



Fand, Fund, c., Fawwnd, s.w., 
Fan, Fun, N. found. 

Fangs, c. eye-teeth. 

Far away, G. by much ; by far. 
' This is far away better ner 
that.' 

Farder, G. further. 
Fardin', G. farthing. 
Farlies, c., N., E. wonders. 

Farmaticles, c., Fanticles, Farn- 
ticles, s.w., N. and E. freckles 
on the face, &c. 

Far tha weel, c., Fares ta weel, 

N. and E. fare-the-well ; farewell. 
' Fares to weel, Watty ! tou's a 
wag amang t' lasses, an' I'll see 
tha na mair.' Anderson. 

Fash, G. trouble ; inconvenience. 

Fashy, Fashions, G. become an- 
noying through intoxication ; 
troublesome. 

Fasten eve, E.G., Shrove Tues- 
day evening or the eve of the 
feast before Lent. 

' At Fasten eVn neet 
Ceuks find cannel leet.' 
After this night the cooking is 
to be done by daylight for the 
season, or the cooks must pro- 
vide candles. 

Fat's in t' fire, G. the mischief 
has begun ; all is in a blaze as if 
fat were thrown on the fire. 

Faugh! N. an exclamation of 
contemptuous dissent. 

Fause, E. and N. cunning, sly, 
artful, false. 

Faver, c., fawer, s.w. family 
resemblance. ' He favvers his 
fadder.' 

Faver, c., N. Feeaver, s.w. fever. 

Fearful, c., s.w., Fearfo', K. ex- 
traordinary. ' They're fearfo' 
kind.' 

Feass, G. face, assurance. 'He 
hez a fedsa for ought.' 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



Feasst cards, o. court cards. 

Feck, N. the main part. 'T' 
feck o' t' wark's deun.' 

Feckless, a. feeble, unsubstan- 
tial. 

Feed, c. provender for cattle. 

Feed, G. to fatten for slaughter. 

Feek, c. to be uneasy or anxious. 
'In afeek.' 

Feel, N. smooth. 

Feg, c. fig. ' He duzzent care a 

fff- 

Fell an, N. and E. one able to 
fight his way. 

Fell-fo, G. the field-fare. 

Fell heed, c. the top of a moun- 
tain not distinguished by a pike. 

Fell in wid, c., s.w. met with by 
chance. 

Fellon grass, c. the plant Im- 
peratoria Ostruthium. 

Fellon wood, c. the plant Sol- 

anum dalcamara. 
Fell yat, G. the gate opening to 

the common or fell. 
Felt, G. felled; thrown or cut 

down. 
Fend, G. to be able to provide or 

make a livelihood. 'Sam's a 

gay fendy laal body.' 

Fend, G. used as a salute. ' How 
fend ye ? ' how fare you ? 

Fendan' an' preuvvan', G. defend- 
ing and proving ; arguing and 
debating; criminating and re- 
criminating. 

Fess, Fest, c. to send out cattle, 
&c., to other farms to be grazed. 

Fetch, G. to bring. ' Fetch that 
chair this way.' 

Fetch, a dodge. 'That was a 
queer fetch, bit it dud n't help 
him.' 

Fettle, G. to fit; put in order, 
condition. 'What fettle's thy 
faddor in to-day ? ' 



Feull, c., N., and E., Fooal, s.w. 

fool. 
Feur day, E. break of day. 

Feutloth, E. one-eighth of a stone 
weight. 

Feutt, c. Fooat, s.w., Fit, N. 
foot, speed, pace. 'He went 
a parlish feiitt ower f moor.' 

Feutt bo, c. the game of foot- 
ball. Many parishes formerly 
set apart a day annually for this 
sport; and at Lamplugh it was 
held in the afternoon of Easter 
Sunday ! It is still (1877) keenly 
contested at Workington on 
Easter Tuesday on the banks of, 
and not unfrequently in the river 
Derwent. 

Few, G. a number or quantity un- 
defined. 'A. girt few.' 'A laal 
few.' 

F e w e , s.w. few pronounced 
fay-oo, quickly. 

Fewsom', Fusom', G. shapely, 
becoming. 

Feyt, c., s.w., Feght, N. fight. 

Fic-fac, Fig-fag, c. the neck 
tendon. 

Fidgetty, G. uneasy, impatient. 

Field keall,*c. wild mustard 
Sinapis arvensis. 

Figsue, E. a posset of bread, figs, 
and ale. 

Filly fair, c. Palm Sunday was 
long held as a day of recreation 
for young people at Arlecdon, 
after the children of the parish 
had repeated the catechism in the 
church, and is called Filly fair 
day. Latterly the custom has 
gone out of use. 

Filthment, G. dirt ; anything in- 
ferior or offensive ; low cha- 
racters. 

Fin, N. find. 

Finnd, G. find pronounced 
short, as in hint. 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



33 



Fine, c., s.w., Feyne, N. and N.W. 
an unmeaning term of compar- 
ison ; as, 'a fine girt an.' ' A 
fine laal an.' 

Finely, c., s.w. healthy. Ts 
finely, and fadder's finely an' o'.' 

Fire edge, G. energy of person 
or animal. ' He gallop't Ms laal 
nag till t' fire edge was off. 5 

Fire fang't, G. over-heated. 

Fire house, G. the dwelling in 
contradistinction to the out- 
buildings. 

Fire smatch't, E. having a burnt 
smell or flavour. 

Firtle, c. to trifle and appear 
busy. 

Fish belly, c. the Cnicus hetero- 
phyllus plant. The underside of 
the leaf is white, and turns up in 
the wind. 

Fit, G. disposed. 'They war 

fit to feyt about her.' 
Fit, N. foot, fought. 

Fitch, G. the vetch. Fitches is 
the spelling in old copies of the 
Bible ; Isaiah xxviii. 25. 

Fiz, G. a hissing noise. 

Fizzer, c. to punish ; to give pain 
to ; to put in a fix. 

Fizzle, c. to work busily but 

ineffectively. 
Flail, c. to hit; to beat with a 

down stroke. 
Flail cappin', G. the leather 

attached to the upper end of the 

flail soople. See Soople. 

Flail hingin', G. the thong con- 
necting the parts of the flail. 
Flailin', G. a beating. 
Flaitch, c. to flatter ; a flatterer. 

Flakker, c. to laugh heartily as 
a child does ; to flapper. 

Flaks, N. turf. See Toppin 
peats. 



Flam, G. flattery equivalent to 
blarney ; falsehood told jestingly. 

Flan, c., N. flat, shallow. 'They 
gave us f ryt eggs and collops in 
a flan dish.' 

Flang, G. did fling ; having flung. 

Flap, c. a blow scarcely in 
earnest. 

Flap, E. a hoyden; to wander 
without a purpose. ' She's just 
flapparf up and down an' o' about 
nought.' 

Flap-daniel, E. a careless and un- 
tidy person. 

Flapper't, c. nervous, fright- 
ened. 

Flay, G. to frighten. 

Flay-crow, c., Flayscarl, E. a 
scarecrow. 

Flaysom', G. frightful. 

Flay speadd, G. a spade for paring 
turf with. 

Flayt, G. frightened. 

Flaytly, G. timidly. 

Fleaa, G. to flay ; to peel or take 

the skin off. 
Flear, Flenr, G., Finer, s.w., 

Fleer, N. floor. 
Fleck't, G. marked with large 

spots or blotches. 
Flecky flocker, K. the chaffinch. 

Flee blown, G. maggots newly 
deposited. 

Fleece woo', c. shorn wool as 
distinct from pulled or skin 
wool. To fleece wool is to wind 
the fleece. 

Fleek, Fleke, E., Flake, c. a 
barred water-heck. Meek also 
means a frame horizontally sus- 
pended from the ceiling joists, 
on which flitches of bacon, &c., 
are laid to dry. [Note by Mr. 
Wm. Hodgson of Aspatria. In 
Anderson's well-known ballad 
where the lines occur 
3 



34 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY- 



' Blin' Stagg the fidler gat a whack, 
The bacon flick fell on his back,' 
I imagine the word refers to the 
frame rather than to the ' flick ' 
or flitch, there being a strong 
distinction in the pronunciation 
where both words are in com- 
mon use.] 

Fleet, c., 8.w., Fleght, Flit, N. 
flight. 

Fleet, c. the lot; the whole 
number or quantity. ' Thou's 
cap't f heall/erf o' them.' 

Fleetin' dish, c. a creaming-dish 
or skimming-dish. 

Fleukk, G. the flounder or fluke- 
fish ; the living vermin in a dis- 
eased sheep's liver. 

Fleuss, E. a loose heap of straw 
or hay, &c. 

Fleuterment, o. ridiculous talk. 

Fleuzz. c. An unhooped walking- 
stick is said to be fleuz't when the 
end is fringed by usage ; bruised. 

Fliar, G. to laugh heartily; to 
laugh and talk loudly. Brockett 
says ' to laugh, or rather to have 
a countenance expressive of 
laughter, without laughing out.' 
Shakspere's fleer. Love's Labour 
Lost, Act v., sc. 2, 1. 109 ; and in 
three other places. 

Flick, c., s.w., Fleek, N. flitch. 

Flinders, c. fragments; broken 
pieces. ' If thou does n't be 
whyat 111 knock tha o' to 
flinders.' 

Flinsh, c. the finch. 

Flipe, c., s.w. the rim of a hat. 

Flit, c. Fleet, y. to remove, and 
especially when in debt ' They 
meiidd a moonleet flit on 't.' 

Flodder, Flodderment, c. froth ; 

half-dissolved snow. 
Floff, c. the lightest of chaff. 

Floor, G. to knock down ; to de- 
feat. 



Flother, N. a miry bog. 

Flowe, c., N. wild; bleak and 
cold. ' Our filly's varra flowe 
yet.' ' If s flowe weather.' 

Flowe, N.w. an extensive and un- 
sheltered peat bog, as Solway 
flowe, Wedholme flowe, Bowness 
flowe, &c. 

Fluet, c. a stroke. 'Hit him a 
fluet ower f lug.' 

Fluffy, c. Fuffy, N. very light 
and loose. 

Flummery, o. flattering verbiage. 

Flummox, c. to defeat; to put 

hors de combat. 
Flung, G. deceived, defeated. 

' He was fairly flung.' 
Flyte, N. to jeer ; scold. 
Fo', c., Faa, s.w., N. fall ; a turn 

or bout of wrestling. 
Fo', G. fall. Fo' o' wood, G. the 

extent of wood cut in one season. 
Foald, c., Faald, s.w., Fole, 

Faal, N. fold. 
Foaldin' bit, c. a triangular piece 

cut from the edge of a sheep's 

ear as a mark of ownery. 
Fo-en, c., Faan, s.w., N. fallen, 

slaked. 

Fo-en skin, c. the skin of a do- 
mestic animal dying of disease 

or accident. 

Fo-en woo', Skin woo', o. wool 
pulled from the skins of sheep 
dying of rot or disease, and is 
said to be more subject to be 
worm-eaten than clipped wool 
when worked into yarn or cloth. 

Fog, G. aftermath. 

Foggy, c. spongy. 

Foil, c. to defile. 

Foisty, G. having a musty scent. 

Foll'et, G. foUowed. 

Followers, G. store cattle or sheep 
which follow the fatting stock in 
turnips. 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



35 



Followers, G. a breeding mare 
pony has sometimes two or more 
of her offspring with her on the 
mountains, and these are called 
her followers. 

Font, E. silly. 

Foomart, G. the polo-cat or foul- 
mart. 

Foond, c. to purpose ; intend. 

' Tfoondto build a house.' Nearly 

obsolete. 

Foorberin, c. fore-warning. 
Foor door, c. front door. 
Foor doors, c. the yard in front 

of the house. 
Foor-elders, Fwore-elders, G., 

Fore-bears, N. ancestors. 

Foor-hand, Fwore-hand, G. be- 
forehand. 

Foormest, Fworemest, G. fore- 
most. 

Foorseet, G. foresight. 

Foorsett, G. to anticipate; to way- 
lay. 

Foorstart, G. to start before the 
rest. 

Foothy, c., Fawwthy, s.w. bulky, 
hospitable; N. and E. kind, 
liberal. 

Fo' out, G. to quarrel. 

For, G. going. 'Whoar is ta 
for to-day P ' I's for Whitten. ' 

For bye, N. besides; over and 
above. 

Forder, c. to forward ; to assist ; 
to promote. 

For-gat, For-git, G. forgot, for- 
get. 

For-iwer, G. very much or 
many. ' Theer was for-ivver o' 
fwok at t' fair.' 

Formable, c. properly arranged ; 
in due form. 

Formel, c. to bespeak. 'He 
formelt a par o' shun wi' steel 



cokers and girt heedit nails at t' 
boddam.' 

For-nent, For-nenst, c., N. op- 
posite to. ' Their house is eb'n 
for-nent ours.' 

For o', G. although, notwith- 
standing. 

Forrat, c., w. Forrad, s.w. for- 
ward. 

For-ther, N. farther, further ; to 
forward or promote. 

Forthman, c., N. the person in 
charge of a stinted pasture, who 
directs when the cattle, &c., are 
to be driven forth. 

Forth-neet, c., w.w. an annual 
merry-making. When flax-spin- 
ning by the line (or lint) wheel 
was in use, the young women 
would assemble in half-dozens at 
their neighbours' houses with 
their wheels, and spend the 
evening in spinning and singing 
till bed time, when, frequently 
their sweethearts would be in 
attendance to conduct them home. 
This custom was called ' gangan 
forth.' See Murryneet. 

Fospel whol, c. the impression 
of a horse', or other feet on soft 
ground. 

Foter, Forter, c., Fotter, Fatter, 
N. to hummel barley; to break 
off the awns. 

Fo' through, c. When a project 
fails it is said to fall through. 

Fots, N. See Beutt stockings. 

Fouthy, G. hospitable; free in 
giving; ample. 

Fowt, N. a fondling or foundling. 
Brockett says, an indulged or 
spoiled child ; any foolish person. 

Fox feet, c. the Lycopodium 

selago plant. 
Fozzy, c., Fuzzy, E. soft as a 

frosted turnip. 
Frain't, G. marked with very 

small spots. 



36 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



Frap, c. to snap the finger and 
thumb; the noise of a sudden 
crack or report. 

Fratch, G. to quarrel; a noisy 
quarrel. 'He aye snapt his 
thooms for a bit of a fratch.' 
Anderson. 

Fray, c., s.w., Frev, Freh, Fray, 
N. from. 

Fred, s.w. freed ; cleared out. 

Free, c., s.w. to keep untouched, 
to take all the cattle, &c., from a 
grass field; under no promise. 
' Tafree to sell my horse to any- 
body.' 

Freelidge, G. the freehold privi- 
leges belonging to the burgage 
tenure. 

Fremd, s.w., Hand, E. strange. 
I do not remember hearing the 
term in central Cumberland. 
W. D. 

Fresh, c., Freysh, s.w. partly 
intoxicated ; the flood of a river 
as it flows to the sea. 

Fresh weather, IT. thaw weather. 

Fret, c., s.w., Freet, y. to grieve ; 
to tear. 

Froff, c., Frough, N. easily 

broken. ' Froff as a carrot.' 

Frosk, c. the frog (nearly ob- 
solete). 

Frostit, G. spoiled by frost; 
frosted. 

Frowe, o. a fat and morose wo- 
man. 

Frozen out, c. In a long-continued 
frost the surface of the ground 
becomes dry and the roads dusty, 
and the moisture is then said to 
be frozen out. 

Frudge, K. to brush past or 
against in a rude manner. 

Frnggam, c. a dirty, lazy wo- 
man. 

Fmmmety, c. barley or wheat 
boiled and mixed with milk. 



Frnsh, w. very brittle ; crumbly. 

Fu, c., Fewe, s.w. offer. ' How 
does he fu ? ' How does he offer 
or seem to do ? 'I can't fu' I 
cannot for shame do so ; or, I 
cannot begin it. 

Fuddennent, c. excess of clothing. 

Fuddersom', Fatter som', a 

troublesome; annoying. 
Full, c., s.w., Foo, IT. drunk ; to 

fill. ' FuU that cup.' 

Full drive, Ding drive, o. in 

hard earnest. ' This bargaine is 
full drive' Chaucer. 

Fulley, c. ample ; large. ' That's 
a/w#eymeaddgown,Tibby.' 'Ey 
barn, it's f fashion to leukk 
broad now, thou.' 

Fullins, G. small stones to fill 
the inside of a wall with ; refuse 
material. 

Fununel, &. a blundering at- 
tempt; fumble. 

Fummellan' feast, c., Mafflan 
feast, E. When a married couple 
are dilatory in producing issue, 
a few sly neighbours assemble, 
unbidden, at the house of the 
barren pair and invite themselves 
to tea and make merry, and to 
wish better success. 

Funk, c. to become frightened or 
cowardly. 

Fur, c., E., Foor, s.w. furrow. 

Fur apples, G. fir-cones. 

Funn, G. a long stool ; form. 

Furst feutt, TS. the person who 
first enters the house on New , 
Year's day. 

Fuss, G. bustle ; parade ; mock 
business. 

Fuz bo', Fiz bo', G. the puff-ball 
fungus, Lycoperdon bovista. 

Fuzzen, G. strength ; pungency ; 

briskness. 
Fuzzenless, G. insipid ; wanting 

strength or spirit. ' Dud ta nut 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



37 



give her a kiss ? ' ' Nea, kisses 

is nobbet fuzzenless things.' 
Fwoal feet, c., Clatter clogs, E. 

the coltsfoot plant, Tussilago 

farfara. 
Fwok, G. folk. The men say 

' woman fwok ' and ' woman 

body.' The women say 'men 

fwok ' and ' man body.' 

Ga, Gang, Gowa, c., s.w., Gan, 
Gowe, N. go. Gowa is nearly 
obsolete. It was chiefly used as 
an invitation. ' Come, lads, an' 
gowa to t' reasses.' Gowa is the 
old English go we, i. e. let us go ; 
as used, e. g. in Piers the Plow- 
man. 

Gaan, Gangan, G. going. 

Gab, Gob, G. the mouth; idle talk. 

Gabble, G. to talk quickly and 

not wisely. 
Gaffer, c. governor; master. 

Introduced with the railways. 

Gain, N. handy; near. See 
Bain. 

Gallas, G. a person of evil con- 
duct; gallows. 

Gallases, c. braces; suspenders. 

Galloway, G. a stout pony or cob. 

Gaily balk, K. the beam on which 
the chimney crook hangs. 

Galore, Galoor, c. abundance. 

Gam, N.W. a game at cards. 

Gamashers, E. gaiters. 

Game leg, G. a lame leg. 

Garnish, G. the flavour of meat, 
&c., too long kept. (a as in 
game, not as in famish.) 

Gammel, G. gamble. 

Gammerstang, G. a tall and 
awkward person. 

Gang, G., Gan, N. go. 

Gangan time, c. a course of free 
living, a busy time. 

Gangin's on, G. proceedings. 



' Ey, theer was fine gangin's on 
at t' weddinV 
Gangrel, G. a tramp, a vagabond. 

Gang thy ways, c. This merely 
signifies ' go,' and is becoming 
obsolete. ' Gang thy ways and 
fetch watter.' 

Gantree, G. a clumsy stool for 
resting ale-casks upon. 

Gap rails, G. round poles let 
into stone or wooden posts in 
place of gates. 

Gap stead, G. the entrance to a 
field closed by gap rails. 

Gar, G. to compel. ' A'll gar tha 

gang-' 
Garn, c., s.w., Gairn, Yern, N. 

yarn. 
Garn winnels, c., Swifts, G. a 

wooden cross from which yarn is 

wound off. 

Garrak, c. awkward. 'As gar- 
rak as a unbrokken cowt.' 

Garron, c. a tall and awkward 
horse. N. anything high or 
tall and. ungainly. 

Garth, G. a small enclosure near 
the house, as the Calf-garth, 
Hemp-garth, Stack-^arfA, Apple- 
garth, &c. 

Gat, G. got. 

Gatin's, G. sheaves of corn set up 
singly to dry. 

Gaut, G. a male or castrated pig. 

Gavel-dyke, c. an allotment of 
fence liable to be maintained by 
a farm not adjoining to it. Al- 
lotments of gavel-dyke are 
mostly against commons, and 
the origin seems to have been 
for relieving the farms next the 
commons from a part of the 
pressure and trespass occasioned 
by sheep newly turned upon the 
commons. 

Gawky, N. a staring idiotical 
person; awkward; ungainly. 



38 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



Gawvison, N. a noisy and foolish 

person. (Asimpleton. Brockett.) 
Gay, Gayly, G. augmentative 

terms. ' A gay fine day.' 
Gayly, G. to be in health. ' I's 

gayly. How's thou ? ' 
Gayshen, N. an emaciated person, 

one reduced almost to a skeleton. 

(A silly-looking person. Stagg.) 

Gaz, Gangs, c., s.w., Gans, N. 

goes. ' He gdz out iv'ry day 

now.' 
Gaz, c., N., Gez, s.w. goes. ' He 

gez wid his feet breadd side 

furst.' 

Geaa, c. go a hunting term. 
' Hoo geda hark to Towler ! ' 

Geiill, c. to ache with cold. To 
grieve or pain formerly. 

Geann wid it, G. in the way of 
recovery. 

Geapp, G. gape ; to yawn. 

Geatt, G. gate, path, foot-trod, 
way. ' Git out o' my geatt.' ' Ta 
gedtt ! ' get along ! 

Geavlock, c., Geavlick, N. an iron 
crowbar. 

Ge,* Gee,* G. give. ' Ge me 
that.' 

Gee,* c. ' He's teaun t' gee ' he 
has taken offence. 

Ge'en,* Gin,* G. given. 'He's 
ge?en tul't' he is disposed to it. 

Geer,* G. wealth; cart and plough- 
harness. 

' He talk't about car geer an' 

middins 
An' t' reet way to mannish a farm.' 

Anderson. 

Geggin, c. a small tub having a 
long stave for a handle. See 
Hanny. 

Geggles, G. a giddy girl ; a care- 
less horse which carries a high 
and unsteady head. 

* G hard. 



Geggles, E. a game something 
like nine-pins and nearly ex- 
tinct. Oeggle alleys existed in 
many villages within living 
memory. 

Geld grand, c. a mining term 
signifying ground devoid of 
minerals. 

Gentle and semple, c. upper and 
lower classes of society. 

Geuss, c., jr., E., Gooas, s.w. 
goose. 

Geuss beuk, E. ' wherein is re- 
corded the foot and other marks 
of each flock of geese kept in the 
parish of Kirkland, whereby 
each may be identified in case of 
being mixed with other flocks, 
or of straying.' 

Geuss bow, G. a bow hung round 
a goose's neck to prevent it 
creeping through hedges. 

Geuss flesh, G. a roughened state 
of the skin occasioned by a chill. 

Geuss grass, Cleavers, c. the 
plant Galium Aparine. 

Gev, o., s.w., Geh, N. gave. * He 
geh sek a shout ! ' 

Gidder, Gedder, Gether, G. 

gather. 

Gif, Gin, K. if. 

Gifts, G. white specks on the 
finger-nails said to indicate cer- 
tain events in life. 

Gildert, c. a number of snares 
attached to a hoop for catching 
small birds on the snow. 

Gill, Ghyll, G. a ravine. 

Gilt, Opengilt, c., s.w., a young 
sow intended for breeding pur- 
poses. 

Gimlek, c., Gimlik, s.w.,Gemlek, 

N. gimlet. 

Gimmer, G. a female sheep not 
exceeding two years old. 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



Gimmer clout, c. cloth sewed on 
the ewe to prevent procreation. 

Gin, N. if. ' Gin ye'll gan I'll 
gan.' 

Ginners, o. the gills of fish. 

Girdle, ., Gurdle, N. a circular 

iron baking-plate. 
Girn, c., s.w., Gurn, N. grin. 

Girse, c., s.w. Gurse, N. grass. 
' Theer laal girse in our girsin' 
field t' year.' 

Girt, Greet, c., Greeat, s.w., 
Gurt, Greet, N. great, friendly. 

Girt bees, c. drone bees. 

Girt goods, c. the larger domestic 

animals ; cattle and horses. 
Girtin's, N. girthings. 

Giss! Gissy! G. call notes for 
swine. 

Giss nor sty, c. "When a person 
' does not speak or answer, people 
say, ' He nowder says giss nor 
sty. 1 

Git, G. get ; offspring. ' They're 
o' his oau git.' 

Gi' tha, Gi' the 't, Gi 'them 't, G. 

give thee, give thee it, give it to 
them. 

Git it, o. 'thou'll git it,' thou 

wilt get punished, &c. 
Git'n, G. got, gotten. ' He's git'n 

his crowdy.' 

Gittan, G. getting. ' He's gittan 
his crowdy.' 

Give mouth, G. to speak out ; to 
give tongue a hunting phrase. 

Give ower, G. leave off. 'Is 't 
gaan to give ower sno'an think 

ye?' 

Giz, c., s.w., Gee's, N. gives; 
give us. 

Gizzern, c., Gizzin, N. gizzard. 
' It sticks in his yizzern,' he 
remembers it with unpleasant 
feelings. 



Glad, o., s.w., Gleg, N. working 

smoothly. 
Glaz't, c. varnished with dirt. 

Glead, G. a kite, now a scarce 

bird, but formerly common. 
Glee, c., N., Sken, s.w. to squint. 

Gleg, Gleb, K. sharp, quick. 
' He's gleg at that job.' 

Glenderan', c. looking earnestly. 

Glent, c., Glint, N. glance. ' Grea- 
hondes thorowe the greves glent? 
Chevy Chase, old ed. 

Gliff, Whiff, G. a transient view. 
' I just gat a gliff on't.' 

Glime, c., Gleym, N. to look 
sidewise. ' Olyman out at' end 
of his e.' 

Glisk, c. a glance in the sun- 
light ; a flash of reflected light. 
'It'll rain afoor neet, it's seah 
glisky this mwornin'.' 

Glop, o., s.w., to stare ; to look 

wildly. 

Gloppers, s.w. See Blinders. 
Glore, N. soft dirt. 

Glower, Glwore, c., s.w., Gloor, 
Glower, N. to stare. 

Glowt, s.w. a clumsy fellow. See 
Loot. 

Glum, G. gloom, gloomy ; to 
frown. 

Glump't, N. gloomed, sulked. 

Goam, N. to regard or take care 
of. Goam is the A.S. g&man, to 
take care of. Still preserved in 
the word gumption, i. e. sense. 

Gob, Gab, G. the mouth; idle 
talk. 

Go bon ! c. a sort of oath. 
Gobstick, N. a wooden spoon. 

Gocks dillies ! G. an exclamation 

of gladness. 
Goddy, N. a sponsor. 

Godspeed, c. a wooden screen 
within the door. 



40 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



(Joe, E. a weak spring in an arable 
field. See Held. 

Goff, c., s.w., Guff, N. a fool. 
Gok sonn! an exclamation of 

surprise. 
Goller, c., w., to shout; to bark 

or talk loudly. 
Gollick, Gullock, E. a deep gully 

or ravine ; a deep cut or slash. 

Gonunarel, yr. an awkward and 
silly person. 

Gone back, c. declined in health 
or substance. 

Gone bye his sel, c. gone de- 
ranged. 

Gone wid it, c. having accom- 
plished it ; recovered. 

Good, c. congratulate. ' He may 
good his sel' on't, for he'll git na 
niair.' 

Good an', G. ' He set to wark like 
a good an',' with spirit; ener- 
getically. 

Good an' o', G. entirely. 'He's 
gone for good an' o'.' 

Good for yan, good for another, 
G. applicable to all alike. 

Goodish, G. goodly. ' A goodish 
swort of a fellow.' 

Goodlike, G. good-looking ; hand- 
some. 

Good man, G. the husband. 

Good to nought, Good to ought, 
c. good for nothing; good for 
anything. 

' A man may spend 
And God will send, 
If his wife be good to ought : 
But man may spare 
And still be bare, 
If his wife be good to nought.' 
Cumb. Rhyme. 

Goon, c., N., Gatfwn, s.w. gown. 
Gope, c. to shout. 'A girt 
gopan geuss ! thou's hev nin on 
him.' 



Gorlin', c., ~s. an unfledged bird. 

' As neakkt as a gorlin'.' 
Gormow, N. a clownish fellow ; 

sometimes applied to a great 

eater. 

Gorps. See Bare Gorps. 
Gorrish, c. gross ; over-luxuriant. 
Gowan. See Oppen gowan and 

Lockin gowan. 
Gowd, N. gold. ' Gowd i' gow- 

pins,' gold in handfuls. 
Gowk, c. the cuckoo ; a fool ; 

the core. 

Gowl, G. the howl of a dog ; to 

weep. 
Gowpin, G. a handful; or the 

two hands full. 
Gowze, c. to burst out suddenly ; 

a rush or gush of fluid. ' Watter 

com' gowzan' out.' 
Goyster, Royster, c., -s. to bully. 

' He's a girt goysteran' feull.' 
Grab, c. to snatch at ; to lay 

hold of quickly ; grasp. 

Graidly, s.w. proper, good. 

Seldom heard in Cumberland. 
Grains, G. prongs. Fork grains, 

Otter grains, &c. 
Grain't, G. forked; divided. 
Graith, N. wealth ; horse-gear. 

Granky, E. unwell, complaining. 
'Nobbet varry granky.' See 
Cranky. 

Grapple, c. to catch fish by hand 

in a brook. 
Grassom, G. a manorial rent in 

lieu of fines. 
Grat, Gret, N. wept. 

Grater feasst, c. much marked 

with small pox. 
Grave, Greayv, c., s.w. Grave, 

N. to dig with a spade. 
Gray beard, Gray feass, c., Gray 

hen, N. a grey stone bottle. 
Grayseiinn, c. Graysouthen vil- 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



41 



lage and township anciently 
Crakesothen. 

Gray yoads, G. grey mares a 
circle of stones near Cum- 
whinton. 

Greamm, G. Graham. This has 
probably originated from Grse- 
hame. 

Greann, c., Greean, s.w., Grane, 

N. groan. 
Greapp, c., Greeap, s.w., Grape, 

Greapp, N. grope ; to feel. 
Greath't, Graith't, N. dressed, 

apparelled, accoutred. 
'Gree, G. agree. 'They're about 

'greean for a horse.' 

Greeaz, s.w. to apply grease. 

Greenhew, a. a payment to lords 
of manors for the privilege of 
cutting underwood in the lord's 
forests for flails, scythe and pitch- 
fork shafts, swill wood, besoms, 
snow-poles, fell-poles, pea-sticks, 
&c. 

Greeny, c. the green-finch or 
linnet. 

Greet, c., N. to weep ; to deplore. 

Greg, Grype, c. to mortify the 
mind. 

Greunn, c. a swine's snout; a 
projecting upper lip. 

Greupp, c., Greeap, s.w., Groop 
Grup, N. the space behind the 
cows in stalls. Anciently a sink 
a privy. 

Greiivv house, G. a hut on a 
coal-pit bank. 

Greuvvs, G. places from whenc 

coal, slate, &c., have been dug. 
Grimin', c., Greymin', N. a thii 

covering of snow, &c. Se< 

lymin. 
Grimy, c., Greymy, N. sooty 

begrimed. 
Grip, c. a narrow and shallow 

gutter. 



Gripe, c., Greyp, Greapp, N., 
Muckfork, s.w. a dung-fork. 

Grissle, c., Grussle, Grissle, N. 

gristle, cartilage. 
jroats, G. shelled oats. 
Jroosam', N. grim ; dark and 

morose ; coarse-featured. 

Grosk, c. freely grown; gross; 

fat. 

Jrossers, N.E. gooseberries. 
Srout, G. thin mortar. 
Grouty, c. rather muddy. 
Proven, G. dug with the spade. 
Gru, Groo, E. and N.E. a cold 

state of the atmosphere. 
Grumpy, Grumfy, c. complain- 
ing, ailing or believing to be so. 
Grund, c., Grend, s.w., Grun, 

Grin, N. ground, grind. 
Grundswaith, Booin, c., Agreen, 

N.E., Muggert, E. the ragwort 

plant, Senecio Jucobcea. 
Grundwark, G. foundation of a 

wall ; the groundwork. 
Grunstan', G. grindstone. 

Gryke, Cryke, c. a crevice or 
ravine in the side of a fell or 
hill 

Gull, c. the corn marigold 

Chrysanthemum segetum. 

Gulls, E. messes given to sick 
cattle ; gruel prepared for calves. 

Gully, c., s.w. a butcher's knife ; 

a large knife used for slicing 

bread and cheese ; a hollow or 

slack between hills. 
Gumption, c. spirit, wit, sense, 

shrewdness. 

Gutlin', c. a gormandiser. 
Gwol, c. a deep pool. 
Gwordy, c., Jordy, N.w.,Gworge, 

Jordy, N. George. 
Gyversom', Gyyerous (g hard), 

c. eating greedily ; very anxious. 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



Haa, s.w., N.E. hall. 

Hfiak, s.w., N.E. hawk. 

Hiiak an' spit, G. to clear the 
throat and spit out; to expector- 
ate forcibly. 

Hack, G. a pickaxe having points 
about an inch in width ; a hack- 
ney horse. 

Hackin, o., Haggis, N. a pud- 
ding of mincemeat and fruit 
used till lately for the family 
breakfast on Christmas day. 

Hack't, c., Chap't, s.w. cracked 
hands from cold or neglect. 

Hadder, N. to drizzle ; small rain. 
' It haddera and rains on.' 

Haffets, N. locks of hair on the 
temples. (The temples. Brock- 
ett.) 

Hag, o. a woody place intermixed 
with grass land ; E. a wooded 
hill. 

Hag, o. to hew or chop with an 
axe. 

Hag clog, Hag stock, c., Hag 
clog, N. a chopping-block. 

Haggan' at it, c. persevering to 
labour. 

Hagger, G. a coal-hewer. 

Haggis, N.E. a pudding of mince- 
meat for eating with potatoes on 
Christmas day. 

Haggle, c. to tease in bargaining ; 

to overwork ; to fatigue. 
Haggle, N. See Hassel. 
Hagwonn, c. a snake. 

Hain, N. to preserve grass, &c., 
untouched. 

Hairly, N. hardly, scarcely. 

Hake, c. to tire; to distress. As 
applied to land, it indicates ex- 
haustion from over-cropping. 

Hake, c. a convivial assembly or 
dance. 

Hake, K. a lean horse or cow; to 
butt with the horns or head. 



Hakes, o. doings. ' Sek hakes ! ' 

such doings. 
Hakker, c. to stammer. 'He 

hakkers an' gits nin on wid his 

talk.' 

Hale, c. to do forcibly ; to drive 
the ball to the winning-post. 

Haler, c. one who works or does 
anything energetically and ef- 
fectively. ' He is a holer at it.' 

Hallan, c. the division between 
two horse or cow stalls. 

Hallan, N. the partition within 
the entrance of an old-fashioned 
farm-house. 

Hammer-band, c. up-hill work, 
constant pull on the shoulders. 
In old times the horse was yoked 
to the cart by ropes from the 
shoulders to iron or willow or 
hazel rings sliding on the shafts, 
held by a pin. This was ham- 
mer-band yoking. 

Hammer-bleat, o. , Heather-bleat, 
N. the snipe. In the breeding 
season the note of the male bird 
resembles the bleating of a goat 
in the air. 

Ham sam, c. promiscuous ; all in 
confusion. 

Hanch, c. to snap as a dog does 
when it bites suddenly. 

Han' clont, G. a towel. 

Hand, G. direction. 'He's gone 

to wart Ireby and that hand.' 
Hand breed, G. a hand's breadth. 

Hand runnan', G. quickly and 
continuously ; successively. 

Handstaff, G. the first half of the 
flail. 

Hand's turn, G. any sort of hand 
labour. 'He will n't sot to ya 
hand's turn ! ' 

Hangarel. See Hanniel. 
Hangment, c. devil or hangman ; 

an exclamation of surprise. 

'What the hanyment 's yon?' 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



43 



' He'll play the hangment wid ye ' 
he mil be very severe. 

Hank, c. to fasten with a hoop or 
loop. 

Hank, c. an evil habit. ' He hes 
a hank o' gangan out at' neets.' 

Hankeran', Hanklin', c., N. a 
longing. ' He still hez a hanker- 
an' for her.' 

Hankisher, c., Hankutcher, N. 

handkerchief. 
Hankie, c. to entangle. 
Hanless, c. making feeble use of 

the hands. 

Hannel, o. handle ; a large pail. 
Hanniel, c., Hallion, Hangarel, 

w. a long hungry-looking fellow. 

' A girt lang hannieL' 
Hanny, Hannykit, N. a tub having 

a long handle. 

Hansel, G. to use for the first 
time ; the price of the first article 
sold or the first money received. 

Hantel, N. a large quantity ; a 
number of. 

Hap, o. to cover. ' She hap't o' 
V barns at bed-time.' 

Hap'm, c., Happen, IT. happen. 

Happins, c. thick woollen bed- 
covers woven carpet- wise. 

Hapshy rapshy, G. at random, 

haphazard. 
Har, Hartree, c. the stronger end 

of a gate. 

Hard, c. hardy. ' He's as hard as 
a fell teadd.' 

Hard, c. turning sour. Said of 

beer, &c. 
Hard, Hurd, Heeard, G. heard. 

Harden jacket, E. a loose and 
light jacket worn over the shirt 
when stripped for work. w. A 
top shirt, commonly of linen. 

Harden kytle, E. a loose jacket 
worn by girls when employed in 



attending cattle or in out-door 
work. 
Hard-faver't, G. coarse-featured. 

Hardfully, o. industriously. 'He 
gits his leevin reet hardfully.' 

Hard heeds, s.w. a large kind of 
trout found in the streams of 
Esk, Irt, Mite, Bleng, and Calder. 

Hard laid on, G. much oppressed. 

Hard tell on, G. heard of. 'I 
niwer hard tell o' sec a thing.' 

Hardwood trees, G. deciduous 
trees, not of the fir tribe. 

Harns, N. brains. 

Harp on, G. to often refer to an 

unpleasant subject. 
Harrial, c. heriot. 
Harrishin', w. violent invasion; 

harrying. 
Harrow bulls, G. the ribs of a 

wooden harrow. 
Harry, Herry, N. to rob. 
Hartsom', G. lively, cheerful. 
Hash, c. harsh. 

Hash, G. a term seldom used ex- 
cept to signify defeat. ' Settle 
his hash.' 

Hask, c. dry and cold weather; 
unkindly. ' Your cow hez a 
hask hide on her.' 

Hassle, Haggle, c., K. to cut 
with a blunt knife which re- 
quires a sawing motion. 

Hat, G. did hit. 

Hath ye ! Hagh ye ! N. hark ye ; 
listen. Seldom used. 

Hat-shavs, Heudds, G. the two 

covering sheaves of a cornstook. 
Hangh, N. holme land ; flat allu- 
vial land by the river-side. 

Havrel, Hovrel, N. a foolish fel- 
low. 

Hawer, c., s.w., Woats, N. and 
E. oats. 



44 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



Havy skavy, c., Hevy skevy, N. 

all in confusion. 

Haw, r., Haa, s.w. the fruit of 
the hawthorn. 

Hawbuck, c. a forward and vul- 
gar young fellow. 

Hawse, G. a mountain pass. 

Hay ? G. what did you say 1 

Hay bay, G. disturbance. 

Hay bote, G. the right of cutting 
a specified quantity of hay-grass 
from the property of another. 

Haygang, c. the gangway lead- 
ing from the barn or hayloft to 
the cow-stalls. 

Hayness, c. (heinous), extraordi- 
nary. ' Hayness fine.' ' Hay- 
ness dirty.' 

Hayster, G. to starve. An ani- 
mal severely pinched by hunger 
and cold is hayster't. 

Hazed, G. extreme hoarseness. 

Headd, Heudd, G. hid. 

Heaf, G. the part of the moun- 
tain or moor on which any flock 
is accustomed to depasture. 

Heaf gangan' (sheep), c., s.w., 
Hefted, N. mountain sheep let 
along with a farm and depastured 
on a particular part of the com- 
mon termed their heaf. 

Heall, G. whole. 

Heall watter, G. an extremely 

heavy rain. ' It com down hedll 

watter' 

Heamm, G. home. 

Heamm comin', G. returning. ' I 

whope thou'll heva hearty hedmm 

comin'.' 

Heammly, G. homely. 

Heamm spun, c., s.w. linen or 
woollen spun at home ; unpolish- 
ed. ' He's a real hedmm spun 
an. 

Heamm teuny, E. a stronghold or 
place of security. 



Hearr, G., Yarr, N. hair, hare. 

Heart abeunn, G. always hoping, 
never despairing. ' He hez a 
sair tue or? t, bit he's heart abeunn 
still. 1 

Hearten, G. to comfort, to en- 
courage. 

Hearth ceakk, G. a cake baked 
on the hearth. 

Heart's wind, c. at the very top 
speed. ' They wrought at hearts 
wind o' t' day.' 

Heck, G. a half-door, a small gate. 

Heck, G. 'bark at t' heck' A 
compulsory waiting. 

Heck and ree, G. ancient terms 
used in guiding horses to right 
or left, and now only used in re- 
ference to an obstinate person or 
horse who will ' nowder heck nor 
ree' 

Heckles, G. hackles ; the neck 
feathers of a cock. 

Hedder, G. heather. 

Hedder-feass't, G. rough-faced, 
unshaven. 

Hedge bote, G. the right of get- 
ting hedging wood from the pro- 
perty of another. 

Hee, c., N., Hey, s.w. high. 

Hee, c. a call note for a cur dog. 

' Hee Cwolly,' ' Hee Barfoot,' &c. 
Heeap, s.w. heap, a good many. 

' Heeaps o' things.' 
Heed, c., N., Heead, s.w. head. 

' Than may he boldly beren up 

his hede.' Chaucer. 

Heedam acrossam, c. all in dis- 
order, like hay and straw. 

Heedlin', c., N., Heeadlin', s.w. 
head rig or head land. 

Heed geer, c. ' He's gitten his 
heed geer ' he is so injured that 
he cannot survive. 

Heedstan', o. a memorial stone 
at the head of a grave. 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



45 



Heedwark, c., Heed-yak, B.W., 
Heed-yik, N. headache. 

Heedy, G. heady, intoxicating. 

' This beer's varra heedy' 
Hee leet day, c. broad daylight. 

' They drank and sang till hee 

leet day.' Old Song. 

Heemest, G. highest. 

Heffle, s.w., Hiffle, c., Haffle, jr. 
to be undecided. 

Heft, N. to prevaricate ; heaf . 
See Heaf gangan'. 

Heft, G. haft, the handle of a 

small tool ; have it. 
Hefter, c., N., and E. an effective 

speech or operation, such as 

driving the dagger up to the 

haft. 

Heftin', G. a beating. 

Hekkap, G. hiccup. Brockett gives 

the following cure for hiccup. 

Eepeat 

' Hickup, snickup, stand up, straight 

up; 

One drop, two drops good for 
the hiccup.' 

Helm wind, E. an atmospheric 
phenomenon prevalent on the 
west side of Crossfell. 

Helpsom', c. ready and willing 
to help. 

Helse, c. a rope to loop round a 
horse's neck in place of a halter. 

Helter, G. halter. ' Helter for 
helter.' Among the lowest class 
of horse-dealers this term denotes 
an exchange of horses without 
any money passing. 

Helter skelter, G. hurry and con- 
fusion. 

Hemp dub, G. a small pond used 
for steeping green hemp. 

Hemplin, c. the red or brown 
linnet ; a headrig sown with 
hemp seed. 

Hempy, N. a mischievous charac- 



ter, one who bids fair to deserve 
hanging. 

Hen bokes, G. the attic of a shed 
where poultry are accustomed to 
roost. 

Hench, c., s.w., Hinch, Haineh, 
N. the hip. 

Hen coor, c., w., Hen cawwer, 

s.w. to cower or sit down as the 
hen sits. 

Hen drunks, c. The fruit of the 
mountain ash is reputed to pos- 
sess the property of intoxicating 
fowls. 

Hen pen, c. the yellow-rattle 
plant Rhinanthus crista galli. 

Hen scarts, E. a peculiar form of 
cloud indicating wind. 

Hen shun, c. cloth shoes put on 
the feet of poultry to prevent 
them scratching in gardens. 

Hensigem, c. (y hard), the town- 
ship and village of Hensingham. 
A Hensigem fortune (one hun- 
dred years ago), a pair of pattens 
and a white apron. 

Hen silver, E. money begged at 
the church door after a wedding. 

Hent, G. to plough up the bottom 
furrow between ridges. 

Herd up, c., s.w. to hoard. ' Weel 
may he be rich, for he's been 
her dan' up o' his life.' 

Herd wicks, c. the mountain sheep 
of the west of Cumberland. These 
are reputed to have originated 
from about forty which swam 
ashore from a wrecked Norwe- 
gian vessel. They were taken 
possession of by the lord of the 
manor, and on their increase, 
being found hardy and suitable 
for the mountains, were let out 
in herds or flocks with the farms. 

Hereaway, G. in this neighbour- 
hood. 

Herensew, c., Herrinsho, N. the 



46 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



heron. ' Ne of hir swannos, ne 

hir heronsewes.' Chaucer. 
Herple, c., Hurple, . to walk 

lame, to limp. 
Hes ta ? G. hast thou ? 
Het, Heatt, Hettish, o. hot; 

rather hot. 
Het feutt, c., s.w. in a great 

hurry. 
Het trod, N. in close pursuit. 

' He follo't the reivers on the het 

trod: 
Het yal and a stick in't, c. hot 

ale with spirits in it. 
Heugh, w. a dry dell; a grassy 

ravine without water. 
Heukk, G. hook ; the crest or 

point of the hip-hone. 
Henkster, c. a huckster or small 

trader. 

Heupp, G. hoop, a six-quart mea- 
sure, formerly made of a hroad 

wooden hoop. 
Heusins, c. the husks of nuts. 

Heiizz, c., y., Hoose, s.w. a dry 
cough. 

Hev, G., Hay, w. have. 'I ha' 
tha noo ' I comprehend. 

Hev at, G. to set to. A mower 

said to his grass 
' Tea and whay (whey) a feckless 

day! 

An' will n't pay Til het a crown ; 
But heef and breid, hev at thy 

heid, 

An' good strang yal, an' I'll 
swash thee down.' 

Hewent, G., and Hennet, *r. have 

not. 
Hey howe ! Hey howe ham ! 

unmeaning exclamations, often 

used when yawning. 

Hez, G. has, hath. ' He hez tha 
now ' he is thy master. 

Hezzel, G., Hizzel, N. hazel, to 
beat or thrash. ' I'll hezzle thee.' 



Hezzle mowd, G. the fine pow- 
dery soil found about the roots of 
the hazel. Sick cattle are fond 
of this soil when recovering. 

Hide, c., s.w., Heyde, N. hide; 
to beat. 

Hidlins, G. anything hidden or 
put out of sight. 

Higgelty piggelty, c., *r., Hik- 
kelty pikkelty, s.w., inter- 
mixed ; heads and tails. 

Hills ageann slacks, G. to set 
hills against slacks is to equalize 
matters by giving and taking. 

Hinder ends, c. refuse or light 
corn blown out of the hinder end 
of the winnowing machine. 

Hmdersom', c. anything that re- 
tards or prevents. 

Hine, G. hind, a manager of an 
off -lying farm. 

Hine berries, N. raspberries. 
Hin' en', N. hinder end. 
Hingan', G. hanging, sloping. A 

hingan' field is one on the side of 

a hill. 
Hingan' his lugs, G. crestfallen ; 

hanging his ears. 
Hing lock, c. a padlock. 
Hing on, G. continue ; stick to it. 

Hingy (g hard), c. poorly; dull 
through incipient illness. ' Fad- 
der's o' hingy to-day and nin 
reet at o'.' 

Hinmest, G. hindmost. 
Hipe, G. a term in wrestling. 
Hippins, underclothes for infants. 

Hirple, G. A person having corns 
or tender feet hirples as he walks. 

Hisk, c. to gasp ; used with re- 
ference to the difficulty a person 
experiences in breathing on 
plunging into a cold bath. ' He 
hisk't when he went in.' 

Hit on, o. to agree. ' They don't 
hit on about it.' 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



47 



Kitten, G. hit. ! 

Hitty missy, c. chance. The sign 
of an old inn at Pardshaw was a 
sportsman firing at a bird, and 
' Hitty missy, luck's o'.' 

Hizzy, N. hussy. 

Ho, c., N. and E., Haa, s.w. a 
word used in guiding horses to 
the left ; come hither. 

Ho, c., Haa, s.w., N. hall. 

Ho, Hoo, G. preliminary exple- 
tives used as some use the word 
' well.' 

Hoaflins, Haflins, G. half-done, 
half-witted, half-shares. 

' When 'tis carded, row'd, and spun, 
Then the work is haflins done.' 
Old Song of Tarry woo'. 

Ho aid. Hod, c., Ha aid, s.w., 
Had, N. hold, shelter. ' They've 
nowder house nor hoald to draw 
teah.' 

Hobblety hoy, G. an ungainly 
lad ; man springing out of hoy. 

Hob thrush, GK a hobgoblin having 
the repute of doing much useful 
work unseen and unheard during 
the night, if not interfered with, 
but discontinuing or doing mis- 
chief if crossed or watched, or 
endeavoured to be coaxed or 
bribed to work in any way but 
his own. 

Ho buck, c. a noisy and turbu- 
lent young fellow. 

Ho bye, Hod bye, G., Had bye, 

N. stand out of the way. 

Hooker, G. to scramble awk- 
wardly. 

Hod, G. a shelter for fish in a 
stream or pond ; hold. 

Hodden gray, G. cloth made from 
a mixture of undyed black and 
white wool. 

Hoddenly, G. frequently, con- 
tinuously, without interruption. 



Hoddit, c. held. 

Hodfash, G. annoyance. ' He's a 
fair hod/ash, for he niver lets yan 
alSann.' 

Hod his bit, c. to retain health, 

station, or position. ' Hoo's 
Peggy?' 'Nobbet waikly and 
pinch't to hod her lit.' 

Hod pot, G. the one who detains 
the circling bottle or drinking 
vessel. 

Hod te tail i' watter I persevere, 
stick to it. A phrase of encour- 
agement, but how originated 
we do not know. 

Hod thy bodder, Hod thy jo, G. 

be silent. 

Hod to dea, c. useless employ- 
ment. ' If s fair hod to dea>' 

Hofe, Hafe, G., Haf, w. half. 
Hofelin, G. half-way ; a simpleton. 
Hofe reet, c. half-witted. 
Hofe thick, c,, Haf thick, K. a 

foolish person; a half-fatted 
animal. 

Hog, G. a lamb for twelve months 
after weaning. 

Hog gap, G. a covered opening 
in a wall for sheep to pass 
through. 

Hoggas, c., Hoggast, E. a sheep 
house; a house for wintering 
lambs in after weaning. 

Hoggers, E. upper stockings with- 
out feet. See Beutt stockings. 
Hollin, G. the holly. 

Holme, c., s.w., Haugh, N. allu- 
vial land by the river side. 

Honey, c., s.w., Hinny, w. a 
term of endearment. 

Honk, c. a lazy fellow. ' Honkan 
about heamm when he sud be at 
wark.' 

Hood, c. the hob at the side of 
the fire. 



48 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



Hoond, c., Hawwnd, s.w., Hoon, 

Hun, N. hound. 
Hoor, c., Idle hizzy, N. whore. 

Hoose, c., N., Hcawwse, Hooas, 
s.w. house ; the apartment into 
which the front door opens. 

Hoosin', c. a set of buildings. 
Hoo that ? c. why was it so 1 

Hoot! Hut! c., Hout tout! N. 
expressions of dissent, or de- 
noting contempt or inferiority. 

Hop, G. a term used to direct 
horses to the right. 

Hop, o. to skip on one foot. 
' An' hop like a steg on a het 
girdle.' 

Ho'penny, Haypenny, c., s.w., 
Haapenny, jr. halfpenny. 

Ho'penny heed and a fardin' 
tail, c. the different parts do not 
correspond, one part much better 
than another. 

Hopple, c., N. to fetter. See 
Langel. 

Horndoon, c. lunch about ten in 
the morning. A word in disuse. 
See AandorninE.D.S,, GL B. 15. 

Horn hard, c. He wink't horn 
hard when he fir't his gun.' 

Horse knop, G. the knap weed 

Centaurea nigra. 
Horse mallison, c. a person who 

abuses his horse. 

Horse mezzer, G. a measure used 
for serving out oats, &c., for 
horses. 

Horsin' steann, G. horee block; 
a stone, or block, or flight of 
steps to mount horses from. 

Hot. See Muck hot. 

Hotch, c., s.w. to shake roughly. 
A fat person ' hatches and laxighs ' 
when his sides shake with laugh- 
ter. 

Hotch, c. to trot slowly and 
clumsily ; market day trot. 



Hote, c., N. halt, a limp in the 

walk. 
Hotter, c., Hottle, E. totter, to 

walk feebly. 

Hotter dockin', c. a nursery term 
for a busy child learning to walk. 

Hough band, c. a strap or band 
is sometimes fastened round the 
hough of an unruly cow or a 
wild sheep to restrain its move- 
ments. 

House, c., s.w. the living-loom 

of the older farm-houses. The 
ground-floor consists of house, 
parlour, kitchen, and milk-house. 

Ho-way, Hoo-way, c., Ha-way, 

s.w. go along. 

Howdy, N. a midwife. 

Howe, c. hollow, empty ; a gentle 
hill or eminence, or knoll; a 
hoe. Spoken to a cow it means 
go. 

Howe meal seeds, c. the inner 
husks of oats. 

Howe neet, E. the silence of the 

dead of night. 
Howe strowe, c. all in disorder. 

Howk, G. to dig; to scratch in the 

earth, &c. ; to punish. 
Howker, c. a large one. 

Howney, c. dismal, empty. Ap- 
plied to a house depleted of fur- 
niture. 

Howry, o. hollow, empty. 
Hoyden, c. a romping girl. 

Hoyder, c. injury, mischief. 

' Stop ! you're gaan to play hoy- 

der wi' me.' 
Hoyse, c., Heese, s.w., N. hoist. 

Hoyty toyty, c., Hyty-tyty, N. 

haughty, flighty. 
Hubble, c. a crowd. ' A hubble 

o' fwok.' 

Hud, c. the hob or side of a fire- 
place. 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



49 



Hudden, y. hidden. 

Huff, G. to despise ; pet. ' He 
went away in a huff. 

Hufft, G. despised. ' They Iwfft 
it as if it bed heen dirt.' 

Hugg aback, c. a climbing vetch 
Vicia cracca; a coarse kind of 
towelling. 

Hugger mugger, c. to act in a 

clandestine or unfair manner ; to 
spend time unprofitably ' Hug- 
ger muggerari about heamtn..' 

Hulert, c., Hullet, s.w., Hoolet, 
N. the owl. 

Hulk, c. a tall, lazy fellow. ' A 

girt lang hulk* 
Hull, G. a small shed for calves 

or pigs, &c. 

Hum and haa, c., s.w. to hesi- 
tate in speaking ; to prevaricate. 

Humlin', c,, Hummel, s.w. a ram, 
&c., having both testicles in its 
loins. * % * 

Humlock, c. hemlock. 

Hummel jummel, c., K. confused- 
ly mixed up. 

Hummel mittens, N. woollen 
gloves having only the thumbs 
divided. 

Hummelty cour, Humly cowers, 

N. and E. sliding in a sitting pos- 
ture. 

Hun, N.E., a hound; to hound. 
Hunkers, c. the haunches. 

Hunsup, c. to scold ; the name of 
a lively old tune peculiar to 
Christmas 'The hunt's up 
through the wood.' 

Hup, G. up. 'Hup vvi' tha' 
up with thee. 

Hurd, N. herd, heard. 

Hurl, c. a tempest. 'Storm's 
cumman, John.' 'Ey, an' it '11 
be a hurl.' 



Hurry skurry, c. impetuosity. 

Hursle, c. hustle. 

Hush, c. gush; to wash away 

soil from mines or quarries by a 

rush of water. 

Kuvvel, c., Thummel pwok, E. 
a cap for protecting a sore finger. 

Huz, c., s.w., Hiz, N. us. 

Huzzaf, c. a pocket-case of 
needles and thread as if for 
house-ivife. Icel> husi, a hussy, 
i. e. case for needles ; corrupted 
to huzzif, from confusion with 
house-wife. W. W. S.] 

Hysta, c. hie thee. 

Hyvin, Ivin, c., N. ivy. 

I', G. a contraction of in or I, pro- 
nounced as aa short. 

lanberries, c., Angleherries, N. 
excrescences on the under parts 
of cattle resembling raspberries' 
or hineberries. 

Ice shockle, c., Ice shoggle, N. 
icicle. 

Ilk, Ilka, N. each, every. 
4 Ylcan or Ylc, the same. Some- 
times it is taken for each.' 
Verstegan. 

Ill, G. to degrade or slander. 
'Do n't ill a body if you can't 
say weel o' yan.' 

Ill, G. evil. 'He's been an ill 
teull o' his life.' 

Illfarrant, N. ill-favoured. 

Ill gi'en, G. given to evil deeds ; 
ill-given ; bad-tempered. 

Illify, c. to defame or scandalise. 

Illmite, N. very bad tempered. 

Ill teull, c. a bad boy or man ; 
a tool of evil. 

Ill thriven, G. not having pros- 
pered ; stunted ; puny. 

Ill turn, G. an injury. 

Ime, Imm, c. a thin scum of 
covering. 

4 



50 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



Imma, o. in me. 
Immead'tly, s.w. immediately. 

In, G. friendly. "' He gat in wi' 
t' oald fwok, and he keeps in.' 

In a twitter, N. soon, quickly. 
In av, N.W. in. ' He leevs in av 
Aikton parish.' 

Inbank, Inhill, o. down-hill. 

Income, c., s.w. a swelling or 
other bodily infirmity, the origin 
of which is not apparent. An- 
come Boucher. 

In-fair. See Bridewain. 

Infield land, G. ancient inclosed 
land, and commonly the best. 

Ing, G. a common name for 
meadow land in a low .or moist 
situation. 

In-geatt, G. an inroad ; an attack. 

Ingle, G. the fireside. 

Inkhorn, G. this term is used for 
any pocket vessel holding ink, 
but the original was of cow's or 
sheep's horn. 

Inkle, c. coarse tape. ' Thick as 
inkle weavers ' very intimate. 

Inklin', G. a slight hint or intima- 
tion. 

Innam, G. in him. 

Ins and outs, G. zigzags. 

Insense, c., N. to make a person 
comprehend. 

Inshot, G. a recess. 

Inside, G. the stomach and 
bowels. ' He's bad of his inside' 

Intack, Intake, G. an inclosure 
taken from the common. 

Intul't, Inteutt, c., Intil't, N. 
and E. into it. 

Ir, G. are. ' Ir ye gaan away 1 ' 
Irrant, G. are not. 
Is, G. are. ' How is ye to-day ? ' 
I's, G. I am. T$ to hev her.' 



s.w. ' I's be like to hev her.' 
' Ps give him a whack or two.' 

Ish, G. a terminal often added to 
other words, as goodtWi, bad/s/j, 
fairish, hce-ish up, far-is^ away. 

Issols, Flacks, c. flakes of soot. 

Ister, G. is there ? 

Ither, N. other. 

Ittal, It'll, o. it will 

Iv, c., K. in. 'He's lishest lad 
iv o' Brumfell parish/ 

Iv'ry like, Iv'ry whnp while, G. 
every now and then. 

Iwerly, E. frequently, continu- 
ously. 

I watna, w. I wit not ; I know 
not. 

Izels, c. flakes from burning 
straw, &c. ; dead fire of wood in 
an oven. 

Jab, c. to spill. 'She brought 
milk in a can and jaVt it ower 
at iv'ry step.' 

Jackalegs, c., Jockylegs, IT. a 
pocket clasp-knife. 

Jacky steanns, a game among 
school-girls played with small 
pebbles, and sometimes with 
plum or cherry-stones. 

Jam, G. to squeeze; to press 
against ; to wedge. 

Jamers, c., Jammers, Jemmers, 
8.W., Jimmers, N. small cup- 
board hinges. 

Jamp, G. jumped, leapt. 

Jams, s.w. James. St. Jams' 
fair is held at Eavenglass on 
the 5th August. 

Janglement, G. angry disputa- 
tions. 

Jannock, c., Jannick, K. right, 

fit, true. 
Jant, c., Awwtin', s.w. a pleasure 

jaunt. 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



51 



Jarble, c. to bespatter. 

Jayls, c., Gealls (<j hard), N. tlie 
cracks and fissures of timber in 
seasoning. 

Jayvel, c. to stagger; to walk 

loosely. 
Je elder, c., Jur, K. to shake ; to 

jar; discord. 

Jee, G. a word used in directing 

horses. 
Jee-wa-awe, G. twisted ; all awry. 

Jenny red tail, E. the common 
redstart. 

Jenny spinner, the Tipula or 
longlegs insect. 

Jenny whol, c. the ventilating 
hole in the gable of a barn made 
use of by the owl. 

Jert, c., s.w. jerk ; to pitch a 
stone with the hand from the 
hip. 

Jew trump, Joo trump, c. Jew's 
harp, or jaw harp. 

Jeyk, c. to creak like machinery 
requiring oil ; the creaking noise 
made by new shoes. Lad : ' I 
want a par o' new shun, and put 
us in a periortho' jeykyn ledder.' 
Shoemaker : ' Ey, and thou sal 
hev a pen'orth o' stirrup ledder 
for nought if thou'll come hither.' 

Jiffy, c. ' In a ji/y ' in an in- 
stant. 
Jillet, N. jilt. 

Jimmerly, E. weak or ill-jointed 
commonly applied to car- 
penter's work, 

Jimp, G. tight, too little ; tucked 
up in the flank as greyhounds 
are. 

Jing, c., By jing ! By jingo ! 

rustic oaths. 

Jo, Jaw, c., Jaa, s.w. bad lan- 
guage. 

Job, G. an event. ' It's a bad 
job for us o'.' 



Job-jurnal, c. a spinning play- 
thing. 

Joggle, Jull, c. to push ; to dis- 
turb the elbow of a person, 
writing. 

Jome, c. the side stone of a door 
or window ; jaumb. 

Jonas, c., s.w. jaundice. 

Jookery p a cker y, N. larking, 
romping. 

Jook, c. a long and tiresome 
journey on foot ; N. to elude ; an 
attempt to escape a missile. 

Jope, G. to splash ; to bespatter. 
Jopins, G. anything spilled. 

Joram, c., Jworam, N. a large 
mess ; abundance. 

Jowat, K.W. a term of effeminacy. 
' He's a feckless jowat.' 

Jowl, c. the jaw ; to jumble. 
This word relates more particu- 
larly to the disturbing of a vessel 
containing fluid. 

Jud, E. a game played with a 
hazel nut bored and run upon a 
string. 

Jull. See Joggle. 

Jummel, c. jumble. 

Juniper, c., w. the skipping mag- 
got of the small flesh-fly Pio- 
phila ; a chisel for boring stone 
with. 

Jump wid, c. to fall in with ; to 
meet accidentally. 

Junk, c. a coarse joint of beef. 
Jur, N. to jar ; discord. 

Just now, G. shortly, soon. ' I'll 

come just now.' 
Jyste, c. to agist ; to put cattle 

out to grass upon another's farm. 

Ka bye, G. stand out of the way; 
coine by. 

Ka he, G. quoth he. 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



Kange, E. (g soft) to flog severely. 
' I'll give him a Jcanjin.' 

Kanjy, c. crossgrained, unto- 
ward. 

Kay bittit, G. a sheep's ear marked 
by having a square piece cut 
from the edge. 

Kayk, c. to wander listlessly. 
'-Kaykan' about like a pet geiiss.' 

Kayk, c., IT.E. a twist to one side. 
' She hez a kayk in her neck.' 

Kaym't, c. ill-disposed, contra- 
dictious, crooked ; to bend. 

Kayter, c. kindly, friendly. 

Keadd, c. the sheep's ked or 

louse. 

Keagh ! o. go, get away. 
Keall, c. See Field keall. 
Keall, o. kale, broth; N.E. greens; 

porridge of oatmeal. 

Keall pot, 6. the large pan in 
which the meat and puddings 
are cooked in farm-houses. 

Keall runts, w. cabbage-stalks. 

Keaw, c., Teaw, K. to paw with 
the foot ; to kick the straws out 
of a heap of undressed corn with 
the foot and a rake. 

Kebby stick, c., s.w., Nebby, 
Nib't stick, N. a hook-headed 
stick. 

Keb feuttit, E. a person who 
walks with the toes turned in- 
ward. 

Keckle, c., s.w., Keck, N. cackle, 
to laugh. 

Keek, N. to peep ; to pry. 
Keen on't, G. fond of it. 

Keep, o. sustenance. ' He hez 
five kye and hes n't keep for 
two.' 

Kel, Keld, c. a small spring. 

Kelk, c. to hit roughly ; a severe 

blow. ' An ugly kelk.' 
Kelker, c. a heavy blow. 



Kelkin', c. a beating. 

Kelly, c. land containing small 
springs which partly dry up in 
summer. 

Kelter, c. money, riches. 

Kelterment, G. useless trumpery. 

Kemps, c. hairs intermixed in 
the growth of wool. 

Ken, G. to knovr ; to see. 

Kengood, c., Kengeudd, ir. some- 
thing to remember ; an example 
of good. 

Kennin', G. knowing. 'That 
youngster's growan' out o' ken- 
nin'.' 

Kenspeckl't, c., s.w., Kenspee't, 
N. conspicuous. 

Kep, G. to catch anything in the 
act of falling. 

Kep jope, c. a child's pinafore. 

Kern, G. churn. 

Kern supper, Knrn supper, c^ 
s.w., Kemwinnin T , N. harvest- 
home. 

Kern't milk, Sour milk, o. butter 
milk. 

Kersen, G. to christen. 

Kesfab, E. a cheese vat. 

Kesh, c., Kesk, E. the cow- 
parsnip Heracleum spondylium; 
also any hollow stem. 

Keslop, c., s.w. the cured stomach 
of a calf used for making rennet. 

Kessen, G. casten. 'T sky's 
ower-fcessen.' 

Kessen metal, c. cast iron. 

Kest, G. cast. 

Ket, Ketment, G. filth, carrion. 

Ket-Kite, E. a person of mean 
actions. 

Ketty, G. dirty, mean, worth- 
less. 

Keudd, G. cud. 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



53 



Kevvel, c., N. to kick or leap 
awkwardly. 

Kick, c. the top of the fashion, 
' The varra ki-ck.' 

Kill coo, c, ' .Mean girt kill coo ' 
no great object ; nothing wonder- 
ful 

Kill dry 't feass, c. a parched 
and withered face. 

Kilp, c. a sharp hend or angle. 
1 O kilpa and creuks.' 

Kilt up, if. to fasten up the skirts 
of the dress. 

Kin, Kinsfwok, G. kindred, re- 
lations. 

King congh, c. the whooping- 
cough. 

Kink, c. the peculiar sound of 
the whooping-cough ; a curling 
twist in a rope or cord. 

Kinnel, G. kindle. 

Kinnellin', c. materials to light 
a fire with. 

Kins, c., Keens, Keen cuts, N. 
cracks in the hands caused by 
frost. 

Kipper, c. a salmon out of 
season. 

Kipper't, c., N. fish partially 
pickled. 

Kirk, Kurk, G. church. 
Kirk-gaan, G. church-going; 
regular in attendance at church. 
Kirk garth, G. churchyard. 

Kirrock, N., B. a circle of stones. 
A large circle of stones on 
the summit of Carrock fell, of 
which there exists no reliable 
history, would seem to have 
given the name to the moun- 
tain. 

Kissiu' crust, G. the piece of 
crust adhering to a loaf, and 
which has been broke from an- 
other loaf, the two having been 
in contact whilst baking. 



Kist, G. chest. 

Kit, c. a small wooden pail or 

tub. 
Kit, c. a term of contempt. ' The 

heall kit' the whole set or 

company. 
Kith, N. kindred. 
Kitlin, c. kitten. 
Kittle, c. to tickle ; to bring 

forth kittens ; active. ' Kittle 

as a mouse-trap' easily acted 

upon, quick, excitable. 

Kittle, G. to tickle trouts in 
grappling them with the hands. 

Kizzen't, G. over-roasted, shrivel- 
led. 

Knaa, s.w. know." 3 

Knack, G. method. ' He hez t' 

knack on 't.' 
Knack, c., N. and E. to talk quick, 

and attempt fine language. ' She 

knacks and talks M like rotten 

sticks.' 

Knacks, o. 'He's neah girt 
knacks ' nothing beyond ordin- 
ary. 

Knaggy, G. crochety, short- 
tempered. 

Knap, Nap, c. to strike gently 
and quickly. 

Knattle, G. to tap gently. 
Kneavv, G. knave. 

Kneavv shyve, c. the first cut 
off the loaf. 

Knep, Nep, c. to bite in play as 
horses do. 

Kneudd, c. to butt with the head 
as a calf or lamb does when 
sucking. 

Kneuls, Sneels, c. small loose 
horns attached to the skin on the 
heads of cattle called 'horned 
coweys,' and not fast to the 
skulls. 

Knidgel, c. to castrate by liga- 
ture. 



54 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



Knock, c. a hard blow. 

Knockin' trough, N.W. a stone 
trough used around "Wigton for 
bruising moistened barley in 
with, a wooden pestle, for making 
barley-milk or frumerty. The 
same as Creean trough. 

Knock on, c. proceed, continue, 
go on. 

Knock onder, c. to resign; give 

precedence. 
Knodden, c. kneaded. 

Knonnot, c., Knaanat, s.w. 'I 
knonnot ' I do not know. 

Knop, c. a small tub haying two 
longer staves for handles. 

Knoppy, c. lumpy, knotty. 
' Knoppy rwoad,' as the man 
said when he stumbled over a 
cow. 

Knot, Q. a rocky-peaked hilL 
Knowe, G. a rounded hill. 

Knur't, c. stunted; not freely 
grown. 

Knyfel, c., TS. to steal trifles. 

Kursty, G. Christopher. 
' Kursty, whoar cu's ta frae ? 

Cu's ta wi' kye ? ' 
' Ey, twenty good nowt 
An' ya yoad for bye.' 

Kye, c. and E., Keye, N., Cawws, 
s.w. cows, kine, cattle. 

Kype, c., s.w., Keyp, >-. to jibe ; 
to insinuate; to die. "T oald 
horse is gaan to l-ype ' to die. 

Kyp't, c. bent. A saw is said to 
be kyp't or buckled when per- 
manently bent or twisted. 

Kysty, G. squeamish. 

Kyte, c., s.w., Keyte, w. the 
belly. 

Laal, c., Lyle, s.w., Leyle, N. 
little. 

Lj.Tal house, c. a privy. See 

Donnican. 



Laal set by, G. of small esteem 

or repute. 
Laa man, s.w. man of law; 

attorney. 
Labber, c. to splash in water. 

Laddie, c., ~s. a lad. This word 
is applied to a person having a 
strong habit or propensity. ' He's 
a laddie for o' maks o' spwort.' 

Laggin, G. the end of the stave 
outside the cask or tub. 

Laghter,c.,ii. a brood of chickens 

or other fowls. 

Lag-ma-last, c. always behind. 
Laird, K. landowner, yeoman. 
Lake, c., s.w., Leayk, N. play. 
Lakin, c. a child's toy. 

Lai, Lallup, c. to loll or hang 
out the tongue derisively. 

Lalder, N. loud and foolish talk ; 

E. to gossip. 
Lam, E. to beat. Lammin', E. a 

thrashing. 

Lampers, c. lamprey-eels; a 
swelling in a young horse's 
mouth. 

Lamplugh hokeys, c. an old 
breed of brown and black cattle 
with white faces, peculiar to 
Lamplugh. Now extinct, 1874. 

Lamplugh puddin', c. a mess of 
toasted biscuits steeped in hot 
ale with spices ; a posset. 

Land, c. an estate in land. 
' Willy Fisher o' Win scales hed 
three "lands ' or separate estates 
in land. 

Land, c., s.w. to arrive ; to reach 
home. ' He landit in yister 
neet.' 

Lang, G. long, tall, high. ' He'll 
be six feiitt hee, and as good as 
he's lang.' 

Lang back't settle, Lang ligger, 
c. an uncushioned sofa. 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



Langel, c., N., Langket, s.w. a 
woollen fetter for sheep. 

Langer east shorter west, c. a 
deficiency in one part is com- 
pensated by abundance in an- 
other. 

Lang hundred, a. six score. 

' Five scwore to t' hundred o' men, 

money and pins ; 

Six scwore to t' hundred of o' 
other things.' 

Old Cunib. Rhyme. 
Lang last, a. at length ; the end 
of. ' He's gitten a wife at lang 
last: 

Lang on, c. because of. ' It was 

o' lang o' him 'at I fell into t' 

beck,' 
Lang sen, c., s.w., Langsyne, 

Langseyne, N. long sinca 
Langsom, G. tedious. 'It's a 

langsom rwoad ower Hutton 

inoor.' 

Lang streak't, a. laid at full 

length. 

Langways, G. lengthwise. 
Lang windit, G. prolix. 
Lanky, G. long and thin. 

Lant, G., s.w., Lanter, N. the 
game of loo. ' At lanter the caird 
lakers sat i' the loft' Anderson. 

Lantern leets, c. horn substitutes 

for glass. 
Lantit, G. defeated, disappointed. 

Lant lakers, c., Lanters, N. 

players at loo. 

Lap sidit, c. unequally balanced. 
Lapstan', c. the stone held on 

the shoemaker's lap for beating 

his leather upon. 

Lap up, c. to desist ; to give up. 

Larn, G. learn also to teach. 
' He larns his scholars to write.' 

Larrop, c. to beat 
Lash, G. to comb ; a comb ; an 
attack of diarrhooa ; to whip ; 



the sharp cord at the end of a 
whip. 

Lash away ! G. a common ex- 
clamation of encouragement 
applied indifferently to work or 

play. 

Lash cwom', c., s.w., Lash ceam, 

H. a coarse comb. 
Lash out, c. to use a comb ; N. 

to hand forth ; to kick. 
Lassie, G. See Laddie. 

Lassie-lad, G. a term of oppro- 
brium among boys, denoting 
effeminacy or undue preference 
for the society of girls. 

Lasty, G. of an enduring nature ; 

lasting. 
Lat, G. lath. Dutch lat. 'As 

thin as a lat. 1 

Latch lug't, c., Leav lug't, N. 
ears hanging instead of being 
erect. The N. epithet is very 
appropriate the ears hang like 
leaves. 

Lave, N. the rest, remainder. 
Lavrick, N. the lark. 

Laws! Loze! c. an expression 
of astonishment. 

Layt, G. to seek. * Gang an' layt 
f kye heamni.' 

Laytin', c. the circuit invited to 

a funeral, &c. 
Lazybed, G. a bed of potatoes 

planted on the surface. 

Lea, Sye, c., s.w., Sye, N. a 
scythe. 

Lead, G. to convey by cart 
' Gang and lead cworn to-day, it'll 
be dry.' 

Leadd, G. load, lade ; to lift out 
water with a bucket or dish. 

Leader, c. a tendon ; a sinew. 
Leaff, G., Lwoaf, K. loaf. 

Leahstan', G. a stone used for 
whetting scythes. 



56 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



Leand, c. and 'E. a shelter from 

the wind. 
Leann, o. alone. 
Leapp, a, s.w., Lap, N. leapt. 

Leass, o. lace ; to thrash or 

beat. 

Leasst cup, G. tea and spirits. 
Leastways, c. leastwise. 'It 

niver was seah, least way I niver 

knew V 
Leatth, Leeath, o. a barn; N. 

bern. 
Leatth, G. loth. ' She was ledtth 

to gang away.' 

Leave gang, Leave hod, G. let 

go ; do not hold. 
Leek, G. to leak ; a hard snbsoil 

of clay and gravel. See Pinnel. 
Ledder, G. to beat ; leather. 
Ledderer, c. a large one. 
Ledder heed, c. a blockhead. 

Ledder lungs, G. a garrulous 
person. 

Ledder-te-spetch, c. a rustic 
method of heavy dancing. 

Led farm, c. an additional farm 
on which the occupier does not 
reside. 

'Ledge, G. allege. ' He 'ledges it 

was still seah.' 
Lee-co', c. look out a term used 

in hand-ball play. 

Leed, c., Leead, s.w. to lead ; to 
cart. ' He's leedan' lime.' In 
the last century work horses 
were conducted or led with 
halters when at work ; and the 
term ' to lead ' still remains 
although the horses are now 
driven. 

Leemers, hazel nuts. 

Leem out, c., Leeam, s.w. to drop 

out like ripe nuts. ' Ay luds ! 

leukk yonder for brown leemers I ' 

Leet, G. light ; to alight. ' Hans 
led o' thu, for a mischief ! ' 



Leetly gitten leetly geann, G. 

relating to wages, &c. 
Leet'nin' afoor deeth, G. a lucid 

interval preceding death, 
Leet on, c. to meet with. ' I 

leet on him at t' cross rwoads.' 
Leets, c., Leyghts, N. lungs. 
Leetsom', c. gay, cheerful, agile, 

lightsome. 
Leever, G. sooner, rather. 'I'd 

leever hev this nor that'n.' 
Leeve teall, Leef teall, c. easy to 

sell or dispose of; easy to turn to 

account. 

Leggan'away, c. walking quickly. 
Lep, c., Wap, c. and N. a bundle 

of straw ; a lap. 
Lert, c. to jerk ; to pitch a light 

article out of the hand. 
Let, G. to alight. ' He leapp off 

t' dike top an' let in a bog.' 
Let leet on, or into, G. to open 

up secrets or mysteries. 
Let'n, G. let. 'He sud ha' lefn 

that aleann.' 
Let on, G. ' Nivver let on ' 

do not speak of it or show that 

you are aware of it. 

Let slap at, G. to strike quickly 

at. 
Let wit, G. to pretend. ' Do n't 

let wit '- seem as if you did not 

see or know. 
Leudge, c. an entrance lodge ; to 

lodge or deposit. 'He leudg't 

his goold in t' oald bank.' 
Leuff, N. the palm of the hand. 
Leugh, N. laughed. 

Leukk tull him, c. attend to him; 
keep an eye on him. 

Leumm, G. loom ; a tool ; a term 
of reproach. ' He's an ill leuitim.' 

Leuw, N. love. The word ' love ' 
is seldom heard in ordinary 
converse in the county. Its in- 
fluence is felt and fully under- 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



57 



stood as in all other parts ; but 
the word is only spoken, in hal- 
lowed reverence. 

Leiivv, Luff, Q. the hollow of the 
hand. ' I' leuvv o' t' hand.' 

Ley, Lea, G. arable land in grass. 
Verstegan, writing on the sur- 
name of Lesley, says ' Legh, 
Ley, or Lea, a ground that lieth 
uninanured and wildly over- 
grown.' And, ' a combat being 
once fought in Scotland, between 
a gentleman of the family of 
Lesleyes and a Knight of Hun- 
gary, wherein the Scottish gen- 
tleman was victor, in memory 
thereof, and of the place where 
it happened, the ensuing verses 
doe in Scotland yet remain.' 

' Between the lesse-ley, and the 

mare (greater), 

He slew the Knight, and left him 
there.' 

Leycence, Leyfe, Leyke, Leyme, 
&c., &c., N. and N.w. substitute 
i for ey in pz-onouncing. 

Ley hay, G. hay grown on old 
ley ground. The term is now 
applied to rye-grass and clover 
hay as well. 

Leykin', N., N.W. fondness, liking. 
' Mey ley kin' for thee I can't 
sinudder.' To a child in the 
Abbey Hokae may be heard 
4 Come hither, my leyl ley kin'.' 

Liable, o. apt ; having a pro- 
pensity to. 'He's liable to get 
drunk if he's ought in ] 
pocket.' 

Liable, G. reliable. 

Lib, c. to castrate. 

Lick, Lig lick on, G. to discover ; 
to see. ' I could niver lig lick an 
him efter he went round t' 
corner.' 

Lick for smack, c. quick to- 
gether. 

Lickin', Licks, G. a thrashing. 



Lick plate, c. a person who tries 

to gain favour by mean services. 
Lift, c. the sky ; a trick at cards. 
Lift, G. help, assistance. ' He'll 

give us a lift at a pinch.' 
Lift, c. a term used at funerals. 

' What time do ye lift ' or start 

with the corpse ? 
Lig, G. to lie down. 
Lig a leamm on, G. to brutally 

injure a limb, &c. 
Lig at, G. lay to it ; work at it 

vigorously. ' Lig at him, lad.' 
Liggan' upon, G. very urgent. 

' It's ligyan' upon, and mun be 

done.' 
Liggers, c. layers ; growing wood 

notched and laid along a hedge. 

Liggy bed, c. a person addicted 
to late rising. 

Liggy boddam, Liggy, c. the 
loach fish. 

Light on, c. to rely on; trust; de- 
pend on. ' I'll light on thee to 
pay't.' 

Lig in, c. a mining term to dig 

below the foundation. 
Lig in tul him ! c. thrash him 

well. 

Lig ma lag, c. abundance; too 
much. 

Like, c., s.w., Leyke, N. in danger 
of; urgency; likely. 'It's like 
to foY ' He'll be like to come.' 

Like, G. This is affixed to many 
words, as goodi-likc, ill-fr&e, 
happy-Zt'/ce, &c. 

Liker, c., s.w. more likely. 

Like to, G. disposed to. ' He 

was like to laugh.' 
Likken, N. to compare ; to match. 

' Now, divvent likken me to 

hur.' 
Lilly, G. to natter. < She lilly 't 

t' oald man up till she gat him 

an' his money and o'.' 



58 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



Lilt, G. a short and lively piece 

of music ; to sing merrily with- 
out using words. 
Lim, o. a mischievous person ; 

limb. 

Limber, c. flexible, supple. 
Limmers, s.w., Car stangs, c. the 

shafts of a cart. 

Limmish, a. inclined to mischief. 
Lin, a. linen. 
Line of eggs, c. the course of 

laying eggs by a fowl. 
Lines, c. banns of marriage. 

'T' lines is gone in' to the 

parson. 
Ling, G. heather. Calluna vul- 

garis. 
Ling cowe, c., s.w., Heather 

cowe, x. a stem of heather. 
Lingy, Lingbird, Moortidy, c., 

Mosschilper, Mosscheeper, 3f. 

the ground lark. 
Lion, N. a precipice. 
Linnert, c. the linnet. 
Lin pin, G. linch-pin. 
Linsty wninsty, c. cloth of linen 

and woollen mixed. 

Lipe, E. a large portion. Usually 
applied to land. ' T' railway's 
teann a girt lipe off our croft.' 

Lire, Lythe, a oatmeal and water 
mixed smooth to thicken broth 
with, 

Lirk, E. a crease. ' Poo up thy 
stockins, they're o' lirks.' 

Lirt, E. to push out the tongue. 

See Lert. 
Lish, c., s.w., Leesh, N. supple, 

active. 

Lishlike, G. well-made. 
Lisk, c., s.w. the flank or groin. 

'List, G. enlist. ' Gweordy's gone 

an' listit for a soldier.' 
Lister, c., s.w., Leester, N. 

pronged and barbed fish-spear. 



jistin, c. woollen selvages ; list, 
isty, G. strong and active; 

ready-handed; nimble. 
Liven, Lyven, G. to cheer up ; 

enliven. 

Livver, c. deliver. 
Loave ! Loavin days ! c. exclam- 
ations of surprise or delight. 
Lob, c. to leap or run heavily ; 

to throw in quoiting fashion. 
Lobby lowe, a nursery term for a 

flickering flame. 
Lock, G. an undefined quantity. 

' A lock o' money.' ' A laal lock.' 

' A girt lock.' 

Lock, G. to mix a pack of cards 
some faces up and some down. 

Lockin, c. a split iron pin for 

securing a window-bolt, &c. 
Lockin gowan, c. the globe flower 

Trollius Europeans. 
Lofe, c., Laaf, s.w., Lwof, Loff, 

N. offer, opportunity, chance. 

c. ' He'd nea lofe o' sellinV N. 

' Twea to yin of a loff' 

Log, G. still, quiet. ' He can 

swum in log watter.' 
Lonnin', G. lane. 

Lonter, c. loiter. 'He lonter't 

on ainang t' nut-trees till he was 

ower leatt for t' skeiill and gat 

paik't for 't.' 
'Looance, c. allowance. 
Look, c., Lowk, s.w. to weed 

corn, &c. 
Loom, E. the slow and silent 

motion of the water of a deep 

pool. 
Loot, Lowt, G. a clumsy or stupid 

lad. 'He's nought bit a girt 

lowt aa tell tha.' 

Loppen, G. leapt. 

Lopper't, G. milk turned sour and 

curdled is lopper't. 
Lost i' fcdirt, G. ' Yon poor 

barn's fairly lost F dirt, an' t 1 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



59 



mudder's ower heed an' ears i' 
muck.' 

Lot, G. to allot. ' He was lottit 
for a soldier, bit lie' peal't off and 
gat clear.' 

Lough whol, c. a hole or cavity 
in rocks, &c. 

Lounder, c., N. to beat. 

Lounderer, c., N. a large one. 
' He's a girt lounderan' fellow.' 

Lewder, c. the foundation sup- 
porting the millstones. This 
term is used in the records of 
Greystoke Castle relating to 
Threlkeld Hall mill, where some 
of the customary tenants are 
bound in turn to cart stones for 
the repair of the loivder. 

Lowe, G. flame, blaze ; the torch 
used by fish-poachers. 'Aa's 
gaan a loivin' to-neet, will ta 
gang?' 

Lowmer, G. the lower; the one 
or part below. 

Lowmest, G. lowest. 

Lownd, c., Lown, N. calm, still. 
Clock lownd still as a clock. 
The downy seeds of the dande- 
lion, when on the stem, are col- 
lectively called a clock. They 
are blown off with a slight puff, 
and when the wind is so still as 
not to disturb these seeds it is 
said to be clock lownd. Scand, 
logn, serenity of the atmosphere. 

Lownd side, G. the side in 
shelter. 

Lowp, G. leap. 

Lowpy dyke, G. a cow, &c., ad- 
dicted to leaping hedges ; a hus- 
band of unfaithful habits. 

Lowse, G. loose ; out of service 
or apprenticeship. 

Lowsely, Lowsish, G. diminu- 
tions of loose. 

Lowze out, G. to unyoke. 

Lowz'nin', E. When an ap- 
prenticeship terminates it has 



been customary for the young 
men, friends of the liberated one, 
to go round the neighbourhood 
to invite the young women to 
assemble at the nearest inn on 
such a day to celebrate the 
loosening of the young man from 
his indentures, and to solicit a 
ribbon as a pledge to be redeemed 
by attendance. Tea was pro- 
vided at a stated price, and sports 
and dancing held, and the profits 
given to the young man to pur- 
chase an outfit of the tools of 
his trade to commence as journey- 
man with. An advertisement 
of this kind appeared in a Pen- 
rith paper in November, 1875. 

Luck of Edenhall, G. an orna- 
mental glass cup preserved at 
Edenhall. The well-being of 
the house is traditionally as- 
cribed to the safe preservation of 
this fairy relic. Luck of Eden- 
hall, by the Rev. B. Porteus. 
See also Wordsworth's Poems and 
Uhland's Poem, of which there is 
a translation by Longfellow. 

Luck o' Munkister, s.w. a glass 
preserved at Muncaster Castle. 
This cup was presented by 
Edward VI. on his visit to the 
castle in 1641, and is carefully 
preserved as an heirloom asso- 
ciated with the fortunes of the 
house. 

Luckpenny, G. money returned 
to the buyer on payment (said to 
be for luck to the purchaser), 
commonly a shilling a head on 
cattle, and so in proportion for 
other things. 

Lucky, G. big, easy, abundant 
' He keeps a lucky yard wand.' 

Lufter, c. abundance, crowd. ' A 
heall lufter o' fwok co' frao 
Codebeck.' 

Lug, G. the ear; the handle of a 
pail or jug, &c. ; to pull the 
hair, &c. 



60 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY- 



Lush, a. to rush in the water 
fiercely; to splash. 

Lush and lavey, E. wasteful ex- 
travagance. 

Lu'tha! c., Laatha! E. look 
thou ; listen thou. 

Luv o' t 1 hand, c. the palm. 
Lword, G., N.W., Laird, N. lord. 

Ly 'a now ! c., Ly ye ! N. listen 

ye! 
Lyer, c. layer; meal in the 

broth. 

Lyery, c. bull-fleshed, coarse. 
Lype, c. the greater portion. 
Lysta ! c. listen thou. 

Lytel, c., Leytel, N. the surname 
of Little. 

Lythy, N. thick fluid. 

Lyve, G. living. ' A lyve dog's 
better nor a deed lion.' 

Lyve, Leve, G. as soon prefer. 
' I'd as lyve hev that as tudder.' 

Ha, G. me. 

Mcoa, s.w., N. to cut with a scythe; 

to mow. 

Maap, s.w. mope. 
Maapment, s.w. blundering. 

Maddle, G. to talk incoherently; 
to doat. 

Maddl't, G. confused. 

Maff, Mafflin, c. a simple person. 

Maffle, G. to blunder ; to mislead. 

Mailin', N. a farm. 

Mairt, N.E. the fat cow killed at 
Martinmas. In the last century 
it was a rare circumstance to 
slaughter a fat beeve at any 
season but in November, and in 
some districts rarely then. 

Maister, c., N., E., Mester, s.w. 
master, mister. 

Maister man, G. a husband; mas- 
ter of a household. 



Mak, Meakk, c., s.w., Mek, N 
make, sort. ' I'll turn my back 
of o' t' mako 1 them.' 

Mak a poor mouth, c. to endea- 
vour to excite compassion. 

Mak at, c. to attack. ' Our bull 
mcadd at him full smack.' 

Mak count on, c. to reckon on; 
to take into account. 

Mak on, c. hurry on. 

Mak on, c. to treat kindly; to 
encourage. ' Mak on him and 
he'll dea better.' 

Mak out, G. to progress. * How 
is he makkan out?' 

Maks, G. kinds or sorts. Tour- 
ist : ' What kinds of fish are in 
your lakes ?' Guide : ' O' maks 
ameasst.' 

Mak up till, G. to curry favour. 
'Mak up till her man.' 

Mailin, c. a dusting mop for the 
oven ; an untidy woman. 

Man, G. a conical pillar or pike of 
stones erected on the top of a 
mountain. ' Such cones are on 
the tops of all our mountains, 
and they are called men. 1 Cole- 
ridge. 

Man alive ! Mans ! exclamations 
of wonder or surprise. ' Mans ! 
that's grand ! ' 

Mander, c., N. maunder; to talk 
confusedly. 

Man-grown, E. a stick or tree 
flattened in growing is oval, and 
of the form of the body of a man. 

Mank, E. to noddle with the 

head. 
Man-keen, G. a bull or cow given 

to attack people is man-keen. 

Manner, c., Mainer, N. manure. 

Mannishment, G. manures applied 
to land. 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



Man on, G. to encourage ; to urge. 
' They man't their dogs on to 
feight.' 

Mant, yr. to stutter. 

Man thy sel ! G. act like a man. 

Man trap, c. a green bog. 

Mappen, Map'm, c., s.w. may 

happen ; may hap. ' Mappem I 

may.' Gibson's Ldal Dinah 

Grayson. 
Markin' iron, c. a branding-iron 

for marking tools or horns of 

cattle, &c. 
Marra, G. to match ; a partner ; 

au equal ; marrow. 
Marraless, G. not alike; not 

having a partner. 
Marras, G. two alike. 
Marra to bran, G. much alike; 

a match for ; equal to. 
Marry, c. verily. ' Marry dud 

ha ' verily he did. 
Marry come up! an interjection 

sometimes used on the receipt of 

ridiculous news. 
Mart'nmas, c., s.w., Martlemas, 

Mairtenmas, N. Martinmas. 

Marvel, c. marble. 

Mash, c. mess ; to bruise ; to crush. 

Mass, c., Mask, N. to infuse. 

' Mass t' tea, Biddy.' 
Masselton batch, c. a sack of 

mixed grain ready for being 

ground. 
Mastel, c. a patch or border of 

an arable field never ploughed. 

Mastis, Masty, G. mastiff. 

Matter, G. an undefined number. 
' A matter o' twenty or mair.' 

Matter, c. esteem. ' What tou's 

seunn left te pleass?' ' Ey, I 

dud n't matter 't much.' 
Matterable, c. of consequence ; 

important. ' What he does is n't 

matterable.' 



Matterfangled, w.w. in incipient 

dotage. 
Matterless, G. unimportant. 

Matters, G. ' nea girt matters ' 

nothing to boast of. 
Matty, c. the mark to pitch to. 

Mawk midge, N. the flesh-fly or 

blue-bottle. 

Mawn (or Man), a rock or stone. 
Mayzel, c., s.w., Maze, N. to 

stupify. 
Mayzlin', G. a simpleton. 

Meakk on, G. to be kind to ; make 
on ; go on. 

Meakk out, G. to progress. ' How 
is he meakkan' out ? ' 

Meall o' milk, G. the milk given 
by a cow at one milking. 

Meally mouth't, G. using soft 
words hypocritically ; also ap- 
plied to a soft spoken person ; a 
bay or brown horse having a 
light-coloured muzzle. 

Mean-field, c. a field in which 
the several shares or ownerships 
are known by meer-stones or 
other boundary marks. 

Meat-heall, c., K, Meeat-heall, 
s.w. healthy ; having a regular 
appetite. 

Mebby, G. it may be. 

Med, Mud, c., s.w., Meeght, 
Meet, N. might. 

Med n't, Mud n't, c., s.w., 
Meeght n't, N. might not. 

Meeda, c., N., Midda, s.w. mea^ 
dow. 

Meen, c. to moan; bemoan. A 
horse walking lame is said to 
meen the lame foot. 

Meerish, G. effeminate. 

Meer-stan, G. a landmark of stone. 

Meety, Meeghty, N. mighty. 
This word is nearly obsolete, 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



Meg-wi'-many-feet, c., Meg-wi'- 
many-teazz, s.w. the creeping 
crowfoot plant Ranunculus re- 
pens. 

Mekkin, Seggin, c., s.w. the 
yellow flag Iris Pseudacorus. 

Mel, c. a conical but not peaked 
hill standing alone, as Melfell, 
Mdbrek, &c. 

Melder, G. the quantity of meal 
ground at one time. 

Meldoor, o. a door put together 
with knobbed wooden pegs. In 
the east of the county the md- 
deurs are the double doors en- 
closing the farm yard. 

Mel-keedit, c. large and square 
headed. 

Mell, c. meddle. 'He'll nowder 
mell nor mak ' he will not in- 
terfere. 

Mell, G. a mallet ; the last cut of 
corn in the harvest field. This 
last cut is commonly platted, 
enclosing a large apple, and hung 
up in the farm kitchen till Christ- 
mas day, when the corn is given 
to the best cow, and the apple to 
the oldest servant on the farm. 

Mel scope, E. a confirmed dunce ; 
a dulbert. 

Mel supper. See Kern supper. 

'Mends, a. amends. 'He's at t' 
height of his 'mends ' nothing 
more to be given or had. 

Meng, N. to renew. 

* Here, lanleady, some mair shwort 

ceaks, 
An' meng us up thar glasses.' 

Stagg's llosley Fair. 

Mennom, c. minnow. 

Henny, c., Manny, s.w., Monny, 

if. many. 

Mense, G. propriety, decency, de- 
corum. 



Menseful, G. hospitable, gener- 
ous, liberal. ' A menseful swort 
of a body.' Contra 'a mense- 
less greedy gut.' 

Merrybegot, G. a bastard. 
Merryneet. See Murryneet. 

Mesher, N.W. a contraction of 
Messenger. 

Mess, G. confusion. 'He hez 
meaid a mess on 't ! ' 

'Mess ! Amess ! Mex ! Amex ! G. 
oaths or affirmations. 

Messet, E. a toy-dog ; a term of 
reproach to an untidy child. 

Met, mete or measure. Formerly 
a measure of two bushels Win- 
chester. 

Metlam cworn, c. a toll of corn 
paid by certain lands, and mea- 
sured by the lord of the manor's 
officers in what is called the 
Metlam peck. 

Meunn, c., N., Mooan, s.w. the 
moon. Persons subject to great 
variations of temper are said to 
be ' owder at t' meunn, or t' mid- 
din' still.' 

Meuthy weather, E. mild and 
damp weather. 

Meiitt ho', G. moot hall. A town 
hall, as formerly at Keswick, 
Cockermouth, &c. 

Mew, G. mowed. 

Mew, Moo, G. a mow of corn or 
hay. 

Mewburnt, c., Mewbrunt, jr. and 
E. overheated in the mow or 
stack. 

Mewstead, c., N., Mawwstead, 
s.w. a place where a mow stands ; 
a mow. 

Mewtle, c. the cow and ewe 
mewtle when yearning over their 
newly-dropped young, and utter- 
ing a low sound of fondness. 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



63 



Mickle, o., Muckle, N., Mitch, 
s.w. much. Micel or Mikel, we 
use for it in the south parts of 
England the Spanish word Much. 
Verstegan. Muckel. Spencer. 

Mickle what, c. much the same. 
' How's mudder ? ' ' Mickle ivhat, 
she's parlish feckless.' 

Middin sump, Middin pant, 

s.w., N. a sumph, or pool supplied 
by the drainage of the dung-heap. 

Middlin', G. middling ; only mid- 
dling. 'How are you?' 'I's 
gaily weel to-day, but I was nob- 
bet varra middlirf yesterday.' * 

Milker, a. a COAV that gives plenty 
of milk is a ' top milker.' 

Milk hannel, c. a larger pail into 
which the milk cans are emptied 
by the milkers. 

Milkin' hill, c. a dry and slightly 
elevated open place near the farm- 
house, where the cows were milk- 
ed formerly while standing loose. 
The name is still common in 
some of the central parishes. 

Milkin' ring, c. a circle of over- 
hanging trees or bushes, usually 
of holly, within which the cows 
were milked in hot weather. 
There is a ring at Causeway Foot, 
near Keswick, 1858, &c. 

Milkin' side, G. the side on which 
the milker sits with the right 
elbow towards the cow's head. 

Milkness, c. a dairy of cows and 
their produce. ' We've a girt 
milkness this year ' (or t' year). 

Millsucken, G. bound by tenure 
to carry corn to be ground at the 
manorial mill. 

* When the late Dr. John Dalton 
was introduced at Court, King Win. IV. 
asked him how matters were going on at 
Manchester. The Doctor, a Cumber- 
land man, replied ' Very middlin', I 
think.' 



Milly thoom, Miller's thumb, c. 

the willow wren. 

Mimps, c. to talk primly and 
mincingly. 

Min, G. man. Only pronounced 
so when speaking familiarly or 
with contempt. ' Thou's nea 
girt things, rnin.' 

Mind, c., s.w., Meynd, N.W. re- 
member. ' Mind and think on.' 
' He duz n't mind ' he does not 
care. 

Mind, G. inclination. ' I've a reet 
good mind to gang an' tell them.' 

Mirk, Murk, G. dark. A farm in 
Bassenthwaite is called Murlc- 
liolme. 

Miscanter, c. to miscarry ; a de- 
feat, mishap. 

Mis-co', c. to mis-call or mis-name ; 
to verbally abuse. 

Mis-leer't, N.W. led astray. 
Mis-lest, G. molest. 

Mislikken, N. to compare dis- 
respectfully ; to neglect or forget. 
' Diwent mislikken noo.' 

Mis-may, c., Mis-mave, N. This 
term is used negatively to ex- 
press absence of fear. ' Our cowt 
met t' soldiers and nivver mis- 
may't his sel.' 

Mistal, c. cow-house. 

Mistal heck, c. in old times the 
farm-house was built adjoining 1 
the cow-house or mistal, with a 
passage between them. The door- 
way opening from this passage 
into the cow-house was fitted with 
a half-door or mistal heck. A few 
buildings of this kind still re- 
main, 1877. 

Miter, G. to waste ; to crumble 
away from age. 

Mittens, Mits, G. woollen gloves 



64 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



or bags for the hands. See Pwok 
mittens. 

Mizzle, c., Hadder, jr. small rain. 
See Hadder. 

Moam, c. mellow, soft. 

Moatster, c., Maatster, s.\v. 
maltster; a maker of malt. 

Moilin, c. a silly fellow. 
Moithy, E. moist. 

Moke, c., Maak, s.w., N. maggot. 
See Whicks. 

Molligrubs, c. bad temper ; imag- 
inary ailments ; in the sulks. 
' She's in t' molligrubs to-day.' 

Moold, c., Mawld, s.w. to cast in 
a mould. 

Mooldi't cannels, c. mould 
candles. 

Moose, c., N., Mooas, Mawse, 
s.w. mouse. 

Moot, c., N. moult, and N. to 
mention. 

Mooter, c., N. multure, mill toll. 
Moppet, o. a pet. 

1 1 hed a laal moppet I pot in my 

pocket, 

And fed it wi' corn and hay ; 
Theer com a Scotch pedder and 

swore he wad wed her, 
And stole my laal moppet away. 
Through the kirk yard she ran, 

she ran; 
O'er the broad watter she swam, 

she swam ; 
And o' the last winter I lost my 

laal twinter, 

And than she com heamm wi' 
lamb, wi' lamb.' 

Old Nursery Rhyme. 

Moresby Ho' fwok, c. people of 
quality ; court cards. 

Mort, c., Mwort, N. a great quan- 
tity. ' A mort o' fine things.' 

Mortal, G. very. An indefinite 



term, as, 'mortal lang,' 'mortal 
short.' Also used to give force 
to an expression. 

Mosscrops, c. the flowering stems 
of Eriopliorum vaginatum. 

Moss- watter ceakk, E. a cake 
made of oatmeal, with butter, 
lard, cream, or other shortening 
material. The inappropriate name 
would seem to have been given 
by way of abating the idea of 
extravagance. 

Moss wythan, N.W. the aromatic 
shrub Myrica gale. 

Mote heartit, c. timid, cowardly. 

Moty sun, N.E. sunbeams shining 
through an aperture exhibit the 
atoms of dust floating, and this 
appearance is called a moty sun. 

Mouth pwok, G. a horse's nose- 
bag. 

Mowdywarp, c., s.w., Mowdy- 
wark, N. the mole. 

Moyder't, c., x. bewildered, con- 
fused. ' He gat moyder't in a 
snow storm and torfer't.' 

Much, G. sometimes used to ex- 
press doubt. 'It's much if he 
gangs at o' now.' 

Muck hack, o. a three-toothed 
drag for drawing manure from 
the cart. 

Muck hots, G. panniers for con- 
veying manure on horseback, 
and N.E. heaps of muck or lime 
in the field. 

Muckment, G. anything dirty. 
' A heap o' muckment.' 

Muck wet (wi' sweat), G. very 
wet ; perspiring copiously. 

Mucky, c. dirty, mean, cowardly. 

Mudder, c., s.w., Mither, Minny, 
N. mother. 

Mug, c. a small drinking-pot ; the 
mouth. 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



6") 



Muggy weather, c. damp and 
misty. 

Mug sheep, c. the white-faced 
breed from which the improved 
Leicester breed originated. 

Mull, c. to crumble ; peat-dust ; 

anything crumbled. 
Mull, G. confusion. ' He meadd 

a mull on 't.' 
Mull't yal, c. ale mulled with 

eggs and spices to be drunk while 

hot. 

Mummel, c. to speak low and in- 
distinct ; to mumble. 

Mump, c. to sulk. ' I ken yer 
meanin' by yer mumpin'' 

Mun, G. must. 

Munge, c., Moonge, N. to grum- 
ble in a low tone. ' Munjan' and 
creunan like a bull in a pet.' 

Munnet, Moon't, c., Mooat, s.w., 

Menna, N. must not. 

Murk, c. See Mirk. 

Murl, c., N.E. to crumble with 

the fingers. ' As murly as a short 

ceakk.' 

Murryneet, Merryneet, G., 

Tansy,* N.B. a rustic merry- 
making to benefit a public-house. 

Mush, c. to crush ; dry refuse or 

crumbly matter. 
Mushamer, c. mushroom. 
Musty, c. sour-looking, gloomy. 

Mwornin', c., N.E., Morrnin', 
s.w. morning. 

My sarty ! My sartis ! exclama- 
tions of surprise. 

Myter, c. to crumble or reduce to 
decay. Stone which decomposes 
by the action of the weather 
myters away. 

Nab, c. to arrest; to catch sud- 
denly. 

* Sullivan. 



Naff, Nav, G. the nave of awheel. 

Nag, c., s.w., Naig, N. a horse. 

Nap, c. a slight blow. 

Napery, c. the store of house- 
hold linen. 

Nar, G., Ner, N. near. ' To kirk 
the nar, to God more far.' 
Spenser ; Shepherd's Kalendar, 
July. 

Narder, Nar-er, Nearder, G., and 
Nerrer, N. nearer, nearest. 

Nar gangan', c., s.w., Nar gaan, 
N. near going, miserly. 

Narvish, G. nervous. 

Nash, Nashy, c., s.w., Nesh, N. 

fragile, brittle, tender. 
Nastment, E. filth, nastiness. 
Nater, G, nature; human feeling 

or commiseration. ' He hes n't 

a bit o' nater for nowder dog nor 

man.' 
Natterahle, c., N. natural. 

Nattle, Knattle, G. to make a 
light and quick knocking. ' He 
knotted at t' window and she gev 
a knattle on t' flags wid her heel.' 

Natty, c. neat. 

Nayber row, c., s.w., Nyber row, 

N. neighbourhood; alike with 

neighbours or others. 

Nayder dee nor dowe, G. in a 

doubtful way of recovery. 
Nayder, Nowder, Nyder, o. 

neither. Chaucer, nowther. 

Nay say, G. refusal, denial. 
Nay than! an exclamation of 

wonder, or doubt, or sympathy. 
Nea girt cracks, Nea girt things, 

c., s.w. nothing to boast of. 

Nea, Neah, c., s.w., Neaa, s.w., 

Naa, Nee, N. no, nay. 
Near hand, G. near to. ' If you 

gang near hand yon dog it'll 

bite.' 

Neb, G. the bill of a bird ; nose ; 
6 



G6 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



peak of a cap ; projecting hill ; 
end, &c. 

Neck't, c. broken-necked. 

Nedder't, c., Nither't, N. wither- 
ed ; not in a thriving state. 

Need-fire, G. fire originated by 
the friction of wood and carried 
quickly from house to house, for 
the purpose of passing cattle 
through the smoke as a prevent- 
ive of murrain and other epi- 
demics. In use so late as about 
1841. 

Neef, c., Neeaf, s.w., Neeve, N. 
the clenched fist. 

Neer ak, o. never mind. Eay 
says, ' To rack or reck,' to care, 
never rack you, *'. e. take you 
no thought or care. In that case 
it should be ' ne rack,' never care, 
never care. 

Ne'er do weel, G. a graceless per- 
son who never does well. 

Neers, G. kidneys of beasts. 

Neest, N. nighest, next. 

Neet, c., s.w., Neeght, N. night. 

Neevy nack, a. a boyish mode of 
casting lots. The boy says 
' Neevy neevy nock, 
Whether hand will ta tack 
T topmer or t' lowmer ?' 

'Neeze, o. sneeze. 
Ner, G. nor, than. ' My meer can 
trot faster ner thine.' 

Nessle, G. nestle. ' Nes'lan* abed 
till neunn.' 

Nettle keall. c. a wholesome 
broth made with young nettles 
in place of vegetables. 

Neukk, c., N., Nceak, s.w. nook, 
corner. 

Neunn, c., N., Neean, s.w. noon, 
dinner-time, 

Newdel't, G. bewildered; con- 
fused through excessive drink- 
ing. 



Newdles, Newdlin', G. a trifling, 
silly person. 

N e w e , s. w. new pronounced , 
quickly nay-oo. In some parts 
nu. 

Nichol, c., N., Nicka', s.w. 
Nicholas. ' Nicka Stib'nson.' 

Nicker, s.w. to laugh in an under- 
tone; N. to neigh; to laugh 
loudly. 

Nick't at heed, G. rendered tem- 
porarily foolish or idiotic. 

Niggarts, c., Neegars, N. upright 
cast-iron plates used for contract- 
ing the fire-place; and Niggart 
plates, sheet-iron plates between 
the niggarts and the hobs. 

Niggel't, c. bothered, annoyed. 

Nigler, c. a busy, industrious per- 
son or animal. 

Nim, c. to walk or ran with short 
and quick steps. 

Ningnang, G. a silly person. 

Ninnyhammer, c. a foolish per- 
son. 

Nip, G. to pinch with the nails; 
a minute quantity. 

Nip up, c. to pilfer ; to pick up 
quickly. 

Nitch, N. gang, family, or set. 
' They're a bad nitch, the heall lot 
o' them.' 

Niwer let on, Niwer let wit, 

G. take no notice. 
Nob, Nobby, c. childish terms for 

the nose. 

Nobbet, G. nothing but ; only. 
'Nockles, G. knuckles. 
Noddle, c. the head ; to nod. 

Noddy, E. a game at cards near 

akin to cribbage. 
Nog, c., s.w. a handle to fix on 

the shaft of a scythe. 
Noggin, G. the eighth of a quart 

measure. 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



Noggy, N. coarse thread ; Noggy- 
wife, a maker of coarse thread. 

Nop, c. to crop; to nip the ends 
off gooseberries, &c. 

Nope, c. to strike on the head. 

If oppy, c. tidy, neat. ' Ey, a 
varra noppy laal body.' 

Norration, G. a noisy conversa- 
tion ; great noise ; oration. 

Nottable, G. clever at trifling 
manipulations. 

Nought at dowe, c. not over 
good; nothing of importance. See 
Dowe. 

Nought in a manner, G. not 

much. 
Nought o' t' swort, G. nothing of 

the sort or kind ; not true. 
Nought to crack on, G. nothing 

to boast of. 
Nowder, Nayder, G. neither. 

Nows and thans, G. atoddtim.es; 

now and then. 
Nowt, N. cattle. ' Tarn, gan' an' 

fodder the nowt, my man.' 

Nowtfit oil, G. oil obtained from 
the feet of cattle by boiling. 

Nub, Nudge, G. to jog secretly 
and draw attention. 

Nuckel't, Newkel't, G. newly 

calved. 
Num, G. benumbed, clumsy. 

Num chance, G. luck and not 
skill. ' He dud varra weel, bit 
it was o' num chance.' 

Num luck, G. by chance and not 
by ability. 

Num thooms, G. a clumsy person ; 

an indifferent workman. 
Nunty, E. formal, old-fashioned, 

shabby. Applied to female dress 

only. 

Nut, c., Nit, s.w. not. 

Nut i' shaft for, c., s.w. unable 
to accomplish it. 



Nut reet, Nut varra reet, Nut 
o' theer, G. idiotic. 

Nut to ride a watter on, c. not 

to be depended upon. Some sad- 
dle-horses have a propensity to 
lie down in crossing the water of 
a ford seemingly with a view 
to get rid of their riders, or be- 
cause they are seized with colic ; 
and such are ' not to ride waiter's 
on.' 

Nwote, G. note ; the period when 
a cow is due to calve. ' She'll 
be up at her nwote at April day.' 

Nwotion, G. notion, idea. ' Our 
lad hes a nwotion o' gangan' to t' 
sea.' 

Nyfel, G. to pilfer or take by re- 
tail. 

0', c., Aa, s.w., N. all, of. 

Oa, Oan, c., Aa, s.w., N. owe, 
own. ' Who oa'a this ?' 

Oaf, c. a blockhead; an idiot. 

' Some silly brainless calf, 
That understands things by the 

half, 

Says that the fairy left the aulf, 
And took away the other.' 

Drayton. 

Oald, c., Aad, Aald, s.w., OaT, 
Aal', N. old. 

Oald bat, c., N. the usual state or 
condition. 

Oald fashin't, G., and Oalfarrant, 
N. sly, sagacious, precocious, old- 
fashioned. 

Oaldfwok's neet, c. In the 
country married people assemble 
on some appointed evening, soon 
after Christmas, at the principal 
inn in the parish, to partake of 
a roast beef and sweet pie supper, 
and to enjoy themselves with 
dancing, and formerly cards ; to 
be succeeded in a night or two 
by a similar meeting of young 
people, called the young f wok's 



68 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



met : at Loth of which consider- 
able sums are spent. 

Oaldfwok's Setterday, c. on the 
first Saturday in the year the 
country people assemble at their 
respective woast-houses, or inns, 
at Keswick ; the heads of the 
houses taking their wives, or 
sometimes a daughter, to dine 
and make merry in the evening 
with other friends, for the benefit 
of the house. 

Oald man, E. a game among 
schoolboys. 

Oald shoe, G. The old custom of 
propitiating good luck by throw- 
ing an old shoe after a person or 
wedding-party is still occasion- 
ally in use. 

Oald standards, G. old residents. 

Oan, G. own, to visit. ' Ye niv- 

ver oan us now.' 
0' as yan, G. all the same. 

Obstropolus, c. unruly, turbulent, 

obstreperous. 
Odments, c. scraps; odds and 

ends; things worthless, &c. 

Od|s, G. 'What ods!' what 
difference does it make? what 
does it matter ? 

Offal, G. a butcher's term for 
wealth. ' Hes he ofiaFt weel ? * 
Has he cut up well for inside 
fat? 

Off an' on, G. uncertain, vacillat- 
ing, thereabouts. ' When's Jwon 
to come heamm?' ' Off an' on 
about May day.' 

Offcome, c. result. 

Off his bat, G. out of health. 

Offish, G. office. 

Offskeum, c. the refuse; the 
worst ; the offscourings. 

Oft, c. off or farther side. Used 
in the boundary roll of Aspatria. 

Oil o' hezzel, c. a sound drub- 
bing. 



Okart, c., N., Aakart, s.w. awk- 
ward. 

Olas, c., ATdas, s.w., Aiilwas, 
Aywas, O'geats, x. always. 

Om as. c. . Aamas, N. alms. In 
former times a handful of oat- 
meal or a slice of barley bread ; 
and in later times a halfpenny 
or a penny. 

Ome, c., Emmal, N. the elm-tree. 

On, G. upon. ' A morgidge is a 

sair on-lig on a house. 7 
Onderhand, a undersized. 'A 

laal onderhand creter.' 
Ondenner, G. the one under the 

other. 
Onder set, c. to support a wall 

by building below its foundation. 
On lig, G. an oppressive and con- 
tinuous charge. See On. 
Onny, c., N. any. (Little used in 

c.) 
Ons, c. puts on. ' I ons wi' my 

cwoat and off to wark.' 

Onstead, c., N., Onsett, N.K. farm- 
house and outbuildings, home- 
stead. 

Onta, G. upon, unto, on to. 

Oo', Woo', c., N., Ooa, s.w. wool. 

' Tar-ry woo', tar-ry woo', 
Tar-ry woo 1 is ill to spin : 

Card it weel, card it weel, 
Card it weel ere you begin,' &c. 
Old Song. 

Oomer, c., Hoomer, N. shade ; to 

shade. 
Oor side, c., N. our part of the 

country. 

Oor wife, c., N. my wife. Seldom 
heard. 

Got ! Hoot ! exclamations of un- 
belief. ' Hoot ! it was nea sek 
things.' 

Got, Out, c. When it was custom- 
ary for the bowl of poddish to be 
placed on the table, and the 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



69 



family to sit around and each 
use his spoon, a rule prevailed 
that if any let three drops and a 
long slatter fall on the board, he 
was ' out,' and could not come 
again. 

Got at t' elbas, G. in declining 
circumstances, 

Got bye, N. not far off. 

Ootener, c., N., and E. a stranger 
or new-comer. 

Ootfield land, c. land enclosed at 
a later period than the infield 
land, and generally inferior. 

Ootgang, o. a narrow strip of 
land connecting the common with 
the farm-yard or village. 

Ootin', c., N. Awtin, s.w. a plea- 
sure jaunt. 

Got liggers,"o. cattle not housed 
during winter. 

Got o' cue, c., N. out of health; 
not in good humour. 

Got o' geatt, c., N. out of the 
way ; stand by. 

Got o' teunn, G. partly offended ; 
dispirited. 

Got o' t' way, G., N. uncommon, 
exorbitant. 

Got ower, N.E. across the country. 
Got powl't, c. beat, defeated. 

Oot-rake, N.E. a free way or ralw 
for sheep from the enclosures to 
the common. 

Got ray, c., N. to exceed pro- 
priety. Outrayen, to grow out- 
rageous. Chaucer, C. T. 8519. 

Got shot, G. a projection of an 
upper story or window in an old 
house, or of a wall or fence. 

Got side, G. at the most. ' He's 
nobbet six feutt hee at t' oot side.' 

Ootwart, G. dissipated, ill-con- 
ducted. 
Ootweels, c., N. outcasts, refuse. 



Outtvell, to discharge. Spenser, 
F. Q. i. 1. 21. 

Oppen gowan, c. the marsh mari- 
gold Caltha palustris. 

Oppen, Op'n, Op'm, G. open. ' Is 
t' winda op'mf 

Or, Er, G. are. ' Er ye finely V 

Orchat, c., s.w., Worchat, Apple- 
garth, N. orchard. 

O'riddy, c., Aariddy, s.w., 
'ruddy, N. already. 

Orndinner, N. a lunch. Broc- 
kett. Not in use of late years. 

Orts, Worts, c., Wots, E. the re- 
fuse of fodder left by cattle. 

O'tha, G. of thee ; on thee. 

O'that, c. all that ; more of the 
same nature. ' She fand it varra 
sweet an' good an O'that.' 

Other-guess, N. of another kind. 

Other-some, c., s.w. other, some 
other. ' Some flowers is blue* 
and other-some yallow.' 

Ought-like, c. appropriate, any- 
thing like. 

Owder, Ayder, G. either. 

Owerance, G. guidance, govern- 
ance, superintendance. 

Ower by, N. over the way. 

Owergit, Owertak, c., s.w., 
Owercassen, N, overcast. 

Ower lap, c. an encroachment 
by the sheep of a flock or parish 
on the common of another. 

Ower year, c. belonging to a 
second year. ' You have a fine 
pig there, Betty.' 'Ey, it's a 
ower year swine. It was seah 
whiet, poor thing, 'at I pity*t to 
kill't last year.' 

Ows, N., Aas, s.w. owns. 'Who 

ows (or ads) tis?' 
Owsen, G. oxen. 

Owts, c., N. ' Is 't owts of a good 
'an ? ' Is it a pretty good one ? 



70 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



This word is commonly used as an 
interrogatory. ' Hes ta gitten 
oivta o' fish to-day ? ' ' Nay, 
nought 'at is owf or, not many. 

Oxters, o. armpits. 

Pack, o. be off; go away. 'If 
thou does n't mind thy wark I'll 
send thee &-packin', an' seunn 
teah.' 

Pack, N. tame spoken of ani- 
mals. 

Packs, o. heavy clouds; thunder- 
clouds. 'T' sky's packy to-day, 
and like thunner.' 

Pad, G. a kind of saddle for carry- 
ing two. It was made of canvas 
or carpeting, and used with or 
without stirrups. Now (1877) 
superseded hy light vehicles. 
Farmers' wives had many miles 
to ride to market on pads, in all 
weathers, and could not go 
quicker than a horse could walk, 
lest the eggs were smashed in 
the basket, or the butter-pounds 
disfigured in the butter-kits. 

Paddick rud or rid, N. the spawn 
of frogs and toads. 

Paddock, Paddick, N. the frog 
and toad. 

Paddock steulls, c., N. all non- 
edible fungi. 

Pad-saddle, o. a composite article 
between pad and saddle now 
out of use. 

Pad the hoof, G. to go on foot. 

Pag't, c. laden, full. ' Pag't wi' 
dirt.'8 

Paiks, G. a boyish term for a 
thrashing. 

Pain beukk, E. a register of pains 
and penalties in manorial courts. 

Palterly, c. paltry. 

Pan an' speiinn, c. When a child 
or young animal is brought up 
without being suckled, it is rear- 



ed by the aid of a pan to warm 
the milk, and a spoon to be fed 
with. 

Pang't, o. quite full. 

Pankeakk Tuesday, c. Shrove 
Tuesday ; on which day pancakes 
are provided for dinner. 

Pan on wid, Pan on togidder, 
G. to associate ; to pair query, 
from cooking in or eating from 
the same pan. 

Pant, G. a sump. 

Par, c., s.w. pair sounded short, 
as in pat. 

Pare, c. to diminish. A cow 
pares in milk when the quantity 
yielded grows daily less. 

Parfet, G., and Perfit, N. perfect. 
' He was a veray parftt gentil 
knight.' Chaucer, frol. 72. 

Parin' speadd, G. a breast-plough. 

Parlish, c., s.w. wonderful, ex- 
traordinary, parlous. ' A par- 
lous boy: go to, you are too 
shrewd.' King Rich. III. 

Parral, G. peril. ' It's at te par- 
ral to strike.' 

Parrock, G. a small enclosure 
near the house a little larger 
than a Garth and smaller than a 
Croft. Sax. 

Parties, c. the globular droppings 
of sheep. 

Pash, c., N. 'wet as posh' 
very wet. ' A pashan* shower ' 
a heavy and sudden shower. 
' Rotten as push ' entirely rot- 
ten. There is a distinction be- 
tween apash and a splash of rain. 
' Here's a wet day, John.' ' Ey, 
it dizzies an' dozzles an' duz.' 
' "Will it continue ?' ' Nay, it may 
be a bit of a splash, bit it will 
n't be a girt push,' 

Pasture, N.W. In the north- 
west of the county the open com- 
mons were all distinguished by 
this term, and the lands since 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



71 



inclosed from the commons still 
retain the name. In other parts 
they were called commons, moors, 
or fells. 

Pat, G- fit, correct, suitable. 

Patter, o. to beat quickly. 'It 
patters and rains.' 

Patterin hole, c. a deep fissure 
in the rock at St. Bees head, where 
a stone thrown in can be heard 
pattering as it descends. 

Pattle, c. a scraper for the wooden 
mouldboard of a plough. 

Paw, c. the hand and especially 
if dirty. ' Keep yer dirty paws 
off.' 

Paw heeds, N.E. tadpoles. 
Pawky, N. too familiar ; sly. 
Pawt, N. to walk heavily. 

PaWW, c. to kick when in the 
last extremity. ' It'll nivrer 
pdww mair.' 

Pay, a. to beat 

Paze, Baze, o. to prize, or force, 
or lift with a lever. 

Peakle, c. to tread or walk silently. 

Peann, c. '0' in a pednn' 
thick set with weeds, &c. A 
sheep is o' in a pednn when its 
fleece is matted or felted with 
scab. 

Pearch, G. pierce. ' It's a pearcJi- 

an' cold wind, this ! ' 
Peart, G. pert. 
Peass eggs, a dyed eggs at 

Easter time. 
Peat hee, c. the height of a peat; 

about knee height. 

Peat mull, c., Peat coom, N. the 
dust and debris of peats. 

Peat skeall, s.w. a house on the 

fell to store peats in. 
Peazz, c. pace ; a raised approach 

for horses to an upper floor. 

Pedder, c., Pether, N. a pedlar; 



to attempt to foist an inferior 
article on a buyer. ' Do n't ped~ 
der that rubbish on me.' 

Pee, c., s.w. to shut one eye on 
taking aim. 

Pee in yer oan pok neukk, c. 
mind your own business ; see how 
it applies to yourself. 

Peek, c., Peeak, s.w., Peekle, E. 
to pry into secret matters. ' He 
com gloppan' and peekan' into 
ivry corner.' 

'Peel, c., N., Peeal, s.w. appeal. 

Peel, G. a baker's dough or bread- 
spade. 

Peel house, N. a house of defence 
in the time of the border wars. 

Peenjan', N. starving with cold. 
'Peer, G. appear. 
Peer, G. pear ; N. poor. 
Peesweep, N., Teufet, c. the lap- 
wing. 

Pee't, G. having only one eye. 
Peg, G. a thump ; a child's tooth. 
Peg away, G. go along; hurry on. 

Peggy nut, c. a boyish game with 

nuts. 

Peggy white throat, c. one of 
the willow wrens. 

Pegh, c., N. to pant with a stifled 
groan. 

Pelk, Whelk, c. to beat. 
Pelter, c., N. a large one. 

Pennysom', G. profitable by small 
items. 

Pennystans, c., N. stones used in 
pitching instead of pennies. 

Pensy, c., N. sickly; of weak 
appetite. 

Pentas, c., s.w. penthouse; a 
roof fixed to the side of a house. 
Common in the 18th century in 
farm-yards; scarce in the 19th. 



72 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



Perlang, N. belong. 'Wliee 
perlangs this ? ' 

Pestle tail, c. a horse's tail de- 
nuded of hair. 

Fettle, G. to occupy time over 
trifles. 

Petty, c. a privy ; a necessary. 

Pewder, c., Pewther, K. pewter. 
Large dishes and dinner-plates 
of pewter succeeded wooden 
trenchers about the beginning 
of the 18th century, and were 
displaced by crockery early in 
the 19th century. 

Fez, Pays, a, Peeaz, s.w. peas. 

Fez scodin', G. Grey peas when 
young are boiled in the pod and 
thrown on a riddle to drain. A 
cup containing butter is set in 
the midst, in which each person 
dips the end of the pod, and strips 
out the peas between the teeth, 
and the pods are applied to pelt 
each other with. 

Fiannet, c. the peony plant. 

Pick, c., N. pitch ; to lift with a 
pitchfork ; to push. ' Ned pick't 
Joe ower.' 

Pick, or pitch, dark, G. entirely 
dark. 

Pick at, G. to invite a quarrel. 
'They're always pickin' at yan 
another.' 

Pickle, c., E. a grain of corn ; a 
pinch ; a small quantity. 

Pickless, c. incompetent, feckless. 

Picknichety, N. exact in small 
matters ; neat in dress. 

Picks, c. an old name for the 
diamond suit of cards. 

Pick t' cofe, G. abortion in cows. 
Picky, E. of weak appetite. 

Piggin, c. a small wooden pai] 
to hold about a quart, hooped 



like a barrel and having a stave 
handle. 

Pig in, c. to nestle close as pigs 
do. ' Come, barns, pig in to bee* 
wi' ya.' 

Pike, G. the conical top of a 
mountain or hill ; the peak ; a 
pillar or high cairn erected on 
the top or point of a mountain ; 
a large-sized haycock. 

Pikelins, c. half-sized haycocks. 

Pike-thank, Pik-thank, c. a 
slanderous mischief-maker. 

Pile, G. a blade of grass. ' Theer 
is n't a pile o' girse on o' t' field.' 

Piley, c. a white game-fowl 
having a few black or red feathers. 

Pilgarlic, c. a simpleton; Peel- 
garlic, N. a tall, slender, and 
starved girl. 

Pillion seat, G. a seat to fix be- 
hind the saddle for a female to 
ride on. Out of use since about 
1830. 

Pin, c. When the ewe gives much 
milk the excrement of the young 
lamb glues the tail down upon 
the anus and prevents all dis- 
charge. The lamb is then saio 
to be pin't or pinned. 

Pinchgut, G. a miserly person. . 

Pinch't, c. falling short, 'He'll 
be pinch' 't to git it done.' 

Pinin' in t' belly, c. a depressing 
sensation in the bowels. ' It is 
n't t' gripes, it's a pinin'.' 

'Pinion tied, G. strong in opinion ; 
obstinate. 

Pinjy, c., Penjy, N. of a com- 
plaining habit. 

Pinnel, Leek, o. a hard subsoil of 
clay and gravel. 

Pinner't, c. shrivelled, lean, 
starved. 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



73 



Pin't into t' hard yerth, o. the 

grass eat off to the bare ground. 

Pipe stoppel, c. a fragment of 
the tube of a tobacco-pipe pro- 
bably a corruption of pipe-stop- 
per. 

Pippin, o. pips or seeds of the 
apple, &c. 

Pissibeds, c. the flowers of the 
dandelion plant. 

Pissimers, Pissamoors, Pissmnd- 
ders, c., Pishmidders, N. ants, 
pismires. 

Plack, N. a very small sum. 

Plain as pike staff, G. very dis- 
tinct and evident. 

Plantin', o. plantation. 

Plash, o. to trim the sides of a 
hedge. 

Plat, c., N., plot ; a line of hay 
ready for cocking ; a broad ridge 
of land. N.E. to walk heavily. 

Plate, c. to clinch ; to rivet. 
Pled, G. pleaded. ' He pled hard 

for his life.' 
Pleen, Pleyn, c., jr., Pleean, 

8. W. to complain. 

Gret was the pitee for to here hem 
pleine.' Ch. 

Pleezter, G. more pleased. 
Plennets, N.W. abundance. 

' Heavier now the tempest musters, 
Down in plennets teems the rain ; 
Louder, aye, the whirlblast blus- 
ters, 

Sweepin' o'er the spacious plain.' 
Stagg's Return. 

Plennish, G. to famish a house 
or stock a farm. 

Pleutery, Pluttery, N.E. useless 
things ; refuse. ' Rid away that 
pleutery, Maggy.' 

Plezzer, c., s.w., Pleeshur, Plee- 
zer, N., Plizzer, N.W. pleasure. 



Plies, c. the foldings of] garments. 
' We put on three ply o' flannin 
for a sare throat.' 

Plimlan', c. the parish and vil- 
lage of Plumbland. 

Sec a seet as ne'er was seen, 
Plimlan' church on Arkleby green.* 
Old Rhyme. 

Pliwer, N. plover. 

Plode, Plote, c. to wade through 
thick and thin. 

Pledge, N. to plunge ; to wade in 
water. 

Plook, G., Pleukk, N. a pimple 
on the face. 

Ploom, c. a plum. (Dying out.) 

Plu' bote, c. timber to make a 
plough of, which the lord of the 
manor was bound to allow to his 
customary tenant. 

Plu' co'er, c., s.w. the driver of 
each pair of plough oxen or 
horses in the last century, usually 
a lad or stout girl, whose duty it 
was to steer the animals, to keep 
them moving steadily, to turn 
them in at the ends, and to bear 
patiently the scowls and re- 
proaches, and occasionally the 
cuffs, of the irritated ploughman, 
when his want of skill caused a 
blunder in his performance. Such 
mishaps being of frequent occur- 
rence, deterred the youngsters 
from going out to ' co' f plu'.' 

One or two centuries back a 
full plough-team was called the 
'lang ten,' and was made up of 
ten individuals, viz. two pairs of 
long-horned oxen, one pair of 
horses or galloways, a plough- 
man, a person (often a woman) 
to hold down the beam, and 
two ' plu' co'er s ' sometimes an 
eleventh to turn the tough ley 
furrow behind the plough with 
a spade. At that period seldom 
more than one man in a village 
or hamlet could guide a plough, 



74 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



and his attainments were con- 
sequently very important. 

Plu' pattle, c. an instrument 
used to clear the soil from the 
plough-share. 

Plug, c. to pluck; to pull. 

Plump, c. to sink or fall quickly. 
'He went plump down like a 
steann. ' 

Pock arr't, Pock fret, c., Pock- 
err't, N. marked by small-pox. 

Pod, c. to poke. 

Poddinger, C. corrupted from por- 
ringer a coarse earthenware pot 
having a handle on one side. 

Poddish, c., s.w., Parridge, Par- 

ritch, N. pottage of oatmeal 
the usual breakfast and supper, 
with bread and cheese and milk, 
of the farm-servants over the 
greatest part of the county; and, 
- till lately, of farmers and their 
families. 

Poddish kite, c. a gluttonous 
child or youth. ' It's nut t' skin 
of a clap ceakk 'at'll sarra that 
poddish kite.' 

'Pode, c., Apod, s.w. uphold. 

' Aa'l 'pode ta it's true.' 

Podgy, c. a short and fat per- 
son. 

Poik, c. to steal when playing 
at marbles. 

Pomes, c. the blossoms of the 
willow tribe. 

Poo, Pooan, G. pull, pulling. 

Pooder, c., Pawwder, s.w., Too- 
ther, N. powder. 

Pooder, c. hurry. < Off he went 
in sec a pooder ! ' 

Pool, c., Poo, s.w., Peull, N. a 
pool or dub. 

Poor, G. lean ; out of condition 

applied to live stock. 
Poo't, a pulled, pull it. 



Pop, c. a dot. 

Pope, c., Paap, s.w. to walk as 
in the dark 'popan' and stopanV 

Poppinoddles, c. a boyish term 
for a summerset. 

Por, G. poker. 

Poss, c. ' 0' in a poss ' saturated 
with liquid; N. to tread wet 
clothes, &c. ' She was possan' 
blankets in a tub.' 

Pot, c., s.w., Pat, N. has put; 
did put. 

Pot boilin' day, G. the day on 
which broth is made in the 
' keall pot ' commonly Sunday 
in country places. 

Pote, c., Paat, s.w. to paw with 
the feet ; pawed. 

Pote, G. to walk clumsily. 

Pot luck, G. a friendly welcome 
to a share of what may happen 
to have been provided for the 
family. 

Pot metal, c. cast-iron. See 
Kessen metal. 

Pottek, c. pocket. Nearly out 
of use. 

Potter, Pottle, G. to trifle; to 
work without effect. 

Pow-cat, c. the foumart ; a fun- 
gus which grows in hedges and 
has a very offensive smell, and 
' stinks like a pow-cat ' the 
Phallus impudicus or Stinkhorn. 

Powe, G. poll ; the head. { Dainty 
Davy, curly powe.' Old Song. 

Powe, c. a sump. 

Powe heads, N.W. tadpoles. 

Power, G. a great deal. ' It's done 

him a power o' good.' 
Powl, c., N., Powe, s.w. a pole ; 

to clip the hair off the head or 

poll. 

Powsowdy, G. an ale-posset. 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



75 



Praytha, Pretha, c. prithee; pray 
thee. 

Preen, o. to comb and dress the 
hair. 

Preese, Priss, c. to press ; to im- 
portune. ' Now mak free and 
help yer sels.' 'Aa's warn ye 
we need na preezin'.' 

Prial, c. three of a sort. 

Prickers, G. iron prongs to fix on 
the front of the grate to toast 
"bread or frizzle sausages, &c., 
upon. 

Pricky back, G. the stickleback 
or thornback fish; 

Pricky board, N . When a person's 
means of living are exhausted he 
is at pricky board. 

Prig, G. to beat down in bargain- 
ing ; to pilfer. 

Prin, Preen, N. a pin. 

Priss, Pruss, Prush, o., s.w., 
Frudge, N. to press. 

Prize, c. to raise by lever power. 
Prod, G. a thorn or splinter. 

Prod, Proddle, Prowk, G. to poke 
with the end of a stick, &c. ; to 
stir up. 

Proffer, G. offer; a tender of 
services. 'He proffer't to help 
us.' 

Prog, Proag, c. provender to be 
eaten in the field. 

Proud, G. luxuriant applied to 
rank vegetation. 

Provldance, c. a providing of 
victuals, &c. 

Pry, c. a very short bluish grass, 
and difficult to catch with the 
scythe ; a Carex. ' Yon field 
grows nought bit bent and pry.' 

Pubble, c. plump. Grain well 
fed is ' pubble as a partridge.' 



Pucker, c. alarm, flutter. ' In a 
sad pucker.' 

Pucker't, G. drawn together like 
the mouth of a purse. 

Puddin' pwoke, G. made of a 
' harden bag and a hemp string.' 

Pult, c. a fat and lazy cat or 
woman. ' A girt fat pult.' 

Pum, c. to pummel or beat. 
Pummer, G. anything large. 

Pund, c., Pawwnd, s.w., Pun, N. 
pound. 

Punder, c. to crowd; to incom- 
modate by crowding. ' They 
niwer git a sidement meadd, and 
they're o' punder't up still.' 

Pund o' mair weight, c. a rough 
play among boys, adding their 
weight one upon another, and all 
upon the one at the bottom. 

Punfoald, c., B.W., .Punfaal', K. 

pinfold. 
Punsh, G. to kick with the foot. 

Purchis, o. purchase ; the me- 
chanical advantage of a lift or 
pull. ' He'll nivver git it up, 
because he can n't git a purchia 
at it.' 

Purdy, c. a short and thickset 
person. 

Pursy, G. broken- winded ; asth- 
matic. 
Put, c. to butt with the head. 

Put on ! G. hurry on ; go quick ; 
to tease ; to take advantage of. 

Put out, G. ashamed, troubled, 
extinguished. ' Nelly was sair 
put out about it.' 

Putten, G. put. ' He's putten his 
clogs on.' 

Puttin' on, G. a temporary sub- 
stitute. 

Puttin' through, G. severe exam- 
ination; a righting up. 



76 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



Put tnl't, o. obliged to use expe- 
dients. ' He's gaily sare putten 
tul't to git a leevin.' 

Putty cow, c. a cow given to 
attack people. 

Pwoke, G. a poke ; a bag. 'Niv- 
ver buy a pig in a pwoke ' exam- 
ine first ; take nothing on trust. 

Pwok mittens, c. gloves knit 
without the fingers being divided. 

Pwok't, c. Sheep tainted with rot 
or consumption often exhibit the 
symptom of a poke or bag under 
the jaws. 

Pwort, N.W. port. 'Ey, Mary- 

pwort.' 
Pwosy, G. a nosegay; posy; a 

flower. 

Pyannet, c., N. the peony plant. 
Pyat, G. the magpie. 

Queen cat, E. a female cat. 

Queerly, c. odd. 'A rayder 
queerly swort of a chap.' 

Quern, G. an ancient hand-mill 
of stone. 

Quern, Kern, G. to shout a quern. 
The shout of rejoicing or thank- 
fulness raised in the field when 
the last of the crop is cut. 

Quest, c. the early morning 
search for a hare by the scent of 
the hounds. ' Jwon Peel questit 
a hare up Skiddaw side and pot 
her off beside t' man.' 

Quilt, c. to beat. 

Quishin, Whishin, G. cushion. 

'Quittance, G. receipt or acquit- 
tance. ' Aa'll nit pay without a 
'quittance.' 

Babblement, c. the dregs of the 
people; rabble. 
Rack and manger, c. 'He's at 

rack and manger now ' on 

plenty. 



Rackle, c. rash, unruly, in- 

cautious. 

Raff, c. an idle fellow. 
Raffish, c. of idle habits. 
Raft, c. a large concourse. 'A 

raft o' fwok.' 
Rag, G. to rate; to scold; to 

reproach. 

Rag, Rime, c. hoar-frost. ) 
Rageous, c., N. outrageous. 

Raggabrash, G. low people; vaga- 
bonds. 

Raggelt, c. an active young per- 
son of bad conduct. ' An ill 
raggelt of a thing.' 

Raggy nwos'd, c. a sheep having 
a grey face and a lighter shade 
of muzzle resembling hoar-frost. 
These are favourite marks on the 
Herdwick breed of the county. 

Rain knots, c. a scurf which col- 
lects in lumps among the hair 
on the skin of a lean, outlying 
horse. 

Raiser, c. an addition to a bee- 
hive put in beneath. 

Rake, Reakk, G. a journey. 
'He's teann a rake ower to 
Kendal.' 

Rake, c. a mountain track across 
a steep ; to follow in line as 
sheep do. 

Rakes, c. lines of white foam on 
lakes often noticed previous to a 
storm. 

Rake steel, c., s.w., Rake shank, 
N. the handle of a rake. ' But 
that tale is not worth a rake- 
stele: Oh. C. T. 6531. 

Rakkeps, c. a game among boys. 

Rakkle, G. heedless, rash. ' ! 
rakel honde, to do so foule a mis.' 
Chaucer, C. T. 17227. 

Ram, G., s.w. a strong fetid 
smell. ' As ram as a fox.' 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



77 



Bam, o. to rush ; to use force. 
' Earn at it ! ' to butt. 

Ramman, Rammer, G. ' A ram- 
man girt an' ' a very large one. 
' It is a rammer ! ' 

Ramniel, G. ramble. 

Rammel sleatt, c. a very coarse 
kind of slate. 

Ramp, Wramp, c. a sprain or 
twist ; to sprain. ' He ramp't 
his ankle at t' feutt bo' laik.' 

Ramps, c. wild broad-leaved 
garlic Allium ursinum. Cows 
occasionally eat of this plant and 
their milk acquires an onion 
flavour. 

Ramshackle, N. rude and vulgar. 
An old writer says of the Bworder 
(horse) Cowpers (to use their 
own words), their manners are 
more ramshackle than the rest of 
the Cumbrians. 

Randi't, c. streaked. This form 
is applied to butter when of two 
colours. 

Randy, c. a termagant. 

Rank, G. close together; numer- 
ous. ' As rank as mice in a meal 
kist.' 

Rannel tree, c., Rannel boke, 
Gaily boke, N. the beam on 
which the chimney-crook hangs. 
' T' rattans ran on t' rannel tree.' 
Old Song. 

Rannigal, c., N. a masterful 

child or animal. 
Ranty , c. riotous ; in high spirits ; 

in a towering passion. 

Rap ho'penny, c. a halfpenny 
worn smooth ; a counterfeit. 

Rap on t' knockles, G. to snub ; 
to control sharply. 

Rap out, o. to speak with rapidity. 
' He rap't out his ugly woaths as 
fast as a hen could pick.' 

Rappak, c. a pet name for an 
unruly child. 



Rapscallion, G. a worthless, ill- 
mannered fellow. 

Rap't, c. a ragged sheep is rap't 
qy. unwrapped. 

Rash, c. brisk. 

Rasher, c. a slice of bacon. 

Rashleets, c., s.w., Reshleets, N. 
rushlights. 

Ratch, G. to ramble ; to ransack 
vigorously. ' Jtatchan' about like 
a hungry hound.' 

Ratch, G. a white streak down 
the face of a horse. 

Rate, G. to whiten by bleaching 

on the grass. 
Rattan, G. rat. 
Rattan tails, c. the seed stems 

of the broad-leaved plantain 

Plantago major. 

Rawwl, c. to grumble ; to be 
quarrelsome. 

Rayder, c., s.w., Rayther, N. 
rather (ironically, very) ' Rayder 
o' t' wettest ' very wet. 

Reach, E. The natural divisions 
into open parts of Ulswater and 
other lakes are called reaches. 

Reach teah, G. a common ex- 
pression of welcome at the table, 
signifying ' help yourself,' or 
reach to and take. 

Readd, c., s.w., Reudd, Rwode, 
N. rode ; a spawn bed. 

Reader (Scripture reader), the 
unordained clerical substitute, 
whose office ceased about 1740. 
' The reader of Newlands chapel, 
who was admitted to deacon's 
orders (among many others) 
without examination, was by 
trade a tailor, clogger, and 
butter-print maker.' Southey. 

Reakk t' fire, G. to cover up the 
fire for the night. 

Reamm, c. to roam; to talk 
wildly ; to covet or desire. ' He's 
olas reamman efter mair land,' 



78 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



Retain, c. a balk left for a bound- 
ary line in a common field. 

Bear, c. rise, raise, rally, bring 
up ; underdone ; nearly raw. 

Reaw, Ruv, c. tore, rove, rave. 

Reawel, c., Ryle, K. to use loose 
talk in a quick manner ; to utter 
untruths ; to entangle ; to un- 
ravel the loops of knitting. 

Reazz, Reiizz, Biz, G. arise, 

arisen. 
Recklin', Wrecklin' in old 

times, O. the smallest of a 

litter. 

Bedchester, G. register. 

Redshanks, c. the plant Poly- 
gonum Persicaria. 

Bee, G. to riddle com in a 
' ree-an sieve ' in a peculiar way, 
when the chaff collects to the 
centre of the sieve, and the dust 
and small seeds of weeds fall 
through. The winnowing ma- 
chine has set the sieve aside. 

Ree-a-zan, s.w. reason. 

Reed, G. to strip. Butchers 
reed the entrails of slaughtered 
animals to obtain the fat. 

Beed, Bid, Bud, G. red. 
Beedent, c. irritable, red-faced. 

Reed row, G. When barley ap- 
proaches to ripeness the grains 
are streaked with red, and are 
then said to be in the reed roiv, 
and not ripe enough to be cut. 

Reek, G. smoke. 

Reep o' cworn, G. a handful of 
corn in the straw, used as a bait 
to catch a horse with in the 
field. 

Reep np, G. to refer often to 
some unpleasant subject. 

Reest, c., s.w., Reesty, N.B. 
to be obstinate; to arrest. See 
Tetch. 



Reestit, c., s.w., Beesty, N. 
rancid or rusty. 

Beet, G. right ; a cartwright. 

Beet np, G. to put things right ; 
to give scolding advice. 

Beivers, ~s. robbers on the 

borders. 

Beklas, c. the auricula plant. 
Bender, G. to melt tallow, &c. 
Benky, c. lengthy. 
Besait, G. a corruption of receipt. 
Besh, Bus, K. the rush. 
Bestles, Bidsteakks, Beststaks, 

c., Budstowers, Rudsteaks, E. 

the stakes to which cattle are 

fastened in the stalls. 

Resto, c. at marbles to change 
position to obtain a better chance 
of hitting an opponent's ' taw.' 

Reiidd, c. rode ; rood ; a measure 
of seven yards in length. 

Reull, c. an unruly boy, colt, or 
ox, &c. 

Reunge, c., E. to plunge as the 
unruly colt does. 

Reust, E. praised, commended. 

Reiitle, c. to work underneath, 
or in the ground, as a pig does. 

Reutt, c., w., Reeat, s.w. root; 

to uproot ; grub up. ' Beuttan 

like an unrung swine.' 
Reuw, c., N. to unroof. *T' 

wind reuvvt our haystack.' See 

Tirlt. 

Reiizz, G. arose, raised. 
Rice, c., Reyce, N.W. See Cock- 

gard. 

Rid, Rud, G. to uproot trees or 
hedges, &c. The frequent names 
of Adding and Budding ap- 
plied to houses and fields have 
doubtless originated from this. 

Ride an' tie, G. riding by turns 
the horseman dismounting and 
tying the horse up till the foot- 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



79 



man comes up to take his turn 

in the saddle. 
Ridsom', c., Rudsom', E. ready, 

expert. 

Rife, c. plentiful. 
Biff-raff, c. disorderly people. 

' They're nought bit riff-raff' 

Rift, c., Ruff, s.w., Ruft, E. to 

belch ; to win a trick with a 

trump card. 
Rig, G. ridge. 'The stede's 

rigge under him brast.' Morte 

d'Arthur. 
Rig and fur, G. ridge and furrow, 

as stockings were formerly knit. 

Rig and reann, G. an arable field 
held in shares which are divided 
by narrow green lines (ranes), 
and the intervals usually cul- 
tivated. 
Riggelt, G. an animal with one 

testicle in the loins. 
Riggin', G. ridging, ridge. 
* I diwent ken my oan house 
Until I see the riggiri on't. 
Cheese an' breed is my door 

cheeks, 

And panceakks is the riggirH 
on't.' Old Song. 

Rig reapp, G. the chain or rope 

resting on the cart-saddle; the 

back-band. 
Rip, G. to swear ; a reprobate ; a 

horse of the worst description. 

' An oald rip of a horse.' 
Rip and tear, c., N. to swear 

and vociferate violently. 
Ripe, Rype, G. to search by 

force. 
Ripple, c. a slight scratch. 

Ris'ms, G. straws left on the 
stubbles. 

Rist, Rust, G. rest, repose. ' Rist 

ye a bit.' 
Rit, c., N. to cut the first line of 

a trench or drain, &c., with a 

spade ; a cart-rut. 



Rive, G. to tear; to vomit; to 
eat voraciously. ' Man, how 
they dud rive an' eat ! ' 

Rive-rags, c. a careless and head- 
strong person or child. 

Roan, G. the roe of fish. 
Roantree, Witchwood, G. the 

mountain ash Pyruz Aucu- 

paria. 

Rock, G. the distaff. 

Rockgairds, N.W. escorts or 
guards of the rock. When the 
custom existed (which fell into 
disuse about the beginning of 
the present century) of the young 
women meeting at each other's 
houses on winter evenings, with 
their rocks and spinning-wheels, 
the young men also went to 
conduct their favourites home, 
and to carry their wheels and 
rocks ; hence Rockgairds. The 
evenings were enlivened with 
song and story and other pas- 
times, and the party refreshed 
with roast potatoes and butter. 
If any one said she could not 
sing, the cry arose of preuv! 
preuv ! i. e. try ! try ! and any 
attempt was allowed as an ex- 
cuse. 

Roke, c., Raak, s.w., Rote, Rat, 

N. to scratch glass, &c., with a 

point. 
Room, c. instead of. 'He com 

in t' room of his f adder.' 
Roond, c., Rawwnd, s.w., Roon', 

N. round ; a circuit. ' Aa've 

been a lang roond to-day.' 

Roop't, E. hoarse with bawling. 
Roosty, c. rough in manner. 

Roughness, c., s.w. grass left for 
winterage. 

Rough, reet, E. a carpenter who 
works rough jobs ; an unskilled 
one. 

Round, c. large. ' Fetch a trug- 
ful o' round cwols, lass.' 



80 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



Rouser, a largo one. ' It's a 
roosan lee at is 't.' 

Eowe, c., N. roll. ' He's rowan' 

amang plenty.' 
Rowish, c., Raaish, s.w., N. 

rather raw. 
Bowk, o. the mist of the valley ; 

to search. ' Aa rowk't o' my 

pockets and could n't find ya 

plack.' 
Eowt, c., N. the prolonged roar 

of the cow. ' fiowtan' at t' yat.' 

Rojwth, c., N. abundance. 

' Rowth o' gear.' 
Royster, Goyster, c., N. to 

vociferate; to hully. 
Eozzel, c., s.w., Eozzet, N. resin; 

to heat strongly "before a fire. 

'Come in an' rozzel thy shins 

a hit.' 
Eozzel, c. to beat. 'Aa'l rozzel 

thy hack wid an esh stick.' 
Eub, c., N. rib. 
Eub on, c. to continue as usual. 

' How's o' at heamm. ? ' ' fiubban' 

on at f oald hat.' 

Eub t' wrang way o' t' hair, c. 

figuratively to irritate. When 
the hair of cats or dogs is rubbed 
upwards it causes angry feelings 
in them. 

Buck, c. the chief part; the 
majority. 

Ruckle, c. a crowd; a great 
number. 

Buckskin, c. riot, disturbance. 
Qy. from eruption. 

Bud, Buddie, c. soapy hematite 
iron ore used for marking sheep. 

Rue-bargain, G. an agreement 
cancelled by something given. 

Ruffel't-sark, c. a frilled shirt. 
See Cranky- sark. 

Ruft, E. the plot of ley ground to 
be ploughed in the year. 



Rug, c. to pull rudely. ' Rug at 
it, lad.' 

Ruinate, c. to reduce to ruin. 
Rule o' thoom, G. guess-work. 

Rum, G. droll, queer. 'He's a 
rum an'.' 

Rumbustical, c. rude, over- 
bearing. 

Eummel, G. rumble. 

Rummel buck, c. a riotous boy. 

Rummish, G. rummage, ransack ; 

rather droll. 
Rump and stump, G. entirely, 

completely. 

Rumpas, G. disturbance. 'They 
kick't up a rumpaa.' 

Rumplement, c, coarse materials ; 
disorder. 

Rump-neet, E. a night set apart 
for romping. 

Rumps, G. a game with marbles. 

Rumpshin, G. an affray; dis- 
turbance. 

Run a rig on, G. to banter ; to 
ridicule. In Lancashire, to trot 
out. 

Runbutter, Rumbutter, c. butter 
and sugar run together with 
spices and flavoured with rum. 
It is eaten by wives during their 
confinement ; and is offered to, 
and is expected to be partaken 
of, by visitors. The lady who 
first cuts into the bowl is pre- 
dicted to require a similar com- 
pliment. 

Runch, c. a hardy and thickset 
person or animal. 

Rung, c., Stap, G. the round 
step of a ladder or gate. 

Runner, G. a small stream. 

Runrig, Runnin' ceawel. See 
Turndale. 

Runt, G. an aged ox ; a strong 
and low-set man. 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



81 



'Russel, 'Rissel, o. to wrestle. 

Ruttle, G. a difficult breathing. 
' T' ruttle 'a in his throat and he's 
deean.' 

Ruwen, o., N. riven, torn. 

Rwoad, c., N. and E., Rooad, 

s.w. road. 
Rwosy, G. rosy, ruddy ; a rose. 

Ryle, s.w., Reyle, N. to vex ; to 

annoy. 
Ryne, G. rein; to fasten the 

horse by the rein. 
Ryner, c. a tapering augur. 
Rype, G. to search ; to examine 

under a search-warrant. 
Ryse, G. brushwood used in 

hedging. 
Rysel, c. a rollicking child. 

Ryve, c. to devour voraciously; 
to tear. 

Sackless, G. feeble, weak-minded, 
simple. The old meaning was 
guiltless. 

Sad, G. sodden, pasty, bad. 
' They gev us breed as sad as 
bull fiver.' 

Saddan, G. a sad or bad one. 

Safftree, Saughtree, N. a willow. 

Sag. See Swag. 

Saggy, c. a game with marbles. 

Saim, G. lard. 

Saim't, G. overcome with heat. 

Sal, G. shall. 

Salladin, c. the plant celandine, 

Chelidonium majus. 
Sallant, Sal n't, c., Saan't, s.w., 

Sannat, Sanna, N. shall not. 
Sam-cast, G. two or more ridges 

ploughed into one. 
Sampleth, G. a samplar. 
Sank, c. having sunk. 
Santer, G. saunter. 'An oald 

wife santer'= an unauthenticated 

tradition. 



Santerment, G. trifling employ- 
ment. 

Sap, Sappy, G. wet, rainy. 

Sap heed, G. a simpleton; soft- 
headed. 

Sapskull, G. a silly person. 

Sap whissle, G. a boy's whistle 
made from a green branch of 
sycamore or willow. 

Sare, Searr, G. sore ; very much. 
'He's sare worn.' 

Sark, G., Shnrt, E. a shirt. 
' Strypped hem nakyd to the 
sarke. ' Rom. of Bd. Cceur de 
Lion, 4553. 

Sarra, c., Sarr, s.w., Sarve, 
Serra, N. to bestow alms ; serve. 

Sarten, G. certain. ' Down to t' 
sarten ' restored to the original 
form. Said of a tumour or 
swelling. 

Sartenty, G. certainty. 'Kay, I 
could n't say for a sartenty.' 

Sary, N. poor, pitiable. 'He's 
down i' t' warl noo, sary man.' 

Sattle, N. a wooden sofa ; a settle 

or swab. 
Saucer een, N. large and full 

eyes. 
Sawer, G. taste or smell, savour. 

' It teasts oald savvor't.' 

Sawgeatt, G. the cut of a saw. 
Say, o., N. authority, influence. 

' He hes full say ower o'.' 
Say, G. to check ; to restrain. 

' I could n't say him, for he wad 

n't be said.' 

Scabble, c. to rough dress building 

stones. 
Scab't esh, c. an ash-tree having 

cancerous bark. 

Scale dish, E. a skimming-dish. 
Scallion, G. a thick-necked onion. 

Scantish, c. deficient, scarce. 
1 It's amak of scantish or scantly. ' 
6 



82 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



Scar, c., Sker, N. the mark of a 
healed wound ; a cicatrix. S. 

Scar, c., N. to frighten; scare; 
the rough gravel and stone beds 
on the shore of the Solway are 
called scare ; screes. 

Scar, c. shy, wild. ' Your cowt's 
parlish scar.' 

Sconce, c. the head. 
Scop, a. to hit. 

Scop, Spink, c., s.w., Flecky 
flocker, N. the chaffinch. 

Scope, c., s.w., Scap, N. the 
scalp. 

Scopperel, GK in veterinary sur- 
gery a seton. 

Scopy, o. thin of soil as is usual 
on the edge of a brow. 

Scotty kye, G. Scotch cattle or 
cows, 

Scout, Scour, G. a violent 
purging. 

Scowp, c. a tin or iron dish ; 
scope. ' Summat to scowp on ' 
something to spare. 

Scram, c., s.w. the hard rind of 
bacon or cheese. 

Scrammel, c. scramble. 
Scrapple, c. an iron scraper. 

Scrat, c., s.w., Scart, N. scratch; 
the itch ; a saving industrious 
person ; a female hermaphrodite 



Scree, c., s.w. the running debris 

on the side of a mountain. 
Scrimpy, c. pinched, mean. 
Scroby, c. mean, niggardly. 
Scrogs, G. stunted bushes. 

Scroo, c. a slide; the act of 
sliding. See Skurl. 

Scrowe, c. disorder, confusion, 
untidiness. Her house was in 
sec a scrowe as thou niwer saw.' 



Scrow-mally, Scra-mally, N. to 
scramble. 

Scrub, c. a small bundle of stiff 
birch twigs used for cleaning the 
inside of the porridge-pan. 

Scrub-grass, E. the Equisetitm 
or horse-tail plant used for 
scrubbing or polishing fire-irons, 
&c. 

Scug, E. an old word meaning 
the shade. 

Scumfish, c. to defeat a person 
or party ; discomfit. 

Scunner, E. to disdain. 

Scut, c. scud ; to make short 
runs. ' He can scut and run 
gaily fast til his dinner.' 

Scut, G. the tail of a hair or 
rabbit. 

Scutter, c. a bustling run with- 
out much speed. 

Scutty, c., s.w., Cutty, N. short. 

Seaff, G. safe, sure, certain. ' It's 
seaff to rain o' Sunday, 'cause it 
rain't o' Friday.' A belief 
hardly extinct. 

Seag, N. the Iris pseudacorus 
plant. See Mechin and Seg- 
gin. 

Seah, s.w. the sea. ' Leeaksta 
haww t' seah'a swarman' wi' 
gulls.' 

Seall co'er, c., Seall orier, N. 

an auctioneer. Within the pre- 
sent century it was customary 
for the parish clerk to announce 
to the congregation in the church- 
yard, after service, the sales to 
be held shortly ; and also to offer 
rewards for the recpvery of stolen 
goods or stray cattle, and other 
notices. ' I' th' kurk garth the 
clark co'cZ a sea//.' Anderson. 

Sea-mo, G. the gull. 
' Sea-mo, sea-mo, sits on t' sand ; 
Theer niver good weather when 
thou's on t' land.' 

Seap't sark, G. the best Sunday 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY 



83 



shirt. Down to the beginning 
of the present century common 
wearing things were washed with 
the dung of hens or pigs in lieu 
of soap. 

Seatt, c. the summit as, Bram- 

ley sedtt, eaallan, /Seafoller, 

&c. 
Sedw o', c. a contrivance for 

utilising candle-ends ; a save-all ; 

a niggardly person. 

Sec, o. such. See-like, G. such 

like. 
Seccan, Siccan, c. such. ' Selt- 

kan a fellow he is ! ' 
Seckin', G. hempen cloth of 

which sacks are made. 
See, G. to visit. ' You mun co' 

to see us when you come our 

way.' 

Seeah ! c. see you ! attend. 

Seeal, s.w. seal. 'Onder his 
hand and seeal.' 

Seed, c., N. saw ; did see. 

Seed hopper, c. the "basket from 

which com is sown. 
Seed sheet, c. the sheet from 

which corn is sown. 
eegh, N. sigh. 
Seein' glass, N. a mirror. 

Seek, G. sick ; ST. to bring. ' Seek 
the kye heamm.' 

Seek wife, G. a woman confined 

in child-bed. 
Seel, K, Saugh, N. the willow. 

'Seem, c. become or beseem. ' She 

does n't seem her new cap.' 
Seesta ! Sista, G. look ! seest 

thou! 
Seeter, c., s.w. a worn or frayed 

place in a garment. 
Seety, c., s.w., Seeghty, N. 

sighty, far-seeing, prudent. 
Seeve, c., Seeav, s.w., Rssh, 

Rus, Rusk, N, the rush. 



Seg, c., s.w. a callosity on the 
hand or foot ; a castrated bull. 

Seggin, c., N. See Mechin. 

Selt, G. sold. 

Semple, c. the contrary of gentle. 
' Gentle and semple ' in station 
and degree, are the people of 
quality and the commonalty, 

Sen', N. send. ' Sen 1 the cat out, 
hizzy.' 

Sen, c., s.w., Sin, Seyn, Syne, 
Sin-syne, N. since. 

Sennat, c. seven night ; a week. 

Serious, G., Sarioms, s.w. re- 
markable. ' It's a serious fine 
day.' ' Ey, it's sarious het.' 

Set, G. to appoint ; to fix ; to 
plant; to equal; to escort; to 
accompany. ' Set a day.' ' If 
he can n't bang thee he can set 
thee.' The cut of a potato to be 
planted. 

Set, G. to suffer or allow. ' She 
fell asleep and set t' fire out.' 

Set, G. to nauseate. ' It was sa 
nasty, it was fit to set a dog.' 

Set a feass, c. to grin or distort 
the countenance. At rustic 
sports a prize is occasionally 
given to the person who sets the 
most unseemly face through the 
opening of a horse-collar, as in a 
picture-frame. 

Set by, G. held in esteem. ' He's 
girtly set by hereaway.' 

Set down, c. a rebuke. 'She 
gave him a good set doivn.' 

Set'lins, G. -sediment. 

Set on, G. to employ. ' He set 
me on to work in t' garden.' 

Seton, c. a foreign substance in- 
serted in the dewlap of a cow to 
cause a discharge of matter. 

Set pot, G. a boiler set or fixed 
not movable on the fire. 

Set tail't horse, Cock tail't horse, 
G. The fashion was, about 1800 



84 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



and previously, to divide the 
under ligaments of the horse's 
tail, and to suspend the tail by 
pulleys and weights till the 
wounds healed and the tail had 
acquired an elevated and per- 
manent set. Some had the ears 
of their horses cropped as well. 
Both acts of great cruelty. 
Setten, c. set, appointed, com- 
menced. ' Tommy's setten up 
shopkeepin'.' 

Settle, G. a wooden sofa having 
a box below the seat. 

Settle-stearins, c., N. the curb- 
stones in a cow-house. 

Seunn and syne, G. soon and 
late. 

Shah off, G. to sneak away; to 
leave in disgrace. 

Shackle, c., Sheckle, N. the iron 
(formerly a willow) ring which 
slides upon the cow's restle. 

Shaf! c., Shaugh, N.W. an ex- 
pression denoting contempt. 



Shaff, Sheaff, c., Shceaf, s.w. a 
sheaf ; to bind a sheaf. 

Snaffles, Spaffles, c. a washy 
weak-legged creature. 

Shagrag, c. a mean person ; a 
vagabond. 

Shak, c., s.w., Shek, N. shake. 
' Shek a leg.' N. to dance. 

Shakky down, c. a makeshift 
bed on the floor. 

Shaks, c. 'Nea girt shahs' 
nothing to boast of. 

Shak't, Sheakk, c., N. shook, 
shaken, shake it. 

Shaktly, c. shaken ; of loose con- 
struction. 

Shally wally! c., s.w. an ex- 
pression of contempt. 

Sham, c., Shem, N., Sheamm, G. 
shame. 



Shangle, c. To shanyle a dog is to 
fasten a tin can to its tail and let 
him go. 

Shank pan, c., N. a small pan 
having a long handle. 

Shanknm nag-gum, Shanky 
naggy, G. the legs ; on foot. 
' He rides on shankum naggum.' 

Shap, c. offer; to set about. 
' How does he shap ? ' 

Shap, c., Sheapp, s.w., Shep, 
N. shape. 

Shaply, c. well-proportioned; of 
good appearance. 

Shaps, G. very light grain ; grain 
only in shape. 

Sharp, G. quick, active. 'Be 

sharp, lads ! ' 
Sharpin' corn, Smith corn, TTE. 

corn given to smiths for sharping 

the plough-irons formerly. 
Sharps, G. coarse flour containing 

bran. 
Sharp set'n, c. very hungry. 

Shawins, c., Sheawins, Shev- 

vins, jr. shavings. 
Shaw, Scaw, G. a natural copse 

of wood. 

Shawle, c., Shammel, N. to walk 
in a shuffling manner. ' He's a 
shdwwlan ill-geattit thing ! ' 

Shear, G. to reap with the sickle. 

Shearr, c., s.w., Shwor, N. reaped. 

'Sheen, c. a contraction of ma- 
chine. 

Shellcock, Stormoock, c., Shill- 

apple, N. the missel thrush. 
Shelly, c. an animal thinly made. 

Shelvins, Skelvins, c., s.w. Shil- 
vins, Skilvins, Skilbins, N. 
board or frames to raise the cart- 
sides with. 

Shepherd's book, c., E., s.w. a 
book wherein the marks of each 
owner's flock are pictured and 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



85 



recorded for identifying strays 
at the annual Shepherd's feasts. 

Shift, Skift, c., N. to remove. 
Shifty, G. apt at contrivance. 

Shill, G. to shell out ; to unshell ; 
cold, chill. 

Shillies, c., Shilla, s.w., Shellies, 
N. shore-gravel. 

S hilly shally, c. hesitating, 
trifling. 

Shindy, G. disturbance. ' Kick 
up a shindy.' 

Shinny, Scabskew, c., N., Catty, 
s.w. a boyish game ; also the 
crook-ended stick used in the 
game. 

Shippen, Shup'm, s.w. a cow- 
house. 

Shirk, G. a slippery character ; to 
avoid. ' He'll shirk a hard job 
if he can.' 

Shivver, c. slaty debris. 

Shoe-buckles, G. large silver or 
other buckles worn on the shoes 
about 1800. 

Shoeless horse, Unshoe the horse, 

c. I have heard the Botrychium 
Lunaria plant so called. W.D. 

Shog, G. to shake. 'He's shog- 
gan' wi' fat." 

Shog bog, G. a shaking bog. 

Shoo ! Hishoo ! G. terms used 
forcibly to drive away fowls. 
Aschewde, to drive away. 
Boucher. 

Shooar, s.w. shore. 'Let's ga 
dawwn to t' shooar an' hev a 
dook.' 

Shooder spaw, N. the shoulder- 
blade. 

Shooder spole, c. a shoulder-slip. 
Shool, c., N., Shooal, s.w. shovel. 

Shool web, N. the blade of a 
shovel or spade. 



Snoop, c., Choop, s.w.. N. the 

fruit of the wild rose. 
Shoor, c., Seur, s.w., Seer, 

Seurr, N. sure. 
Shoo swol, c. shoe sole. 

Shoot, C.,N., Shawwt, s.w. shout; 

to cry out ; to call. 
Shorpen, E. to shrivel leather or 

other substances by heat. 
Short, c., s.w., Shwort, N. 

crumbly like a rich cake ; 

peevish. 
Short ceakk, G. rich fruit cake. 

Short'nin', E. butter, fat, or drip- 
ping used in pastry. 
Short tongue't, G. said of one 

who lisps. 

Shot, G. a half-grown swine. 
Shot, G. the share of the bill at 

an inn. 

Shot, G. quit ; rid of. 
' Hey ho we ! fairly shot on her ! 
Buried his wife and danc't atop 

on her.' Old Song. 
Shot ice, c. ice frozen on a road 

or on the surface of the ground. 
Shot sheep or cattle, Shots, G. 

the refuse ; the leavings ; the 

worst. 
Shottelt, N. warped ; out of 

truth. 
Shrumps, c. shrimps. 

Shudder, c. to shiver ; a sudden 

decline in markets. 
Shuffle, Shuffle and cut, a, s.w. 

steps in old-fashioned dancing. 
Shuggy, N. a swing. 
Shun, c., Shoon, N. shoes. ' Shoon 

of cordewaine.' Chaucer, C. T. 

13662. 
Shut, G. a violent purging. 

Shut, G. to shoot ; to discard the 
worst of sheep or cattle from a 
drove. 

Shutten, c. shot. ' Yon fellow's 
8/mtten a hare.' 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



Shyve, c., N., Slysh, s.w. a slice. 
' Cut thy sel a shyve o' cheese 
an' breed an' eat it as thou 
gangs.' 

Sib, N. akin. 'Not often used. 

Sicker, ir. careful, safe, reliable. 
' He's a varra sicker body.' 

Bidders, c., s.w. Sheers, IT. scis- 
sors. 

Side, c. to decide ; the slope of a 
hill. 

Side-bank, G. sloping land. 

Side-boards, G. movable boards 
to set up on the sides of carts. 

Sidement, G. a putting of things 
to their places. 'We nobbet 
skiftit here this week an' hes n't 
gitten a aidement yet.' 

Side up, G. to put things to their 
places. 

Sidins, Sydlins, x. in the neigh- 
bourhood. ' He's geann to t' 
aidins o' Caarel.' 

Sight, G. a great number or 
quantity. ' Theer was a sight o' 
fwok at Eosley fair.' 

Sile trees, N. the timber roof- 
blades of a thatched clay house. 
The lower ends were placed on a 
dwarf wall, and being of curved 
oak the upper ends met at the 
ridge, and when erected they 
resembled a pair of whale's 
jaws. 

Sillaly, c., s.w. sillily, foolishly. 
Siller, N. silver. 
Sillican, G. a simpleton. 

Silly, N. a term of sympathy. 
' He's nobbet hed peer luck, 
silly man.' 

Simmer, N. summer. 
Simmon't, G. cemented. 
Sin, N. since. 

Sind down, c. to drink after 
eating. ' An' sind it down wi' 
good strang yal.' Old Song. 



Siplin', N. sapling; a seedling 

tree. 
Sista, c., s.w., Seesta, N. look ! 

see thou ! seest thou ! 

Sitten, G. sat. ' She'd Bitten o' t' 
efterneunn.' 

Sitten in, c. set in ; long un- 
washe . ' Fairly sitten in wi 
dirt.' 

Sitten land, c. grass land where 
the soil is stiff and unproductive 
through want of cultivation. 

Sitten to t' bottom, G. burnt in 

the pan. 
Skabscew, c. See Shinny. 

Skaitch, c. to "beat or thrash 

with a stick or rod. 
Skale, G. to spread about. 

Skarn, c., Sharn, s.w., Skairn, 
Shairn, N. fresh cow-dung. 

Skeall, G. a scale ; a shed or 
building on the fell. 

Skeapp greass, c. a graceless 

fellow. 

Skeatt, c. the skate-fish. 
Skeel, N. a large water-kit. 
Skeery, G., Skary, N. wild, feary. 

Skell, c. shell. ' Borrowdale nuts 

hes thin shells.' 
Skelly, Shelly, c. a fish found in 

Ulswater sometimes called the 

freshwater herring Corregonus 

fera of Cuvier. 

Skelp, c., N. to whip or beat ; to 
leap or run. ' He skelp't ower t' 
dykes and sowes like a mad 
greyhound.' 

Skelper, G. a large one. 

Skemmel, G. a long seat used in 
a farmer's kitchen. 

Sken, s.w. to squint. 

Skep, N. a basket made of straw 

or rushes ; a beehive. 
Skerr, N. a precipice. 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



87 



Skeybel, N. a good-for-nothing 

person. 
Skiander, c. to reproach severely; 

to scold ; to blow up. 
Skiar, c., s.w., Shiar, N. to skim ; 

to pour off from the settlings. 
Skidy, c. thin, slender. 

Skift, c., s.w. to shift; to re- 
move. 

Skilly, N. skilful ; having skill. 
'He's gay an' skilly at his trade.' 

Skipjack, c., N. threast-hone of 
the goose ; a dandified fellow. 

Skire, c. to skim. 

Skirl, G. to screech. 

Skit, G. to asperse by inuendo ; 
to cast reflections upon. 

Skite, c. diarrhoea in calves, &c. 

Skiwer, c., Shivver, N. to dis- 
perse by force ; to punish ; 

debris. 

Skoald, c., Skaald, s.w., Skole, 

Skaal, N. scold. 
Skode, c., Skaad, s.w., N. to 

scald. 
Skoder, c. scalder; the skin 

frayed with heat and friction 

during violent exercise. 
Skoggers, c. footless stockings 

wore for sleeves. 
Skonky, c. very slender and bare, 

especially about the head and 

neck chiefly applied to short- 

woolled sheep. 

Skons, N. scones, barley cakes. 

Skooder, c. to take great effect 
upon ; to bring down quickly. 
'Ned went a shuttin' an' he 
skooder't them down.' N. to burn 
a girdle cake in baking. 

Skoor, o., N., Skawer, s.w. scour, 

cleanse. 
Skowder, c. disorder. 

Skraffle, c. to scramble, dispute, 
struggle. ' He's hed a sare 



akraffle for a leevin', an' he 
skraffles an' disputes wid ivry 
body ; an' mair ner o' tudder he 
yance skraffelt ower t' wo' an' 
brak our worchat.' 
Skrapple, Corlak, Cwol skrat, 
c., Cowrak, Colrak, s.w., Col- 
rake, N. a tool to scrape with ; 
a coal-rake. 

Skreed, c. a narrow strip of cloth 
or land, &c. N. a long and 
monotonous harangue. 

Skreen, c., Settle, N. a wooden 
sofa. 

Skribe, o. to write ; to subscribe. 

' I niver hed t' skribe' t of a pen 

sent he went.' 
Skrike, c., N. to screech or 

scream. 

Skrike o' day, E. break of day. 
Skrimmish, c., N., Skrnmmidge, 

N. skirmish, scrimmage. 

Skrim'py, G. scanty, mean; 
pinched hospitality. 

Skrowe, c., Skrowmally, N. dis- 
turbance, riot. 

Skrudge, N. to sqiieeze; to rub 

hard as in scouring. 
Skruf o' t' neck, G. the nape of 

the neck. 
Skruffins, N. scrapings from a pan 

in which sowens have been 

boiled. Ruffians. Srockett. 

Skruffle, G. a fight in a crowd. 
Skrunty, G. dwarfish. 'A 
skrunty besom ' one far worn. 

'Skry, c. descry ; to discover ; 
find out. ' Jemmy skry't 'am 
makkan off wid his plunder.' 

Skuff, Cuff, c., K. the hind part 

of the neck. 
Skufter, G. hurry. ' He com in 

sek a skufter 'at he fell and brak 

his shins.' 

Skumfish, G. to disable ; put 
, down ; suffocate, discomfit. 



88 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



Skunner, N. to loathe. 
Skunsh, c. a rubble quoin. 
Skurl, Q., Sliar, N. to slide on 
the ice in clogs. 

Skurrick, Skuddick, Skollick, 

c. used to denote something of 
the very lowest value. ' Nay, 
I'll nut give a skurrick mair.' 

Skurry, c. bustling hurry. 

Skybel, N. a lazy fellow ; an oak 

twig. 
Skyfa, c., Scrimpy, of pinched 

pattern. 

Slaa, S.w. slow. 

Slack, a. a shallow dell. 

Slack, a. slow, loose, hollow; 
not filled. 'Slack at a pinch' 
giving way when most needed. 

Slafter, c., s.w., Slaghter, N. 
slaughter ; the aggregate of the 
hides and skins taken off in one 
establishment. ' Tanner Tom's 
bought Butcher Bob slafter for a 
heall year.' 

Slagger, c., s.w. to loiter; to be 
untidy ; N. to scatter. 

Slagger, s.w. applied to a soft 
sandy place or other soft sub- 
stance. 

Slain, c., s.w. blighted. 

Slaister, c. to cut up ; to dis- 
figure. 'He gat a slaisterin' 
when he fought wi' Jock.' 

Slake, c. to besmear; bedaub 
slightly ; a slight rubbing. 

Slam, c. to win the rubber at 
whist before the adversaries make 
a score ; to win all the tricks. 

Slant, G., Slent, N. to teU un- 
truths. 

Slap, G. to beat with the open 

hand. 

Slape, o. slippery. 
Slape-clogs, o. one whose word 



is not to be relied on. 'He's 

nobbet a slape clogs.' 
Slape finger't, G. guilty of pil- 
fering ; apt to let things fall out 

of hand. 
Slape guttit, G. subject to attacks 

of diarrhoea. 
Slape shod, G. A horse is slape 

shod when his shoes are worn 

smooth. 
Slapper, G. something large. A 

girt slapper.' 
Slare, c. to saunter. N. to be 

careless. 

Slashy, Clashy, G. wet and dirty. 
Slat, G. slit, split. 
Slatch, E. a lazy vagabond; a 

term of reproach. 
Slatter, G. to spill. ' Slattenj 

weather ! ' ' Ey, slushy, varra.' 
Slatter (long). See Out. 
Slawer, G., Slewer, N. saliva. 

Slea tree, c., Sleaa tree, s.w., 
Slee tree, N. the sloe-tree. 

Slea worm, c., N., Sleaa worm, 
s.w. 'the so-called blind worm, 
slo-worm. 

Sleakk, N. to quench; to abate. 

Sleatt, G., Skleatt, N. slate. 

Sleek, G. small coal; to slack 
lime, &c. 

Sleek trough, G. a blacksmith's 
cooling trough. 

Sled, G. a sledge. 

Sledder geggin, c. a sauntering 
slovenly person. 

Sledder, Sledge, c., N.E. to 
saunter ; to walk lazily. 

Slem, c., s.w. to slight ; to per- 
form carelessly. 

Slew, c. to turn partly round. 
' Slew that kist round a bit.' 

Slew't, c. partly intoxicated. 

Slidder, c. to slip down to some 
distance; the sliding of wet 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



89 



earth. ' And to a drunken man 
the way is slider.' Chaucer. 

Sling, G. to move by long and 
steady strides. ' He slings ower t' 
grand at a girt rate.' 

Slinge, c., Slink, Slank, N. to 

walk away abjectly. 
Slink cofe, c. a cast calf. 

Slip, o. to slide ; to go quickly 
and quietly. ' Slip away for 
some watter, lass.' 

Slipe, o., K. to unreof a building ; 
to abscond; an old-fashioned 
desk having a sloping lid. 

Slipe, c. to convey away ; to steal. 
' Cush ! if they hev n't slipe't 
my geese ageann ! ' 

Slipe, c., Sleype, N.W. to sweep 
off hastily. 

Slitch, s.w. the mud on the shores 
of an estuary ; silt. 

Slither, K. to slip or slide on wet 
ground. 

Slobber, c. to weep with many 
tears. 'He slobber't an' yool't 
like a barn.' 

Slocken, G. to quench thirst; to 
slack lime. 

' T th' chimlay neuk some gay good 

hawns (hands) 
An' gayly ill to slokken, 
Fell tea wi' poddingers an' cans 
An' few*t weel to git drukken.' 
Mark Lonsdales ' Upshot.' 

Slodder, Sladder, Sladderment, 
C. mud, filth, mire. 

Slorp, N. the noise made in sup- 
ping with a spoon, or in care- 
lessly drinking from a glass, and 
drawing in air at the same time. 

Slot, c. a door-bolt or a wooden 
cross-bar ; a quarryman's term 
for a wedge-shaped block of 
stone in situ ; a drainer's term 
for a fall of earth from the side 
of his drain. 



Slotch, c. to walk heavily as a 
cart-horse does. 

Slowdy, c. untidy. 

Slowmy, G. soft and weak straw 

which has been laid or lodged 

while growing. 

Slowpy, c. sloppy, muddy; soft 
as mud. 

Slur, G. to do things ineffect- 
ively to ' slur them ower.' 

Slush, G. slops; thin mud; snow 
broth ; a dirty person. 

Smack, G. quick. ' He ran down 
like smack.' 

Smack, c., N. to whip ; the sound 
of a hearty kiss. ' Wi' kisses et 
soundit like t' sneck of a yat.' 
Anderson. 

Smash, G. to break. ' He smash't 

it to atoms.' 
Smasher, G. anything large and 

powerful. 

Smatch, G. a smattering. 'He'd 
a smatch of o' things and was 
clever at nin.' 

Smeer, Smeur, w. to anoint, be- 
smear, smother. 

Smeeth, c., Smee, N. smooth. 
Smell a rat, G. to suspect. 

Smit, c., Ruddle, s.w. the coloured 
mark of ownery put upon sheep. 

Smithers, c. small fragments. 

' It was o' brokken to smithers.' 
Smittle, G. infectious, sure. ' It's 

as smittle as t' scab.' ' Yon whin 

bed's varra smittle for hoddin' a 

hare.' 

Smoot, c., Smute, s.w., Smoot 
hole, N. a hole to creep through ; 
the act of creeping through a 
hole. ' A hare smoot.' 

Smudder, c., Smoor, G., Smeur, 

N. smother. A number of sheep 
were smothered in the snow on 
the 26th May, 1860, and a tup 
was released from a drift at Gow- 



90 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. ' 



barrow with, maggots in his 
back. 

Smug, Smush, c. smart ; tidily 

dressed. 
Smuly, c. smooth spoken but 

deceptive. 
Smutty, G. funny and somewhat 

indelicate. ' He telt sly smutty 

stwories an' meadd them o' laugh.' 

Anderson. 

Snack, G. a lunch ; a short meal. 
' Five mealls a day and a snack 
at gangan' to bed. Borrowdale 
letter. 

Snacks, G. shares. 'We'll ga' 
snacks if we win ought.' 

Snaffles, Spaffles, G. a weak but 

healthy person. 
Snaf Ian', G. trifling. 
Snags, c. projecting ends where 

branches have been cut off 

trees. 

Snap, G. a gingerbread cake about 
the size of a crown piece. 

Snape, G. to curb, restrain, snub. 
' Our taty tops gat a snapin' wi' 
frost.' 

Snapper, c. to hit the ground 
with the toe in walking. 

Snappy, c. short-tempered. 

Snar, E. cross-tempered, unsoci- 
able, currish. 

Snar, Snarl, G. snare. 

Snarl knot, G. a knot that can- 
not be drawn loose. 

Sneck, G. a latch; a hitch or 
stop. 

Sneck drawer, c. a covetous 
person. Formerly one who 
draws the string and lifts the 
latch of the door and enters 
without ceremony. 

Snecket, N. the latch-string. 

Sneck hay, c. hunger. When a 
horse stands tied outside a door 



it is said to eat sneck hay, i. e. 
hunger. 

Sneck posset, G. a disappoint- 
ment commonly applied to 
suitors who are not admitted. 

Sneer, G. snort. ' If a horse 
sneers efter he coughs he's nut 
brokken windit.' 

Snell, N. a sharp biting wind is a 
snell blast. ' Here a sharp mwor- 
nin', John.' ' Ey, as snell as a 
stepmother's breath.' 

Snerls, c. nostrils. 

Snerp, c., Snarl, a. a snare. 

Snerp't, c., Snarl't, G. caught in 
a snare ; tightened, contracted. 

Snerp up, c. to draw together 
like the mouth of a purse. 

Snert, G. laughter suppressed 
with difficulty is snertan'. 

Snew, c., N., Snaat, s.w. snowed. 

Sneyp, K.W. snipe. See Ham- 
merbleat. 

Snick, c. to clip a sheep, &c., in 

uneven ridges. 
Snifter, c. to inhale sharply 

through the nostrils. ' In a 

snifter' as quickly done as a 

snifter. 

SnigVG. to drag timber by horse 
and chain ; to lop the branches 
off fallen timber. 

Snip feasst, Snip't, o. having a 
white streak down the face. 

Snite, E. to blow the nose. Sax. 

'He snitit his nwose wid his 

finger and tjioom.' 
Sno-broth, c., N., Snaa-broth, 

s.w. half-dissolved snow. 
Snod, G. smooth, velvety. ' As 

snod as a mowdywarp.' 

Snoot band, c., Neb-plate, ST. 
the iron plate on the toe of a 
clog. 

Snooze, Snoozle, c., Snews, N. 
half-sleeping. 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



Snork, c. to noisily inhale through 

the nose. 
Snot, &. the thick mucous from 

the nose. 
Snotter, c., JT. to "blubber. 

' Snotter an' yool ' blubber and 

cry. 
Snotty, G. mean. 'He's a laal 

snotty cur of a fellow.' 
Snowk, c. to work with the 

snout as a pig or a mole does ; to 

act in an underhand way. 
Snuffle, c., s.w., Sneevel, N. to 

speak through the nose. 
Snuffles, G. a cold affecting the 

nasal organs. 
Snurl't, c. drawn together; 

shrunk. 
So, c., So, Saa, s.w., w. to sow 

corn, &c. 
Sobby, Soddy, Soggy, c. bulky 

and heavy as a sod. 
Sock, G. a ploughshare. 
Softish, Softly, G. a term of com- 
parison. ' A softish mwornin'.' 

' Ey, it rayder weets.' 
Soft soder, G. flattery. 
Soil, G. to feed cattle, &c., on 

green food in the houses in 

summer. 
Solid, G. an occasional substitute 

for solemn. 
Sonks, N. turves used instead of 

saddles, and girthed with hay- 

bands. 

Sonsy, N. lucky, full, generous. 
Sonsy, G. stout and heavy; 

plump. 

Soo, c., Sough, N. the distant 

sighing or surging of the wind 

or sea. 
Sooa, c., s.w. so ; be quiet ; let 

alone. This word is often doubled, 

as, soou sooa ! 
Sooals, c. a swivel joint in a 

chain, commonly termed a pair 

of 



Sooins, G. sowens; pottage of 
oatmeal dust. 

Soond, c , Sawwnd, s.w., Soon', 

N. sound. 
Soop, c., Soup, N. to sweep. 

Soo pie, c., N. supple, flexible; 
the second half of a flail. 

Soopple jack, c. a pliant and 
knotted West Indian walking- 
stick. 

Sooren, c. to become sour; 
leaven. 

Soor dockin', a. wild sorrel 
Rumex ascttosa. 

Soor milk, c., N., Sawwer milk, 
Chern't milk, s.w. butter-milk. 

Sop, c., s.w. a tuft of weeds or 
grass, fec. ; a body of blacklead 
in situ. 

Sop, Boss, c., Waze, Weeze, N. 
a milkmaid's cushion for the 
head. 

Sose, Saas, N. sauce, impertin- 

ence. 
Sositer, c., Saasiter, s.w., N. 

sausage. 
Soss, c., N. to plunge into water ; 

to fall heavily. ' He fell wid a 

soss like a wet seek.' 

Sotter, G. the noise or sound of 

boiling pottage, &c. 
Souse, G. to wet a person copiously. 

Souse, c. something very sour. 
' Sour as souse.' [/Souse is brine, 
pickle. Hence soused gurnet, i. e. 
pickled gurnet (Halliwell). 



Sowder, Sowderment, c. a mix- 
ture by a bungling cook. ' Sec 
a sowder Betty meidd.' Old 
Song. 

Sowe, c., Seugh, jr., Poo', s.w. a 
wide and watery ditch. 

Sowpy, c., JT. soft, spongy, watery. 

Sowt, G. the joint-ill in lambs 
and calves. 



92 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



Sowt, Soght, N. sought, brought. 

' Jimmy's soght the keye heamm.' 
Spak, Speakk, c., s.w., Spok, N. 

spoke, spake. 
Spang, c., N. to leap ; to spring ; 

to span. 
Spanghue, c., Spangwhew, N. 

to pitch up violently. 
Spangles, c. the spade suit of 

cards. 
Spang't, o. blotched. ' A spantft 

cow.' 
Spanker, G. a tall and active 

young person; a fast-going 

horse. 
Spankin', c. a beating. 

Span new, Splinter new, Spang- 
fire new, Spick-and-span new, 
c. never having been used. 

Spare rib, G. the vertebrae and 
ribs of pork. 

Spatterdashes, Spats, Splatter- 
dashes, c. gaiters. 

Speaddin', c. a trench of one 
spade in depth. 

Speall, Spell, G. a chip; a 
splinter. 

Speann, G. to wean. 

Speatt, c., Spete, N. a sudden 
and heavy fall of rain ; a water- 
spout. ' A spedtt o' rain.' 

Speaw, c. to castrate a female 
animal. 

Specks, Speckets, Spenticles, 
Glasses, G. spectacles. 

Speer, N. enquire. ' Speer at 
him ' ask him. 

Spekes, c., N., Speeaks, s.w. 
wheel- spokes. 

Spelk, c., N. a splint ; rib of a 
basket; a rod to fasten down 
thatch. 

Spelk hen, G. the hen paid an- 
nually to the lord of the manor 
for liberty to cut spelks in the 
lord's woods. 



Spell, G. a turn of work, &c. 
' Let's tak a spell at kernin'.' 

Spetch, e. a patch on a shoe, &c. 

Speyther wob,. N. the spider's 
web. 

Spice wife, G. a hawker of ginger- 
bread, &c. 

Spiddick, c. spigot. 

Spider shanks, o. one having 
very slender legs. 

Spile, c. the vent-peg of a cask ; 
a stake. 

Spinjy, c. greedy, stingy. 

Spink. See Scop. 

Spinnel, G. spindle. 'Our wheat's 

spinnellari up and gaan to shut ' 

(shoot). 
Spirin', E. piercing, penetrating. 

Applied to a cold and rainless 

wind; droughty. 
Spirt, G. to eject a small quantity 

of saliva. Spurt, G. to eject a 

mouthful. ' He spurtit bacca 

slawer o' t' fleer ower.' 
Spirt, G. a short-lived energy. 

Spit, G. When the warning drops 
of a shower falls ' it rayder spits.'' 

Spite, G. defiance. 'It sal be 
done in spite of his teeth ' or in 
defiance of him. 

Spitten picter, c. a strong like- 
ness. ' Yon barn 's his varra 
spitten picter.' [I suspect spitten 
means pricked. One way of get- 
ting an exact copy of a drawing 
is to prick out the outline with 
apirf. TF.TF.-S.] 

Splat, c. had or did split. 

Splatter, G. to bespatter. 

Splitten, G. being split. 

Spluffan, N. a bag or pouch. 

Splutter, G. to speak too quick 
for distinct utterance. 

Spoalder, N. to stagger ; awkward 
in gait. ' He spoalder't like a 
new drop't fwol.' 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



93 



Spole, Spoalder, c. to partially 
separate the shoulder-blade of an 
animal from the chest. 

'Sponsible, &. responsible, sub- 
stantial. 

Spot, c. place of service. ' I 
gang to my spot at Martinmas.' 

Sprag, G. a clnbby lump of wood 
to put in a wheel to stop pro- 
gress. 

Sprent, Sprint, c. to sprinkle. 
A pen sprints when it scatters 
the ink over the paper. 

Sprinj't, E. half-starved; miser- 
able-looking. 

Sprint, Sprent, c. a snare for 

game birds. 
Sproag, c. a jaunt. ' Let's gang 

for a sproag.' 

Spunk, G. animation, spirit. 
Spunky, G. lively. 

Spurtle, w. a thin piece of wood 
used for turning cakes on a 
girdle ; an implement used in 
thatching. 

Spurtle, if. to kick with the feet 
as a child does when on the 
nurse's knee. 

Squab, c., Swab, N. an inferior 
sort of wooden sofa not having 
the seat-box of the settle. 

Square, G. true, correct, fit. 
'That breks nea squares' it 
does not disarrange the pre- 
cision. 

Squary, G. short and broad. 

Squirtle. See Swirtle. 

Stack, G. stuck. ' He stack in a 

bog.' 
Staddam, c. a dam or weir across 

a stream. 
Staff her din', N. herding cattle, 

&c. , by stealth in another man's 

pasture. 

Stag, G. a colt; a young game 
cock. 



Stagger, G. to confound ; to con- 
fuse. 

Stakker, G. stagger. 'He stak- 
ker't a bit an' than he fell.' 

Stand, c., s.w. a cattle grass. 

Standert, c. standard; the up- 
right against which the double 
barn-doors shut. 

Stand for, c. to become sponsor 
for. 

Stang, G., and Steng, N. a sting ; 
did sting ; a pole ; a cart- shaft. 

Stanger, c. the wasp. 

Stangin', G. men guilty of beating 
their wives have been forcibly 
hoisted astride of a pole or stang, 
and borne through the village 
in derision. Unwary travellers 
are entrapped on Christmas and 
New Year's days and threatened 
with the stang until they contri- 
bute a trifle to be spent in drink. 

Stank, c., Stenk, N. to groan 
short. ' Stankan' and greannan' 
as if he ail't summat.' 

Stank, Stenk, N. an artificial 
pond; water dammed ; a midden. 

Stap, G. stave of a tub ; step of a 
ladder. ' Tim's gone o' to staps ' 
= become insolvent. 

Stape up, c. to upset or over- 
turn. 

Stark, C., s.w. hide-bound; un- 
naturally stiff. 

Starken, s.w., Storken, N. to 
stiffen. 

Stark mad, Dancin' mad, G. in a 

towering passion. 
Stark neakk't, G., Sterk neakk't, 

N. entirely naked ; raw spirit. 
Stark weather, s.w. continued 

dry and cold north and east winds. 

Star sleet, c. frog spawn dropped 
on the ground. 

Start, t. the long handle of a 

wooden pail. Belg. 
Startle, G. Cattle startle when 



94 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



they erect their heads and tails, 
and gallop madly in hot weather 
through fear of the stinging 
flies. 

Starty, c., s.w. nervous ; subject 
to jump or start on alarm, 

'Statesman, c., s.w., Laird, K. 
the owner of an estate ; a yeo- 
man. 

Stayk, c., N. to wander listlessly ; 

to blunder. ' A girt staykan' 

fevOl ! ' 
Stay't, c. stayed, staid, sedate. 

Stayvel, Swayvel, c., Stevyel, if. 
to saunter like a person without 
employment. 

Stead, c. an unenclosed plot on 
a mountain or common on which 
certain parties have defined 
rights, as on Borrowdale, Wyth- 
burn, and other fells. (' Steed 
or Stede signifieth place, as stow 
also doeth. Verstegan.) 

Steaddlin', c., Stadlin', s.w. a 
foundation of straw or brush- 
wood, &c., for a corn or hay 
mow, to prevent damp rising. 
Formerly dry turves were most 
used. 

Steakk and ryse, o. the same as 
Cockgard. 

Steann, G. stone. 

Steanny, Steann't horse, c., N. 
stallion ; an entire horse. 

Steck, E. to resist ; to be obstin- 
ate or tetchy. 

Stee, G., and Stey, N. a ladder. 
Steedit, G. supplied. 

Steepin' rain, G. a very pene- 
trating rain. 

Steg, G. gander. 
Stencher, c. a staunchion. 

Stensh, c. strong, staunch. ' Hes 
ta gitten stensh ageann ? ' 

Stepmother bit, G. a scanty al- 
lowance. 



Steukk, if. a silly fellow. 
Steukk, c., Steek, N. to shut, 

close, fasten. ' Steukk that deur, 

lad.' 
Steiill, c., if., StC-eal, s.w. stool; 

to tiller ; to spread in growing. 
Stew, c., Stoor, s.w., x. dust. 
Stew, c., if. excitement, haste. 

'In a girt stew.' 
Stibble, N. stubble. 
Stick up for, G. to advocate. 

' He stack up weel for Tom.' 
Stickle, c. fright, alarm. ' In a 

parlish stickle.' 
Sticky, G. adhesive, clammy. 

Stiddy, G., and Studdy, N. steady; 

an anvil ; stithy. 
Stife, if. strong, sturdy, obstinate. 

Stife, E., Styth, c. foul air in a 
mine or quarry after blasting 
and adj. lusty. This last mean- 
ing is obsolete or nearly so. 

Stigh! His-stigh! c., N. terms 

used in driving pigs. 
Still, G. always. ' He still does 

that way.' 

Still an' on, c. yet, &c. ' Still 
an' on, tudder was better.' 

Stilt, G. the arm and handle of a 
plough; to walk in a stiff 
manner. 

Stinjy aal carl, N. cross-tempered 
old man. 

Stinkin' Roger, c. the knotted 
figwort Scrophularia nodosa. 

Stint, c., Stent, IT. to limit ; to 
send out to grass; a cattle- 
grass. 

Stir, c. bestir. 'Stir thy feet, 

Bob.' Excitement. 
Stirk, Stnrk, G. a yearling heifer 

or bullock. 
Stirran', c., s.w., Sturran', IT. 

stirring, active. ' He's a stirran' 

lad, yon.' 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



95 



Stirrup cup, G. the parting glass 

drank at the door. 
Stirrup oil, c. a heating with a 

strap. 
Sto, c., Staa, s.w., N. stall ; a 

surfeit. ' Plenty o' hutter wad 

sto a dog. ' 
Stob, G. stab ; a post or stake. 

Stomach, G. unbelief. ' I can't 

stomach that.' 
Stomachful, c. having a good 

appetite. 

Stoond, c., Stoon, N. astound ; to 
benumb ; the pain resulting from 
a blow. 

Stoor, c. dust blown about. 

Stoov't, Stuv't, c., Tov't, N. the 

ear-mark of a sheep by having 
the end of the ear cut off. 

Stop, G. to stay ; to stow or pack. 

' Stop them things into t' drawer.' 
Stope, c., Staap, s.w., N. to walk 

as in the dark. See Pope. 
Stoppan' spot, G. the limit. 

' Iv'ry thing hes a stoppan' spot 

bit time.' 

Storm, G. a continued heavy rain 
with wind.. 

Stormcock. See Shellcock. 

Storten, Storken, Starken, c. to 

stiffen; coagulate. 
Stot, G. a young ox. 

Stott, G., and Stutt, Stud, N. to 
bound as a sheep or deer does 
when jumping with all the feet 
together. 

Stotter, c., Stowter, N. to walk 
clumsily. 

Stowe, c., N. to place ; to cram. 
Stower, G. estover; a stake. 

Stower and yedder, c., s.w., 
Steakk and reyse, N. a mode of 
hedging. See Cockgard. 

Strakes, G. lengths of iron in 
former use for wheel tire. 



Strang, G. strong, fetid. ' Strang 
as rotten cheese.' 

Streak, Streaker, c., Straker, 
s.w. a straight-edged ruler used 
to sweep off the extra quantity 
from a measure of grain; a 
strike. 

Streek, Straik, G. to stretch ; lay 
out a corpse. In country places 
a streekin' is commonly followed 
by a tea-drinking and afternoon's 
gossip in a low tone, at the coze- 
house. 

Streemers, c., N., Streeamers, 
S.w. northern lights aurora 
horealis. 

'Streen, Streyn, G. to strain, sprain, 
distrain. When the compiler of 
this was removing to another 
residence, a friendly neighbour 
offered assistance, saying ' If 
you want any help at skiftin' 
you mun 'streen (distrain) on us.' 

Strenth o' men and pitchforks, 
c. power, influence. 

Strickle, G. a sanded piece of 
wood used for sharpening 
scythes. 

Striddle, G. and Struddle, N. 
stride, straddle. 

Strike street, c. to balance the 
matter even hands. 

Strikin' Snife, c., Choppin' knife, 
s.w., Chopper, sr. a butcher's 
cleaver. 

Strint, c., Strone, a term for the 
milk as it is drawn from the 
teat by the hand ; the smallest 
quantity. ' A strint o' milk.' 

Strip, G. to draw the after-milk- 
ings of cows. 

Strippins, G. the last of the 
milking. 

Stritch, c. to strut haughtily. 

Stritcher, G. stretcher; a softened 
term for an untruth. 

Stroke, c. a comparative term of 
augmentation. ' A good stroke 
o' biz'ness.' 



96 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



Stroke, c. step, measure. * He 
hes a lang stroke o' t' grand ' he 
takes long strides. 

Stroppan', G. strapping, tall, 

active. 
Strucken, G. stricken. 'Csesar, 

'tis strucken eight.' Shaksp. 

Stnmt, N. pet, sulks. 
Strunty, Strinty, c. dwarfish. 
Strwoan, E. to milk laboriously. 
Stub, c. to grub up. 

Stubs, c., Stumps, K. the old 
nails from a horse's shoe used 
for clog-nails. 

Studden, c. stood. 'Thou sud 
ha' studden up for us.' 

Stuffment, c., s.w. something 
worthless ; doubtful information. 

Stulp, c., Stoop, s.w., K. a gate- 
post ; the turning-post in a race. 

Stummer, G. stumble. 

Stump an' rump, G. the entirety. 
' He snap't it up stump an' rump.' 

Stumps, G. legs. 'Stir yer 
stumps.' 

Stunchy, G. short and stout. 
'It's a good laal stunch of a 
pwony.' 

Stunner, c., K. something extra- 
ordinary. 

Stur, G. stir, agitation. 

Stwory, G. story ; an untruth. 

'That's a atwory Til be bound 

for 't.' 

Styme, c., Steyme, w.w. used to 
express perfect darkness. ' Can 
n't see a styme.' 

Styne, Styan, c. a painful swell- 
ing on the eye-lid. 
Styth, c. a suffocating vapour. 

Suck! c., s.w. a call-note for 
calves. 

Suckam, c. the liquor that drains 
from a dung-heap ' middin 
tuckam.' 



Sucken, G. See Bond sucken. 

Suckeny land, E. moist land of 
good quality. 

Sud, G. should. 

Suddent, G. sudden ; should not. 

Sud ta, G. should thou. 'Thou sttd 
behave thy sel better 'at sud ta.' 

Suer, c., Seer, Seur, K. sure. 
' For suer ' for a certainty. 

Suller't, c. stuffed or choked up 
with cold. 

Summat, G. something, some- 
what. 

Summat-like, G. likely for the 
purpose; pretty or becoming. 
' Theer, that's summat-like ! ' 

Summer geatt, c. summer pastur- 
age. ' Our why was summer't 
on t' fell.' 

Sump, c. a puddle ; a hole at 
the bottom of a pit to collect 
water in. 

Sumph, N. a blockhead. 

Sunnyside, G. south side. When 
Hugh Hird, the Troutbeck giant, 
went on the king's summons to 
London, and was asked what he 
would like for dinner, he replied, 
'the sunny side of a wedder.' 
No one knowing the sunny side 
of an animal, the king ordered a 
sheep to be roasted, and Hugh 
ate the whole flesh at the meal. 

Sup, G. to sip ; an indefinite 
measure of liquids. 'A girt 
sup.' ' A laal sup.' ' A sup o* 
tea.' 

Sup, G. to take liquid food from 
a spoon. 

Swab, N. a wooden sofa, settle, or 
sattle. 

Swad, G. a pod. 

Swadder, c. to dabble in water. 

' Swadderan' like a duck in a 

puddle.' 
Swadderment, c. drink. 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



97 



Swadler, c. a methodist. 

Swag belly't, G. corpulent ; the 
lower part of the abdomen en- 
larged. 

Swag't, G. bent downwards in 
the centre. 

Swally, Swolly, N. to swallow. 

Swally whols, c., S welly whols, 
E. large funnel-shaped holes in 
the ground which swallow and 
sink the water. Usually seen at 
the outcrop of the cavernous 
limestone. 

Swamish, c., Sweemish, N. 

squeamish. 
Swang, o., N. a wet hollow ; did 

swing. 
Swanky, c. loosely put together ; 

inferior. 

Swap, Swop, G. exchange, barter. 
Swape, c. a lever ; pump-handle. 
Swarf, c. to swoon. 

Swarmel, s.w. to creep along a 
pole or up a tree ; to scramble. 
A clergyman, near Bootle, in- 
quired of a boy for a place to 
cross a swollen stream, and being 
shown a pole laid across, he 
hesitated to venture, when the 
boy said ' Myfadder swarmeVt it, 
and I swarmeVt it, and can n't 
thaww swarmeft tu ? ' 

Swarth, c. the skin of hams and 
bacon ; sward ; the ghost of a 
dying person. 

Swash, c. wet stuff! 

Swat, c. a heavy fall. ' He fell 

wid a swat like a wet seek.' 
Swat, c. sit. ' Come in, and 

swat ye a bit.' 
Swat, c. See Coo swat. 
Swatch, c. a bill-book. 
Swatch, c. a sample or pattern. 

' O' of a swatch ' all alike. 
Swatter, c. to indulge in drink ; 

drink. 



Swattle, N. to waste-; and c. to 
sip intoxicating beverages. 

Swayth, c., s.w., Sweeth, N. the 
line of grass thrown off the 
scythe. 

Swayth boke, G. the visible line 
of higher grass between the 
swayths of a mown field. 

Swayve, E. to pass backwards 
and forwards. 

Swayvel, G. to walk unsteadily. 

Swayvlin', G. a weak and un- 
steady walking person. 

Sweel, c., N. to burn swiftly with 
flame ; the melting of a lighted 
candle in a draught. 

Sweels o' laughin', c. peals of 

laughter. 

Sweepless, E. ignorant. 
Sweep't, G., andSoop't, N. swept. 
Sweet, G. perspiration, sweat. 
Sweet mart, c., s.w. the marten- 
cat. This animal 'still exists 

sparingly in the Cumberland 

mountains. 1876. 
Swelt, c. to swoon. Sax. sweltan, 

to die. 
Swelter, c., N. to perspire 

copiously. ' O' in a swelter.' 
Swenn't, Swinn't, c., Shemmel't, 

N.E. twisted ; bent out of truth. 
Swet, c., s.w., Swat, s. did 

sweat. 
Swey, c., Shuggy, N. to sway ; 

swing. 
Swidder, c. to shiver with cold. 

' 0' in a swidder.' 
Swifts, G. See Garnwinnels. 
Swig, c. a long drink. ' Oald 

Dick could swig a quart at a 

wind.' See Wind. 
Swig swag, c. a pendulum. 
Swill, G. a rough basket. 
S wilier, s.w. a swill-maker. 
Swine bow, c. a bow hung on 
7 



98 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



the swine's neck to prevent it 
creeping through hedges. 

Swine creuh, N. a pig-sty; a 
dirty hull or house. ' Her house 
is na better ner a swine creuh.' 

Swine hull, o. a pig-sty. 

Swine ring, G. an iron ring in a 
swine's snout to prevent its rout- 
ing up the ground. 

Swine ringer, c. an officer ap- 
pointed by the lord of the 
manor's court. The following 
extract defines his duty. ' Meat 
(or fat) swine. We order that 
all the swine within Priestgate 
and "Workington shall be double 
rung and bowed before the 1st 
day of Novr. next.' 

Swine stnff, c. a collection of 
scraps and dish- washings, &c., 
kept in the swine-tub for pigs' 
food. 

Swine fthistle, c. sow-thistle 
Sonchus oleraceus. 

Swingle] tail, c. a smart dress- 
coat. 

Swingle tree, Swinglin, c., 
Swinnle tree, N. the wooden 
bar each plough-horse draws by. 

Swinje, c., Singe, N. to singe 
with fire. 

Swinjer, c. a great, an astounding 

assertion. 
Swipe, c. to sweep off or remove 

hastily ; to drink hurriedly to 

drink or sup the whole. 

S wiper, c. a hard drinker. 

Swirl, c., s.w., Swurl, N. to 
whirl round. 

Swirt, Swnrt, c., N. squirt; a 
syringe. 

Swirtle, Swurtle, c. to move 
quickly and tortuously as a small 
fish does in a shallow stream. 

Switch, c. a flexible twig used as 
a rod ; to whip. 



Switcher, G. any fast-going 

animal or thing. 
Switchin', c. a beating' with a 

switch or rod. 

Swol, c., Sooal, s.w., N. sole (of 

the foot, shoe, &c.). 
Swops, K. sups, messes. 

Swort, G. sort ; to select ; to 

arrange. 
Swum, c., Soom, N. swim. ' Can 

ta swum any P ' 

Swyke, c., s.w. a thin-made 
animal ; a worthless fellow. 

Sydle, c., N. to saunter ; to ap- 
proach sideways or obliquely in 
a fawning or coaxing manner. 

Sye, c., sr. a very small quantity. 
' Robin sank a well, and ther 
was n't a sye o' watter in 't.' 

Sye, G. a scythe. 

Syke, c., Seyk, N. a small wet 
hollow. 

Syle, G. a copious drip ; a strain- 
ing sieve ; to strain through a 
sieve. ' It syl't and bled,' after 
the manner of a syle. 

Syle brig, G. a frame for support- 
ing* the syle. 

Syle clout, c. economical house- 
wives do not always incur the 
cost of wire gauze, but substitute 
a linen cloth as a filter. 

Syme, G. a straw rope. 

Syne, c. to decant; drain off; to 
give up drawing milk from a 
cow, &c. 

Syne, Sinsyne, N. since. 'Auld 
lang syne.' Syn Chaucer. 

Syne ways, c. sundry ways. 
' They ran ivry yan syne ways' 

Sype, G. to drain off. 
Syper, G. a toper. 
Sypins, G. the last drops. 
Syre, 2*. a gutter or vennel; 
sewer. 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



99 



Syte, G. a great deal ' A syte o' 
fwok.' 

Syzel, G. to saunter ; to trifle. 

T', c., s.w. the. This article in 
its abridged form is scarcely used 
in the north of the county. See 
Preface. 

Ta, G. thou. ' Wilta I' = wilt 
thou ? 

Tab, c. the narrow end of a field, 
&c. ' Tab end.' 

Tack, c. a peculiar flavour or 
taste ; a taint. ' This yal hes a 
tack o' t' cask.' 

Tacks, c. tacket-nails. 

Ta-dea, c., s.w. to do. ' Sec a 
ta-dea /' = such work ! 

Taffle, c. to throw into disorder ; 
to perplex. ' It's a tafflan wind 
to-day.' ' Ey, it blows o' round 
yan.' 

Taffy, G. a weak-minded person ; 
a derisive term. 

Taffy, c., Claggum, N. treacle 
hardened by boiling ; toffy. 

Taffy joinin', c. a toffy club. 
Young people in the country 
sometimes assemble on a winter 
evening and subscribe a few 
pence each to buy treacle for 
making ' taffy,' and to enjoy the 
fun of slyly besmearing each 
other's faces. 

Tag, G., Taglet, E. the end. See 
Aglet. 

Taggelt, c. a vagabond. 

Taistrel, Waistrel, G. a person of 
vagabond life. 

Tak, c., s.w., Tek, Teak, N. take. 

Tak, c. a trick or lift in card-play- 
ing. 

Tak efter, G. to resemble. ' He 
taks efter t' f adder.' 



Takkan, c., s.w. taking, infec- 
tious. 

Takkin', c., s.w. hurried per- 
plexity. ' In a sad takkin'. ' 

Tak off, G. to mimic ; to ridicule; 
to abscond ; a satirist. ' Nea 
body likes him, for he's a fair tak 
off, and he talcs ivry body off : 
but if he does n't pay his debts 
he'll hev to tak his sel off or 
lang.' 

Tak on, G. to be much affected 
by a melancholy event. ' He take 
on sair ' is much distressed. 

Tak t' shine off, c. to spoil the 
appearance of; to excel. 'He 
teuk t' shine off o' t' rest.' 

Tak 't tul his sel, c. to apply an 
inuendo. 

Tak up wid, G. to associate with. 

Ta-mworn 'o mwornin, c. to-mor- 
row morning. 

Tan, G. to beat. ' Tan his hide 
for him.' 

Tang, G. a tine or grain of a fork ; 
a prong. 

Tangs, c., s.w., Tengs, Teangs, 

N. tongs, prongs. 

Tansy, N. a public-house ball. 
Tantrums, G. fits of passion. 

Taptire, N., E. waiting with great 
impatience. 

Targe, c. to thrash. 'He'll gi' 
thee a tarjin, my lad.' 

Tarn, G. a small lake. 
Tarnt, N. ill-natured. 

Tarrable, Taarble, N. terrible. 
This word is often used to indi- 
cate something extraordinary, as 
'tarrable nice,' ' tarrable hee,' 
' taarble low,' &0. 

Tart, G. sour, acid. 

Tassy, N. pleasant, nice. 



100 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



Tat, c., s.w. that. A fell-dale 
word exclusively, and nearly 
obsolete. 1860. 

Tath heaps, B. tufts of grass 
where cattle have dropped dung. 

Tathy grass, N. soft grass grow- 
ing under trees. 
Tatter, G. hurry. ' In a tatter. 1 

Tatter, o. to scold. 'She gev 
him a rare tatteran', for she's a 
fair tatters her sel.' 

Tatter can, G. a termagant; a 
kicking cow. 

Tattit, o. matted. See Cottit. 

'Taty an' point, G. People too 
poor or niggardly to buy flesh 
meat have been said to provide 
a very small piece of butter, or 
bacon fat, to place in the centre 
of the dinner- table ; and, having 
loaded their spoons with mashed 
potatoes, the diners were allowed 
to point towards but not to touch 
the morsel hence the name. 

'Taty ceakk, c. a frying-pan cake 
made of barley flour and pota- 
toes. 

Taty crab, G. the fruit of the 
potato. Abundant before 1836, 
and scarce since. 

'Taty hash, G. potato soup. 

Taty puddin', G. potatoes and 
groats boiled in a bag among 
broth. 

Taw, To, 

marble. 



c. a boy's favourite 



Tawpy, N. a silly person. 

Ta year, G. this year. 'She's 
deun lile wark ta year.' Ander- 
son. 

Teaa hegh ! G. on one side. ' It's 
o' o' teua hegh like granfadder 
wig.' 

Tetia, Teann, G. the one. 



Teaa, Teea, c., s.w., Tee, w. toe. 

Tea board, c. a wooden tea-tray 
usually of mahogany or wal- 
nutand formerly accounted a 
mark of gentility. 

Teadd pipe, c., Paddock peyp, 

N.W. the Equisetum arvense plant. 

Teah, Teuh, c., Tiv, N. to. ' Put 
f deer fraA' close the door. 
'He wad gang tiv o' t r merry- 
neets this winter.' 

Teakk efter, G. went after. ' He 
tedkk efter t' hare.' 

Teally pyet, G. a tell-tale; a be- 
trayer of secrets. 

Tear, G. to rally or bully. 

Tearan', G. tearing, careering. 
' Tearan' like a crazy thing.' 

Tearin', s.w. the rendering of a 
roof. 

Teatt, a very small quantity. ' A 
teatt o' woo'.' 

Teattit, G., Tatty, w. matted, un- 
combed. 

Teaw, c. to pick the bed-clothes 
in febrile delirium. 

Teazz, Teeas, G. toes. 

Teck, c., Tack, w. a stitch, 'A 
ttck i' time seaws nine.' 

Te-draw, Ten-draw, c., N. a place 

of resort ; a newsmonger's house ; 

a place of shelter. In Doomsday 

Book, a grove. 
Tee, c., Thaww, s.w. thee, thou. 

'Is tat fee, Bobby?' 

Tee, N. to tie; G. to fetter a 

cow's hind legs during milking. 
Teemfull, E. full to running over. 

Teen leatth, c., s.w. a tithe bam 

to store the tenths in. 
Teens, G. ' into t' teens' over 

twelve. 
Teeram, c., s.w., Tarm, Teann, 

N. term. 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



Tee-tak-up-o', c. a teetotum. 

Teethan', G. teething; getting 
teeth. 

Te-lick te-smack, c. as fast as 
possible. Generally applied to 
persons in the act of running. 

Tell, G. able to remember and 
tell of. ' I can tell sen' ther' was 
n't sec a thing as a shorthorn.' 
' He niver h'ard tell on 'i.' 

Telt, G. told. 

Tern, c., s.w., Thaim, N. them. 

Terns, G., Keamms, E. a hair 

sieve. 

Tep, c. a smart blow; a tap on 
the head. 

Teppy teazz, c. tips of the toes. 
Ter, G. a contraction of there. 

Tersy versy, N. topsy turvy ; in 
confusion or disorder. 

Te sel, c., s.w., Tey sel, ir. thy- 
self. This form is nearly obso- 
lete. 

Tetch, c., Steck, E. to be restive 
or obstinate. 

Te, Tull, c., s.w., Till, N. to. 

Teufet, c., Tewet, s.w., Pees- 
weep, N. the lapwing. 

Teiiff, c., Towgh, s.w., Teugh, N. 
tough. 

Teufish, Teufly, c. rather tough. 
Teu-fo', c. too-fall ; a lean-to shed. 

Teulment, c. good-humoured mis- 
chief. 

Teumm, Teem, c., N., Tceam, 
s.w. to pour out; empty. 

Teiinable, G. having a musical 
ear. 

Teurd, c., N. turd, excrement. 

Teuthwark, c., s.w., Teuthyik, 

N. tooth-ache. 



Teutle, c. to trifle. ' He tetitles 
an' daddies about o' t' day and 
gits laal or nought done.' 

Teutt Hill, c. an elevated place 
where watch was kept in times 
of danger. 

Teydins, N.W. tidings, news. 

Thack bottle, G. a bundle of 
thatch. 

Thack spelks, c. rods for secur- 
ing thatch with. 

Thack spittle, c., N. a tool used 
in thatching. 

Thack stopple, G. a handful of 
straw prepared for thatching. 

Thack, Theek, Theak, G. thatch ; 

to thatch. 

Than-abouts, G. about that time. 

Thank, c. obligation. 'He com 
i' niy thank an' I mun pay him 
weel.' 

Thar' ceakks, Tharth ceakks, 
B.C. thick cakes of barley or oat- 
meal and water, and baked on 
the hearth among the embers. 

Tharm, c. the material of which 
fiddle-strings are made. 

Tharth, E. reluctant, unwilling. 

That, G. so. 'I was that vex't 
I could ha' bitten t' side out of a 
butter-bowl.' 

That at' donnet, c. that evil one. 
That'n, G. that one. 

The dickins ! c. an exclamation 
of surprise; and also a kind of 
oath. 

Thee, c., s.w., Theye, N. thigh. 
Theek, G. to thatch. 

Theer, c., Thearr, s.w., Teer, 
Theer, N. there, there is. ' Here, 
lad, theer a penny for tha.' 



102 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



Thick, N. familiar, friendly. 
' Thick as inkle weavers.' 

Thick on 't, G. the major part. 
' She brought a heap o' kelter 
an' t' thick on 't o' hard gold.' 

Thick o' t' thrang, G. middle of 
the crowd ; busiest part or time. 

Thick set, &. low and strongly 
built. 

Thick skin't, G. not sensitive; 
unfeeling. In law contests a 
common saying is, ' T thicker 
skin hod f langer out' imply- 
ing that the heavier purse will 
win the suit. 

Thimmel, G. thimble. 

Thing, G. this word is used to 
express quality. ' If s good thing. 1 
' It's bad thing.' 

Thingamy, c., N. a contemptuous 
appellation. ' What is yon daft 
thingamy about ? ' 

Thing o' nought, G. a trifle ; not 
worth taking into account. 

Thingumbob, c., N. a useless and 
trifling ornament. 

Think me on, G. remind me. 

Think on, G. to remember; to 
keep in mind. 

Thinly, Thinnish, G. rather thin. 

Third man, G. an umpire between 
two arbitrators. 

Thirl, Thurl, N. to bore through- 
' "With a spere was thirled his 
brest bone.' Chaucer. 

Thirt-teen, Thurt-teen, G. cor- 
ruptions of thirteen. 

This-geatt, G. thus, in this way. 

This'n, Tis'n, G. this one; this 
thing. 

Thonky, E., c. mist and small 
t rain Donky. 



Thoo had 'n, thoo ! This form 
of speech is in frequent use, and 
especially for reproach. 

Thoo dud 'at dud ta, G. Thou 
did, that thou did. 

Thoo dud n't, dud ta ] A com- 
mon mode of questioning, and of 
expressing doubt or surprise at 
the same time. 

Thoom shag, c., N. bread and 
butter spread by the thumb. 

Thoo's, c., N., Thawws, s.w. thou 
shall. 'Wait and thoo' 8 hear o' 
about it.' 

Thoo's like, c., TS. thou must- 
' Thoo's like to come in.' 

Thought, G. a trifle. ' Skift on 
a thought, will ta ? ' 

Thought on, G. esteemed. ' He's 
girtly thought on about heamm.' 

Thrang, G. throng, busy. A com- 
mon saying is, ' Thrang as Throp 
wife.' Who was Throp ? 

Thrast, Thrist, G. thrtis. 

Threep doon, c., N. to persist in 
an assertion. ' He threeps me 
doon 'at aa dud say seah.' Sax. 
threpian to affirm positively. 

Threeplands, N. lands in dispute 
or debateable lands, generally on 
the borders of parishes. Bp. 
Nicolson. 

Threeptree, G. the wooden bar 
the two plough-horses are yoked 
to. 

Threesam' reel, N. a three reel. 

Threshwurt, c., Threshurt, N. 

threshold. 

Threve, c., Threeav, s.w. twenty- 
four sheaves of corn. 

Thribble, G. treble, three times. 
Thrimmel, Trimmel, G. tremble. 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



103 



Thrins, c. three at a birth. 

Tin-inter, Thrunter, c., s.w. a 

sheep of the third winter. 

Th.ro', c. a turning lathe ; to turn 
in a lathe. 

Thro', c., Dash, N. a flourish in 
writing thrown by a free hand. 

Throddy, c. plump ; well grown ; 
throughly. 

Throo leet, G. light all night; 
full moon. 

Throoly, G. portly. 

Throo other, c., Throo ither, N. 
mixed, confusion. 

Throos, Throo steanns, G. long 
stones passing through a rubble 
wall to bind it. 

Thropple, G. the windpipe. 

Throssan, c., s.w., Thrussan, N. 
thrust, thrusten. 

Throssan up, c. thick set; con- 
ceited. ' He's nobbet a throssan 
up thing.' 

Throssel, G. the thrush. 

Thruff, Thrufstan, c., Through, 

N. a flat tombstone. 

Thrummel't, N. crowded, con- 
fused. 

Thud, G. a heavy stroke with a 
dull sound. 

Thummel, E. thimble. 
Thummel pwok, E. See Huwel. 
Thumper, G. a great one. 

Thur, c., Theeas, s.w., Thir, N. 
these, those. 

Thurrans, c. these ones. 

Thwaite, Whate, G. a cleared 
space in a wood or wilderness. 
A very common termination to 
names of places. 



Thwol, E.G. Thole, to suffer. 

Thyvel, c., Poddish stick, s.w., 
Keall stick, N. a stick used for 
stirring the boiling pot. 

Tic-tac, c. tick of a clock ; a short 
period. ' Aa'll hev 't done in a 
tic-tac.' 

Tiddysom, N. tedious. 

Tiff, G. angry words passing. ' It 
was n't a fratch; it was nobbet a 
bit of a t iff. ' 

Tift, G. to pant. 

Tift, c. condition as regards health 
or spirits. ' He's i ; girt tift to- 
day.' 

Tig, G. to touch gently; a boy- 
ish play. 

Till, o., K. to. ' Put that door 
till.' ' Is ta gaan till f market ?' 

Tiller, c., s.w. to spread; to send 
out side shoots. 

Tilt, G. quickly. ' He went full 
tilt doonbank an' fell an' brak 
his nwose.' 

Timmer rearin', c., Timmer 
raisin', N. a festivity held on 
occasion of putting the roof tim- 
bers on a new building. 

Timmersom', c., K. timorous. 

Tine, N., Free, c. to shut up a 
pasture field till the grass grows 



Tinkler, G. tinker. 

Tip, G., and Teup, N. a tup. 

Tipe, o. to drink. ' Tipe 't up, 
man, we've plenty mair.' 

Tiper, c. a toper. 

Tirl't, N. unroofed; the thatch 
blown off. See Beuw. 

Tiry, c. tired, fatigued. 

Ti't, c. tied, bound, obliged. ' He 



104 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



was tft to gang an' tft to work 
when lie dud gang.' 

Ti't by t' teeth, G. cattle and 
sheep stray from, a bare pasture, 
but are tied by the teeth in a 
good one. 

Tite, G., Tit, K. soon. 'I'd as 
tite dea 't as nut' I'd as soon 
I'd rather. Sax. as tide. Icel. 
as tid. 

Tithe stopple, c. a conspicuous 
bunch of stubble on the tithe 
stook. 

Titter, G. sooner. ' Titter up co' 
tudder up.' The first who rises 
to call on the other. 

Titter, Q. rather. < I'd titter hev 't 
young 'an.' 

Tittermest, c. nearest, soonest. 
See Bain. 

Titty, N. sister. 

Tittyvate, G. to put into order; 
decorate ; fit out. 

Tizzik, c. a slight illness prevail- 
ing generally. ' It's a tizzik 'at's 
gangan' amang fwok.' 

Tizzy, N. a sixpence. Query, 
slang. 

T' laal an, c. the little one ; the 
child. 

Tod, G. a fox 

Toddle, G. to walk feebly like a 
child or an old person. 

Toft, G. a homestead. In a court 
book of the manor of Derwent- 
water, Gawan Wren was fined 
ten shillings about 1640 for 
having two fires on in one toft at 
the same time. Fuel scarce then ! 

Tokker, Togher, N. dowry, por- 
tion. 'He tokker 't his dowter 
wi' twenty pund.' 

Toller, c. to spc-.k loudly and 



roughly. ' Tollerari 1 like a mad 
bull.' ' 

Tom beagle, c. the cockchafer. 
Query, bom-beetle. 

Tome, c., Toom, N. a hair fishing- 
line. 

Tommaty taa, Tommy tee, c. the 

titmouse or torn tit. 

To-mworn o' mwornin', G. to- 
morrow morning. 

Tomy, c., Taamy, s.w., Toomy, 

N. that draws out like toasted 
cheese. 

Too, Ta, c., Thaww, s.w. thou. 

Tool, c., Thou'l, N. Thaww'l, 
S.w. thou wilt. 

Toom, y. a cord or string partly 
untwisted. 

Toon bull, c. a bull kept by turn 
in an agricultural village. ' He 
com rworan like a toon (town's) 
bull.' The custom is now ex- 
tinct. 

Toon geatt, G. the roadway 
through a village. 

Tooz, Thoo's, c., N., Thawwz, 
s.w. thou art. 

Toozle, c., N., Tawwzle, s.w. to 
ruffle; to pull about rudely; 
tussle. 

Top full, G. full to the top. 
' That fellow's top full o' mis- 
chief.' 

Top lad ! c., N. good boy ! an 
interjection of encouragement to 
a boy. 

Topmer, G. the one above the 
other; uppermost. 

Topper, G. one who excels. 

Toppin, G. the hair of the fore- 
head ; the crest of a fowl. 

Toppin peats, c., Flaks, ir. turf 
cut with the herbage on. The 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



105 



edges resemble a man's unkempt 
toppin. 

Top sark, Carrier sark, c. a 

loose overcoat of coarse grey 
woollen, much in use by farm 
servants in the first quarter of 
the 19th century. 

Topsman, a. the man in charge 
of a drove of cattle, &c. 

Top speadd, Tom speadd, c. a 

heavy spade for cutting sods 
only. 

Topsy turvy, G. in great dis- 
order; overturned. When the 
top side of the sward is turned 
down the turf side is uppermost, 
and hence topsy turvy or topside 
turfway, 

Top'taties, c., Terriers, N. tubers 
on the stems of potatoes. 

Toptire, c. towering passion; 
great disturbance. 

Torfer, c., s.w., Torfel, N. Torfet, 
E. to die ; to fail ; to be defeated. 

Torn, s.w. turn. ' Ga' rawwnd 
t' hawwse an' torn that aa'd 
caww back into t' faald.' 

Torrel. ' Ane kill quhair comes 
are dryed.' This word is now 
obsolete. It is given in the 
' Life and Miracles of Sancta 
Bega,' relating to an occurrence 
at Workington. 

To t' fwore, c. living, alive. ' Is 
tf oald man to f fwore?' 

Totter bog, c. a shaking bog. 

Tottle, E., Toddle, c. to walk 
feebly as a child does ; to go. 
' It's time to be toddlan' heamm.' 

Toucher, c. a near approach. 'It's 
as near as a toucher C 

Touchy, Touchious, G. easily 
offended. 

Towel, c. to beat. 'Rub him 
down with a yak towel.' 



Towertly, c., To'rtly, s.w. kindly. 
Towp, Towple, c., Cowp, s.w., N. 

to upset ; overturn. 
Towry lowry, G. all in disorder. , 

To year, T' year, G. this year. 
Nearly out of use. 

Toytle ower, c. to topple over; 
to upset. 

Traffic, c. lumber ; useless things. 
Traily, G. slovenly, lazily. 

Traipsy, Traips, c. a saunterer ; 
to saunter ; an untidy female. 

Tram, Trab, c. a long narrow 
field. 

Tramp, c., Tramper, N. a beggar ; 
a vagabond. ' On tramp ' in 
search of employment often an 
excuse for seeing the country 
and being maintained at the cost 
of some club or union, or with 
worse motives. 

Trantlements, c. useless trifles. 
' Laal trantlan' jobs and things.' _, 

Trape, c. to drag the dress in the 
dirt ; to walk in a slovenly man- 
ner. 

Trash, c. rubbish; to walk quickly 
over wet ground. ' Trashan' 
through thick and thin for a 
heall day togidder.' 

Trash't, G. fatigued. 
Travvish, c. traverse. 
Treak, N. an idle fellow. 

Treed, G. tread. 'Do n't treed 
o' my teazz.' 

Tret, N. treated. 

Trevally, N. disturbance, quarrel- 
ling. 

Trice, G. ' In a trice ' in a 
moment. 

Trig, c. tight, well filled' trig 
as an apple.' 



106 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



Trim, c. to beat or whip ; order ; 
condition. ' What trim is t' 
oald horse in t' year ? ' 

Trimmer, G. a neat one. 

Trinkams, G. trinkets; useless 
finery. 

Trinkle, c. trickle. 'Bleudd 
com trinklan' down his f eass like 
drops o' rain.' 

Trippet, c. a piece of wood used 
in a boy's game. ' Deed (dead) 
as a trippet. 

Trivet, c. a threefooted iron frame 
for supporting pans, &c., on the 
fire. ' As reet as a trivet ' per- 
fectly right. 

Trod, G. a footpath. 

Troff, c., Trowf, s.w., Trowh, y. 
a trough. 

Trolly bags, c., N. tripes. 
Trones, E. steelyards. 
Trooan, c., Trowan, N. truant. 
Trooin, c., Trowan, N. trowel. 

Troonce, c., N., Trawwnce, s.w. 
trounce ; to whip ; to punish ; 
to travel fast and far. ' Sec a 
trounce we've hed ower t' fells ! ' 

Trug, c., N. a wooden coal-box. 

Truncher, c. trencher ; a wooden 
platter. Long out of use. 

Trniilins, c. coals about the size 
of apples. 

Trunnel, c., s.w. the wooden 
wheel of a barrow ; trundle. 

Tnmnel pie, N. a pie made of the 
small entrails of a calf. 

T's it, c. it is it ; that is it. 
Tu, s.w. too. ' I's frae Oofa tu.' 
Tu, c. to tease ; annoy ; struggle. 



' He's hed a sare tu on't.' 
been a tusom barn.' 

Tudder, o. the other. 



He's 



Tukkan, Teann, c., s.w., Te-enn, 

N. taken. 

Tul, G., and Te, N. to. 
Tul't, c., s.w., Til't, N. to it. 

Tum'lan', c., s.w. tumbling. ' A 
turn' Ian stearin gedders nea moss.' 
Old Proverb. 

Tummel, G. tumble. 

Tummel car, c., N. the clumsy 
cart of old times, the axle of 
which revolved along with the 
wheels. 

Tummellan kist, E. a post-chaise. 

Tummins, c. rough cardings of 
wool. 

Turmet, c., N. turnip. (Barely 
turmap.) 

Turn, G. habit. ' He's of a nar- 
gangan' (greedy) turn.' 

'Turna, c., 'Torna, Laa man, s.w. 
'Turney, N. attorney. 

Turn deall, c., Runnin ceawel, 
N. In some undivided common 
fields the ownership of the par- 
cels changes annually in suc- 
cession. 

Turras, c., Torrs, s.w., Turrs, 
ST. turfs. ' Turnes, clods of earth.' 
Verstegan, 1634. 

Tush, c., N., Tosh, s.w. tusk. 
Tussle, G. a struggle ; contest. 
Twaddle, G. unmeaning talk. 

Twang, G. a pang of toothache; 
the sound of a stringed instru- 
ment ; the Scottish accent. 

Tweesom', N. two in company. 
' A compagnie of ladies, twey 
and twey.' Chaucer. 

Twig, G. to understand an ob- 
scure meaning. ' He aim't to 
puzzle me, but I twig't him.' 

Twill, c. quill. 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY- 



107 



Twilt, G., and Twult, N. a quilt ; 
to beat. 

Twine, c., Tweyn, N.W. to whine ; 
complain. ' She tiveyns an' twists 
on, peer aal body ! ' N. 

Twine, G. twist. 

Twiny, G. complaining, poorly. 
' She's nobbet varra twiny to- 
day.' 

Twing, c. a small scarlet-coloured 
insect, said by the superstitious 
to occasion fatal illness to cattle. 

T winter, G. a sheep of two win- 
ters. 

Twist, G. appetite. ' That fellow 

hes a famish twist.' 
Twit, c. to sneer at. 

Twitch, G. a cord twisted round 
the upper lip of an unruly horse 
as a holdfast. 

Twitchbell, E. the earwig. 

Twitter, c. edge. 'Just in a 
twitter ' on the very edge. 

Tyke, c., Teyk, N.W. an unruly 
fellow ; a dog. There is a tradi- 
tion of a Curwen of Workington 
Hall having shot a Howard of 
Corby in a duel on Carlisle sands 
during an assize meeting, for 
offensively using the word tyke 
to him. 

Tyl't, Tyl'd, s.w. toiled, wearied, 
annoyed. 

Tymerly, c. defective. 'It's a 
tymerly consarn it's badly put- 
ten togidder.' 

Udder, c., s.w., Ither, N. other. 

Udder geatts, N. otherwise, differ- 
ent. 

' When Hudibras, about to enter, 
Upon another gates adventure.' 

Butler. 

Um, G. a common note of assent 
pronounced with closed lips. 



Unbiddable, G. obstinate, untract- 
able. 

Uncanny, N. suspected of evil 
doings ; unruly ; difficult to deal 
with. 

Unfewsom', G. awkward, unbe- 
coming. 

Unket, Unco, N. strange, wonder, 
very. ' Uncuth, unknowne, it also 
sometimes signifieth a stranger.' 
Verstegan. 

Unkos, N. wonders, news. 

Unlick't cub, c. a rude and ignor- 
ant young person. 

Unlucky, c. mischievous. 'Yon's 
an unlucky brat of a lad.' 

Unpossable, G. impossible. 
Unreg'lar, G. irregular. 

Unsarra't, c., N., and Unserra't, 
N. not served. 

Unsayable, G. wilful, uncontrol- 
able. 

Up abeunn, G. above. 

Up and down, G. perfect. ' He's 
eb'm up an' down honest.' 

Upbank, G. uphill, upwards. 

Upboil, c. water springing in the 
bottom of a well or drain, and 
powerful enough to cause the 
appearance of boiling on the sur- 
face of the water. 

Up bringin', c. rearing, training. 

Up-hod, c. maintenance. 'He's 
of a parlish girt up-hod an' can 
swallow two basonf ulls o' poddish 
to t'. brekfast.' 

Up-hod, Uppoad, c., Up-had, 

N. uphold. 'Aa'll uphod ta' it's 
true.' 

Up-kest ; G. a reproach. 

Upo', c., N. upon. ' Out upo' 
tha for a good-to-nought ! ' 



108 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



Upper hand, &. advantage. 

Uppish, c. conceited; holding a 
high head. 

Tip ov end, G. upright, going 
about. ' Is 't wife up ov end yet ? ' 

Ups, c. fatigues. ' This het wea- 
ther an' hard wark fairly ups a 
body.' 

Upsett'n and doon thross'n, c., 

N. This phrase is used in identi- 
fying a person ; as, ' if s his varra 
sel upsetfn an' doon thross'n.' 

Upsides wid, c. to retaliate; to 
be revenged on. 

Uptak, G. lifting, finding. Aa 
fand his watch on t' rwoad and 
he ga' me summat for t' uptak.' 

Ur, Ir, c., N. are. ' Hoo ur ye?' 

Urlin, c. a dwarf or dwarfish 
thing. 

Url't, E. ill-thriven; stunted in 
growth. 

Urph, N. a dirty and diminutive 
person or child ; one of dwarfish 
growth. 

Urrant, c. are not. ' You urrant 

to gang to-day.' 
Us, a. me. ' Please give tis a 

lift, 

Usable, c. fit for use. 
Usefuller, G. more useful. 

Use money, Use brass, G. in- 
terest on money lent. 

Vallidom, c., s.w. the value. ' I 
wad n't give t' vallidom of an 
oald sang for o' t' set o' them.' 

Varjis, c. verjuice ' It's as sour 
as varjis.' 

Var'ly, Varraly, c. verily, truly. 

Varra, c., s.w., Varry, N. very. 
' It's het weather, varra /' 

Varra weel, G. very well. Often 



used in relating news, &c. 
' Varra wed than, I'll tell ye o' 
about it.' 

Varst, G. vast, a great number or 
quantity. 

Vayper, c., N. to caper; exult; 
vapour. ' A vayperan' feull.' 

Ventersom', G. adventurous, rash. 

Viewly, G. handsome; pleasing 

to look upon. 
Viewsom', G. comely ; of good 

appearance. 
Voag, c., N. repute. ' He's i' full 

voag noo.' 

Wa, G. we. '"We'll gang when 
wa like.' 

Wa, c. why, well. ' Wa noo 
than!' 

Wa, Wah, Wid, c., s.w., We, 
N. with. ' Gang wa Tom.' 

Waad, c., s.w., Weayd, N. wade. 
' An' theer's a lad ahint yon trees 
Wad weayd for me abeun the 

knees, 

So tell yer mind, or, gin ye please, 
Nea langer fash us heath, man.' 
Anderson. 

Waar, G. beware. 

Waar, c., s.w., Ware, N. to ex- 
pend. 

Waaw, Waww, c., Wawwl, s.w. 
the wail of an infant ; silly talk. 
' Wdiowan like a cat.' 

Wabble, Waddle, Waggle, G. to 
rock sideways in walking. 

Wad, G. would. ' Wad ta like 
to len' me a shillin' ?' 

Wad, c. blacklead. 

Wad eater, c. India rubber. 

Wad n't cud dea't, c., N. could 
not do it. 

Waff, Whaff, G. puff of wind; 
quiff. 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



109 



Waffish, Waffy, G. weakly, 
feeble. 

Waffle, tt. to waver; to be un- 
decided. 

Waffler, G. an unsteady person; 
one not to be depended on. 

Wag by t' wo', c. an old-fashion- 
ed clock without a case, and 
having the pendulum swinging 
exposed. 

Waggle, G. to shake ; to be un- 
steady. 

Waistrel, G. an idle wanderer. 

Waits, G. out-door Christmas 
musicians. 

Walker, G. a fuller of cloth. 
Much of the woollen weaving 
was formerly performed in coun- 
try places by hand. At that 
time small mills of rude con- 
struction, turned by water power, 
for walking cloth, were not 
scarce ; and their places still re- 
tain the name of Walk Mills. 
In still older times the walking 
was performed by tramping with 
the feet hence the term. 

Walking, G. a mason or quarry- 
man's method of moving a flag- 
stone on its end. 

Walla, c. weak ; faint from want 
or illness ; tasteless ; insipid. 

Wallet, G. a long bag open at the 
middle and closed at the ends for 
conveying marketing on horse- 
back. Out of use 1875. 

Wallop, c., N. to beat; to dangle 
loosely. 

Wammel, G. to walk with a rock- 
ing motion. ' Wammelari 1 like 
an eel.' 

Wan, G. won. 'Jackson wan 
f belt on Carel sands.' 

Wand, c., Wan, N. having wound ; 
did wind. 



Wandly, c. gently, quietly. 

Wandy, c. slim and flexible as a 
willow wand. 

Wankle, G. weak, feeble. ' Poor 
Jemmy ! he's varra wankle.' 

Wannel, N. lithe, agile, flexible. 
Wanter, G. a marriageable person. 

Wanty, a. deficient, imperfect, 
defective. 

Wap, c., N. to wrap or enfold ; a 
bundle of straw. 

Warang, W'rang, G. wrong. 

Seldom heard. 
Warble, G. the larva of the 

(Estrus lovis fly which is bred in 

the backs of cattle. 

War-board, c. a shop's counter, 
*. e. ware board. 

Wardays, G. the six work days 
of the week. 

Wareet, W'reet, G. right. Earely 
heard. 

Wark, G. ache, work. ' It's slow 
wark to sup buttermilk wid a 
pitchfork.' 

Wark fwok, G. labourers, work 
people. 

Warld, Waareld, c., s.w., Wnrl, 
Warl, N. world. 

Warm, G. to beat. 'Aa'll warm 
tha.' 

Warn, c. to bid to or give notice 
of a funeral. 

Warn, War'nt, G. to assure ; 
warrant. ' Aa's war'nt ta it is.' 

Warnin', c. the circuit invited to 
a funeral. 

Warridge, G. the withers of a 
horse. 

Warrishin', c. a great deal; 
abundance. ' A warrishin' o' 
sooins an' yal.' 



110 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



Warp, G. to lay eggs. 

Warse, Waar, o. worse. ' Warse 
and warse like Wprki'ton clark.' 
A common toast in former days 
was, ' May niwer w dar be amang 
us!' meaning both war and 
worse. 

Warsen, G. to grow worse. 

Warse ner git out, c. excessively 
bad ; something worse than being 
ordered out of the house. 

Wart grass, c. the plant Eu- 
phorbia Helioscopia or sun spurge, 

Warton, N.W. ! the village and 
township of Waverton. 

Was ter? G. was there; were 
there. 

Wasterledges, c. See Easter- 
mun-j lands. 

Wath, G. a ford through a stream. 

Watna, K. 'I watna what it is' 
I do not know what it is. 

Watter ask, G. a newt or water- 
lizard. 

Watter brash, c., N. a gushing 
overflow of saliva. 

Watter crashes, c. water-cress. 
Nasturtium officinale. 

Watter draw, Watter shed, G. 

the area within which water 
gathers towards one outlet. 

Watter dyke, N.W. a ditch or 
sowe wide and deep enough to 
form a fence. 

Watter gwoat, c. a place in a 
stream across which a rack or 
pole is placed to prevent cattle 
trespass; and the rack or pole 
itself ; a floodgate. 

Watter jags, c. one of the forms 
of varicella, or chicken poc. 

Watter jaw't, c. potatoes left too 
long in the water after being 
boiled are watter jaw't and spoilt. 



Watter kesh, c. the plant An- 
gelica sylvestris. 

Watter pyet, c. the water ousel. 

Watter stang, G. a pole fixed 
across a stream in lieu of a bridge 
or fence. 

Watter thistle, c. the Cnicus 
palustris plant. 

Watter twitch, G. the Agrostis 
vulgarii plant. 

Wattery like, G. appearance of 
rain coming. 

Wattery lonnin, c. a neglected 
lane where water is allowed to 
run along. Common formerly. 

Wattles, G. the gill appendages 
of a game cock. 

Waugh, G. the bark of a pup or 
whelp. 

Wax, G. to grow larger ; to swell 
out. 

Wax end, c. a shoemaker's waxed 
and bristled thread. 

Way, G. direction. ' He leevs 
someway out Wigton way.' 

Way, Wea, N. woe ; to be sorry. 

Ways me ! Wazes me ! exclama- 
tions of lament. Woe is me ! 

Waze, Weze, K. a ring cushion to 
place on the head for carrying 
weights upon. See Boss. 

Weal, c., Weeal. s.w., Wale, N. 
to select ; to pick out. 

Weamm, G. the womb, body. 

Buy ' A horse wid a wedmm 
An' a meer wi' neann.' 

Old Saying. 

Wear, N. to turn or stop cattle 
or sheep. 

Wearin' illness, c. consumption. 

Weary, c. tiresome, monotonous. 
'It's a weary rwoad to Warnel 
fell.' 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



Ill 



Weathered, G. a term for hay, 
&c., injured by being exposed to 
wet weather. 

Weather go, c. the end of a 

rainbow as seen in the morning 
in showery weather the sailor's 
warning. 

Weay, N. woe, pity. Ts weay 
for them, poor things ! ' 

Weayst, K. the waist ; waste. 

Webster, c., s.w., Wobster, N. a 
weaver of webs by hand. 

Wedder, G. weather; wedder 



Weddiners, G. a wedding-party. 

Weddit, c.,y., Wed't, s.w. wed- 
ded. 

Wee, c., N. little, small. 

Wee-ans, c., N. children, little 
ones. 

Weef an' stray, c. waif and stray; 
cattle, &c., gone astray, the 
owner not being known; vagrants 
without house or home. 

Weekiness, a. moisture. 

Weeky, a, w., Weaky, s.w. 
moist, juicy. 

Weel cum't, c. highly bred; of 
good lineage. 

Weet, c., N., Weeat, s.w. wet, 
rain. ' It weets fast.' 

Weet yer whissle, c., N. take a 
hearty drink. 

Weft, c. to beat. ' Aa'll give him 
a we/tin 1 some day.' 

Weg horned, c. horns unequally 
elevated. 

Well ink, c. the Veronica Becca- 
bunga plant. 

Welsh, c., s.w. insipid, watery, 
tasteless. 

Welt, c., s.w. to overturn; to 



upset. Butt welt to turn the 
huts of sheaves to the wind to 
dry. 

Welt, Whelt, Whelk, c. to beat. 

Welts, c. the ' rig and fur ' parts 
of the tops of stockings. 

Wend, c. to turn round. 

Wentit, c., Waintit, N. just turn- 
ing sour. 'Thunnery weather 
wents milk.' 

Went on, Q. talked. ' She scoaldit 
and went on at a parlish rate.' 

Wents, c. narrow lanes in Cock- 
ermouth, Workington, and other 
towns. 

We's, s.w. we shall. ' We'sga.' 
to Wastle Heead.' 

Wesh dub, c., s.w. the pool in 
which sheep are washed. 

Wesh foald, c., s.w. the sheep- 
fold near the washing-pool. 

Weshins, G. the water in which 
greasy dishes have been washed. 
IJsed for pigs' food. 

We 't, s.w. with it. ' He com 
w-C a cwoach.' 

Wet shod, G. feet wet in the 
shoes. 

Wey, Weyya, c., Wya, s.w., Wey, 
N. well, why ; notes of assent or 
dissent. ' IFey, yes.' ' Wey, 
no.' 

Weys, G. beam and scales ; weighs. 

Weyt, c., s.w. a vessel made like 
a tambourine, and used for lift- 
ing grain in the barn ; it is made 
of a sheep's skin covering a 
wooden hoop. 

Wezzan, c., s.w., Wizzan, N. the 
gullet. 

Whaa, s.w., Whee, Wheea, N. 

who. 
Whaa-iver, s.w., Whee-iver, K. 

whoever. 



112 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



Whack, G. a blow, thwack. 
Whacker, G. a large one. 

Whain, E. to rub or stroke in the 
direction the hair grows. ' He 
whain't his dog down t' back.' 

Whain, a to fawn. 'She com 
whainan* and wantan' help.' 

Whaker, o., N. quaker. 
Whale, G. to cudgel ; to beat. 
Whalin', G. a beating with a stick. 

Whamp, c. the wasp. ' Keen as 

a whamp' 
Whang, G. a lump. 'A whang 

o' cheese.' 
Whang, G. to throw; to hit; a 

leathern shoe-tie ; a strap used 

in stitching cart-harness; a 

thong. 

Whanger, G. a large one. 
Whap, G. a blow. 
Whapper, G. a large one. 

Wharl, c. a stone quarry ; a dis- 
used quarry. Seldom heard. 
Whart, N. quart. 

What, G. an often used expletive. 
' WTiat , Jemmy, how is ta ? ' 
* What, I's gaily, how's thou; 
an' what, how's o' at heamm ? ' 
' What, we 're o' middlin', aa 
think.' 

What'n? -s. what? ' What 1 n 
clock is 't?' 

What's smatter? c. what is the 

matter or reason ? 
Whaup, K. the curlew. 
Whay feasst, G. pale countenance. 
Wheea, K. who. < Wheea's that?' 
Wheelstrake, G. a portion of the 

iron rim of a wheel formerly 

applied in six lengths to each 

wheel. 

Wheen, Whun, N. an undefined 
number; a few. ' A whun sheep.' 



Wheezle, G. to breathe with diffi- 
culty. ' He lolieezles like a pursy 
horse.' 

Wheezy, G. breathing thickly. 

Wheg, E. a lump or thick slice. 
' A wheg o' cheese.' 

Whel, E. while, whilst. 
Whelk, c., N. to thump. 
Whelker, c., N. a large one. 

Whemmel, c. to overwhelm, 
overturn. 

Wheren't, c. milk overheated 
makes the curd and cheese hard 
and wheren't. 

Whets, c. flashes of wit. ' Sec 
whets we hed tudder neet.' 

Whew, c. haste. ' Sec a whew 

he's in!' 
Whewt, E. a thin flake of snow. 

' A few whewts o' snow.' 

Whewtle, c. a low modulated 
whistle. 

Whick, G. alive, quick. 
Whickflu, c. whitlow. 

Whick'nin', c. a small quantity 
of yeast sufficient to set a baking 
of bread to ferment ; quickening. 

Whicks, c., N. roots of couch- 
grass ; young thorns ; maggots. 

Whick't, c. fly-blown. 

Whidder, G. to shudder ; shiver ; 
tremble. 

Whidderer, G. a very large or 
powerful one. 

Whin 7 , G. quiff. 

Whiff, c., N. a transient view or 
glance. 

Whig, G. whey kept for drinking. 
If suffered to become sour, aro- 
matic herbs are steeped in it. 

Whigmaleery, c. anything showy 
and useless. 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



113 



While, Whel, c., Wheyle, K. 
until. ' Stay while I come back.' 

Whiles, c., Wheyles, N. some- 
times. ' Wliiles lie's here and 
whiles he's theer.' 

Whilk, G. which. 'While or 
whilk, which. (In the North of 
England they yet say ghuilke.' 
Verstegan, 1634.) 

Whilkan', c. which one ? 

WMllimer cheese, o. the poorest 
and hardest of cheese imputed 
to originate in the township of 
Whillimoor, but common over 
the county, and never known to 
strike fire on falling, except once, 
as mentioned in Martineau's 
Guide to the Lakes. 

Whim, c., Wheem, E. silent; 
quiet in speech or action; run- 
ning smoothly. 

Whimper, c. a low whine or cry. 
'Git away to bed barns, and 
niver a whimper' 

Whim wham, c. a fanciful trifle. 

Whin, c., s.w., Whim, N. the 
gorse or furze plant Ulex euro- 
pceus. 

Whin cowe, c., Whun cowe, N. 
a whin stem or branch. 

Whinge, to whine. 

Whinner, c., Whinny, s.w., 
Whunner, N. to neigh. 

Whintin, c. a dark-coloured slate 
found on Skiddaw. When struck 
it gives out sounds, and the 
celebrated ' musical stones ' are 
made of it. 

Whir, E.C. old and curdled but- 
termilk. 

Whirl bent, Star bent, o. the 

Juncus aquarrosus plant. 

Whishin ,dance, c. an old- 
fashioned dance in which a 
cushion is used to kneel upon. 



Whishin, c., Whushin, N. 
cushion. 

Whisht, c., s.w., Whush, N. 

hush, listen, quietly. ' As whisht 
as a mouse.' 

Whisk, c., Whusk, N. to move 
quickly. ' She com whiskan* 
bye like a fleean' thing.' 

Whisk, G. whist. 

White, c. quite ; to requite. ' Od 
white ta ! ' Gk>d requite thee. 

White, Whittle, c., s.w., Whey te, 
N.w. to whittle or cut a stick so 
that it is made white. 

Whitefish, c. flattery. 

Whither, N. to strike or throw 
forcibly. ' He girn't an' pick't 
his beanns wid his teeth, and 
than he whither't them onder t' 
grate.' 

Whither away? c. where are 
you going to ? 

Whittle, G. a knife. 

Whittlegate, c. Formerly clergy- 
men and schoolmasters had the 
privilege of using their whittles 
at the tables of their parishioners, 
at known and stated intervals, 
by way of helping out their 
scanty stipends. This custom 
prevailed till 1864, and ceased 
with the death of the school- 
master of Wasdale Head. 

Whiz, G. a hissing sound like the 
cooling of hot iron in water. 

Whizzer, G. a glaring untruth. 
' That is a whizzer ! ' 

Who, c., Whaa, s.w., Whe, 
Wheea, N. who. Across the 
centre of the county, from east 
to west, this word is pronounced 
according to the spelling, and 
not as conventionally spoken, 
hoo. 



Whoaraway, c., where. 
away hes ta been ? ' 



Whoar- 



114 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



Whop, c. to whip or strike. 
Whun, Whin, jr. few. 

Wimp-while, c. as frequent as 
the strokes of a well-applied 
whip. ' Iv'ry wh up-while.' 

Why, c., s.w., Wheye, N. heifer 
or quey. 

Why-i ! c. to cry out like a 
whipped dog. 

Wicker, E. a twig or small branch. 

Wid'am, c., Wi'am, s.w., 

Wud'am, N. with him. 
Widderful, c. peevish, irritable. 
Widdle, N. to fret, to complain. 

Widdy, c., Wuddy, N. withy; a 
band of platted willows, forming 
a bad apology for iron, in hanging 
gates, but often used in former 
days. 

Wide geattit, c. walking in 
a straddling manner; bandy 



Widness, Wideness, c., Weyd- 
ness, N.W. width. 

Wid-out, c., Wi'awte, s.w. with- 
out ; unless. ' Hell hev to gang 
wid-out Tom gangs for him. 

Wife day, c. On a birth occurring 
the neighbouring wives assemble 
at the house to tea, &c., as soon 
as the mother is able to receive 
company. 

Wild like, c. threatening wild 
weather. 

Wile, c. to lead or entice. 

I cannot git my meer at heamm, 
I cannot git my meer at heamm.' 
' Tak a reap o' cworn wi' ye 
An' wile her heamm, an' wile her 
heamm.' Old Song, 

Wilk, c. the bark of a young 
dog when in close pursuit. 

Will, G. to bequeath. ' He 
his money to t' dowter.' 



Will n't, Winnet, Ween't, c., 
Wullent, Wunna, ;Winna, N. 
will not. 

Wills, 0. doubts. 'Aa's i' wills 
whether to gang or nit.' 

Willy, c., s.w., Sanghtree, N. 
the willow. 

Willy (sweet), c. the sweet wil- 
low Salix pentandra. 

Willy wands, c., Wully wans, 
N. young shoots of the willow. 

Wilta? c., s.w., Wnlta] K. wilt 
thou? 

Wi' ma, c., s.w., Wn' ma, K. 
with me. 

Wind, c., s.w. (the i short), 
Wun, Win', N. wind; the time 
occupied in drawing the breath. 
' Dick could swallow a quart at 
a wind? 

Wind egg, c. an egg dropped 
before the shell is hardened. 

Window leuker, G. the inspector 
of lights when the window-tax 
was levied. 

Windy, G. noisy, talkative. ' Mair 
wind nor woo' like clippin' a 
swine.' 

Windy bags, G. an incessant 
talker. 

Wine berries, c., K. red currants. 
Win in, N. to secure the crop. 

Winje ! c. a gladsome exclama- 
tion of surprise or wonder. 
' Winje wife, what a berry 
puddin ! ' 

Winnel strea, G. the stem of the 
couch grass. 'As waik as a 
winnel strea.' 

Winnick, N. anything diminu- 
tive. In playing at pitch and 
toss with button tops the small 
ones are winnicks and the larger 
ones slaters. 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



115 



Winsh., c. wince. 

Winsom', N. lively and pretty; 
of winning manners. 

Winter, G. to live through winter. 
*T' oald horse J ll hardly winter 
ageann.' 'He sends has hogs 
to t' sea side to winter.' 

Winteridge, G. winter eatage in 
the field. 

Winter proud, c., Winter 

prawwd, s.w. winter wheat in 
too forward a state of growth. 

Winter wood, c., s.w. decidu- 
ous trees which should he cut 
down in winter and not peeled. 

Wipe, G. a hint. ' She gives 
him many a wipe ahout it.' 

Wise like, N. wise and prudent. 

Wishy washy, o. weak, worth- 
less. 

Wisk, c., s.w., Wusk, N. a light 
and short shower. 

Wisp, c., s.w., Wusp, N. a hand- 
ful of hay or straw. 

Wittin', G. knowledge, intelli- 
gence. 'I dud f best o' my 
wittin'.' 

Wizzen't, c. lean, thin, withered, 
wizened. 

Wo, Woa, Woy, Wee, Wey, G. 

terms used among horse-drivers 
denoting halt. 

Woast house, c. the inn where 
we put up. 

Woaths, N. oaths. These are in 
numerous forms, and are best 
consigned to oblivion. 

Wob, N. web. 
Webster, N. a weaver. 
Wokan, G. awake, waken. 
Woke-rife, N. sleepless. 

Wole-eyed, c. Some horses and 
dogs have one or both eyes 



nearly white, and are thus 
termed. 

Woo', Oo', Ooa, G. wool. 

' Taary woo, taary woo, taary woo 

is ill to spin; 
Card it weel, card it weel, card it 

weel ere you begin ; 
For when carded, row'd, and spun, 
Then the work is hofelins done ; 
But when woven, drest, and clean 
It may be cleading for a queen.' 
Old Clipping Song. 

Wooshat, E. the woodchat shrike 
Lanius rufus. 

Wooshat, Cushat, B. the wood- 
pigeon. 
Worchat, G. orchard. 

Workan' by girt, c. working by 
contract. 

Worriment, G. harassing annoy- 
ance. 

Wostler, N. ostler. 
Wramp, Ramp, c. a sprain. 

Wud, N. mad. ' Wod, furious or 
mad. Wee yet retayne, in some 
parts of England, the word 
wodnes, for furiousnesse or 
madnesse.' Verstegan. 

Wull, N. will. 

Wummel, G. an augur or wimble. 

Wun, c. woollen. 

Wun', N. to dwell. ' He wuns 
ayont yon hill.' 

Wun', c., N. wound. 'He wun' 
up his watch.' 

Wunsom, N. neat, pleasant. 

Wunz ! c. an oath or exclama- 
tion. 

Wurn, Wurren, E. the surname 
of Wren. ' Jo' Wurren of Onder- 
crag.' 

Wussel, Russel, G. wrestle. 

Wusset, G. worsted. 

Wyke, c. a narrow opening 



116 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



between rising grounds; the 
corners of the mouth are wylees. 

Ya, Tan, c., s.w., Yin, Yen, N. 
one. 

Yabble, c. able. 
Ya-day, c. a common retrospec- 
tion. ' It was yu-day last week.' 

Yaddle, c., s.w. to speak quickly 
and unwisely. 

Yaddle, c., s.w. to earn. 

Yadwands, G., Gadwands, E. 

wands or rods used in driving 
horses. Not much in use. 

Yak, Yaak, c., s.w., Yek, Yik, 
N. oak. 

Yakker, c., s.w., Yikker, N. acre. 
Yakkeridge, G. acreage. 

Yakker spire, E. When the malt- 
ing process is too long continued 
and both root and sprout are 
"visible, the barley is yakker spired 
and injured for malting. 

Yal, c., s.w., Yel, K. ale. 

Yal-jaw't, c. sickened by drink- 
ing ale. 

Yalla yowderin, N. the yellow- 
hammer or bunting. 

Yammer, c., N. to talk much in 

a rambling manner. 
Yan, c., s.w., Yin, Yen, N. one. 

Yananudder, c., s.w., Yenan- 

ither, N. one another. 
Yance, c., s.w., Yence, N. once. 

Yap, c. (probably a corruption of 
rap) a mischievous lad. A little 
dog. Bailey. Aup, used in the 
north} for a wayward child. 
Brockett. 

Yar, N. harsh, sour. 
Yar, N. Hearr, s.w. hair. 

Yark, G. to strike furiously or 
fiercely ' as hard as he could 
yark.' 



Yat, c., s.w., Yet, N. a gate. 

Yea's, s.w. you shall. ' Yea's 
come, ye'r like.' 

Yedder, c., s.w., Yether, Yither, 
N. a long rod used in hedging ; a 
binder. 

Yelberry, N. ale boiled with 
bread, butter, and sugar for- 
merly given at funerals for 
dinner. 

Yerb puddin', G. a dish of early 
spring, composed of young nettles 
and every wholesome vegetable 
that the garden affords, mixed 
with groats, or oatmeal, or skil- 
led barley, and boiled in a bag 
in broth. The great art in com- 
pounding this dish is to have 
much variety with no predom- 
inating taste. 

Yerbs, Yarbs, c., N. herbs. 

Yerdfasts, G. large stones fast in 
the earth, and near the surface. 

Yerls, Yarls, c., N., Arls, 
N.E. money given to confirm a 
bargain. 

Yern, Gairn, N., Garn, c. yarn. 
Yerth, G., and Yurth, N. earth. 
Yerthful, c. greedy as the earth. 

Yetlin, N. a pan with a bule or 
bow. 

Yigga, N. ague. 
Yiglet, N. aglet, tag. 
Yik, N. to ache. 

Yod, Yoad, c., N., Yaad, s.w. an 
old mare. 

Yoller, c., N. to halloo. 

Yooer, c., N., Yawer, s.w. the 
udder of an animal. 

Yool, c., N., Yawl, s.w. to weep. 

Yope, Yaup, c., Yaap, s.w. to 
whoop ; to shout. 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



117 



Youngfwoks neet, c. See Oald- 
fwoks neet. 

Yowe, c., N. ewe. 
Youngermer, N. younger persons. 

Yowe chin't, c. ewe-cliinned ; 
chin retiring. 

Yowe locks, c. locks of wool 
taken from the udder of the ewe 
to enable the newly-dropt lamb 
to find the teat. 

Yowe neck't, G. the arch of the 
neck bending downwards. 

Yowe yorlin, Yowe yornel, c., 



N., and Jack durnill, N. the 
earth nut JBunias flexuosum. 

Yub'n steann, c. the stone that 
closes the oven's mouth. 

Yucks, N. itches ; is tickled. 
Yuk, N. the itch. 
Yule, N. Christmas. 

Yur, c., s.w. the corn-spurry 
plant Spergula arvensis. 

Zjookers! Znkkers! c., s.w. 
an exclamation of surprise or 
admiration. 



WORDS OMITTED. 



B od dam, G. bottom; to empty. 
' He could boddam a quart at a 
wind.' 

Drufty, Drooty, G. droughty 

(weather). 
Edge, c. an elevated and narrow 

ridge. Striding Edge, Bran- 

thwaite Edge, &c. 

Full bump, Full drive, c. very 
forcibly. 

Lang end, G. the final end. 
Nought at o', G. nothing at all 
' Frost an' snow war nought at o' 
If yan war fain to gang.' 

Anderson's Impatient lassie. 



Plet, c. to plat straw, &c., to 
twist. ' He gangs plettan his 
legs, and wammels like an eel.' 

Poach, G. to trample land in wet 
weather, and when a cow is said 
to have seven mouths destroying 
the grass, viz. four feet, one 
mouth, and two droppers of 
excrement. 

Prickin', c. short thorn branches 
stuck on the top of an earthen 
fence. 

Rackon, G. reckon, calculate, 
disapprove. ' I rackon nought o' 
sek wark,' I disapprove of it. 



CLAY AND TATLOB, PBTNTEBS. 



SUPPLEMENT. 

[PREPARED MARCH, 1878, AND PUBLISHED 1879.] 



PREFATORY NOTE TO THE SUPPLEMENT. 



AFTER zealously collecting the words and phrases of the Cumberland 
dialect over a period exceeding half a century, and publishing them in 
the Glossary of Cumberland, and reading critiques thereon expressive of 
the subject being exhausted, I have been agreeably surprised on being 
presented with such a valuable store as to justify the publication of a 
large Supplement. 

The Eev. Robert Wood, a most intelligent octogenarian, who, after 
perusing the Glossary, writes ' If then I can pick up a word or two which 
I have been used either to understand in a different way, or which may 
have a different meaning, or be omitted ' from the edition published by 
the English Dialect Society, he will send them ; and his ' word or two ' 
amounts to about four hundred, very many of which have different 
meanings or have been omitted from the Glossary. These being the 
gathering of an educated and observing man over a period coeval with 
mine, are worthy of record ; and if disregarded now may be lost for ever. 
They have also been the occasion of calling to my mind a number of 
omissions. There are so many words, and ways of expressing them, 
peculiar to the large parishes of Bolton and Westward, and to the 
adjoining parishes of Wigton, Dalston, and Thursby, that Mr. Wood 
suggests that a new division, to be initialled ' B,' or the Bolton district, 
should be adopted ; and this is done in the following list. The inhabitants 
of these parishes hold themselves somewhat distinct from the N.W. and 
the N. and E., both in their pronunciation of several words and also in 
their expression and tone of voice. They also reckon themselves distinct 
from what they call the moss troopers of the north of Goslinsyke a 
district of no good repute in the troublous times of old. 

A perusal of Mackay's Lost Beauties of the English Language has 
also recalled the memory of a few Cumbrianisms deserving of being 
perpetuated. 

W. D. 

Thorncroft, 

22nd March, 1878. 



SUPPLEMENT. 



Aa'd, G. I would, I had. 

Aa'l, G. I will. 

About what, c. the substance of 
it. ' They bodder't t' poor lad, 
for they wantit to git shot on him, 
and that's about ^ohat ) and nowder 
mair ner less.' 

Affwordance, G. ability to bear 
some expence. 

Ageaun t' grain, G. displeasing ; 
literally, planing wood in a direc- 
tion contrary to the fibre. 

Air, N.W. early. ' I've struggl'd 
sair, baith late and air.' Stagg. 

A-lag, B. not sufficiently upright ; 
too horizontal, as in placing a 
ladder. See A-lag. 

Ally, B. the same as Taw. 

Ampassy, and, B. an odd corrup- 
tion of &. (A mother I have 
heard teaching her children the 
alphabet. At the end of the let- 
ters she came to the contraction 
'&' for the latin et, and. This 
contraction standing alone with- 
out the c for ccetera she had heard 
called et per se ; but not knowing 
what per se meant she made an 
attempt at the sound of the words, 
and called it empassy and. Rev. 
R. Wood.} 

Aneuff, G. enough as relating to 
quality. ' T' taties is aneuff.' See 
Aneuff. 

Ang-ry, G. vexed. Applied to a 
sore it means inflamed, painful. 



Arsin, B. in leaping unfairly, a 
boy throws himself on his back 
and stretches out hia feet. 

Aawgust, c . , s . w. Formerly this 
broad pronunciation was common. 

Backins, G. cotton wool prepared 
for filling up, and clippings of 
cloth formerly used by tailors for 
stiffening coat collars. 

Bad, bed, G. bade. ' He bad ma 
come back.' 

Bally Cruds, B. milk of a newly 
calved cow boiled and turned to 
curd. See Bull-jumpins. 

Balderdash, G. nonsense. 

Bannock iron, B. a plate to fix 
on grate bars for baking bannocks. 

Barra cwoat, c., B. a young 
child's under garment. 

Batch, G. the entire number. 
< The heall batch o' them.' 

Batlin steann, B. a clean and 
broad flat stone placed near a well 
or stream ; the linen web laid on 
the stone and kept wet and beaten 
with the batlin stick. 

Batlin stick, Battleder, B. a 
wooden mallet something like a 
cricket bat for beating the linen 
web previous to its being laid on 
the grass to bleach. 

Baum, B., Bask, c. a place on a 
dry bank or hedge where par- 
tridges bask and dust themselves. 



124 



SUPPLEMENT : 



Bawty, B. a dog having a white 
face is so called. 

Beatin* stick, B. a stick kept for 
stirring the fire in the brick oven. 
By rubbing this stick on the arch 
of the oven after the flame has 
subsided, the proper heat is known 
by the sparks emitted. 

Bed, G. bid. 'They hed o' t' 
parish to t' berryin'.' 

Bed-gown, B. a long dress of 
this name, reaching to the feet, 
was in use at an earlier date than 
the short one. See Bed-gown. 

Beck grains, c., B. where a beck 
divides into two streams. 

Belky,B. a contraction of bellican; 
an obese person. 

Belly kite, B. one who eats un- 
wholesome things. 

Belyve, B. if I live. See Belyve. 

Bensal, B. violent motion. ' He 
com wid a bensal.' See Bensal. 
Bet, a. betted, did bet. 
Berryin', B. a funeral. 

Best bib and tucker on, B. said 
of a female in a very fine dress. 

Beutt jack, G. an implement 
used in pulling off boots. 

Binna, B. be not. 

Bizzin', B. buzzing as bees do. 

Black bole, G. to polish boots, 
shoes, &c. 

Blashy, G. weak, poor; blashy 
tea, blashy yal. 

Bleekon'd,B.the skin discoloured 

by a bruise. 

Blin' mouse, B. the shrew mouse. 
Blonk, c. a blank. 

Bo', G. the calf of the leg. ' T' 
bo' o' t' leg.' 

Bogtrotter,N. Duringthe event- 
ful period of the northern raids, 
the borderers were occasionally 
called bog trotters, from being 



obliged to move across the exten- 
sive mosses in a gentle trot, 
when a heavy tread or a short 
stand would cause immersion or 
destruction in the bog ; but moss 
trooper was the more general 
term. 

Bouk, B. to boil the linen web 
in water and ashes of ashen wood 
previous to beating on the batlin 
stednn and bleaching it. 

Bowze, B. to rush out, as blood 
when a vein is cut. 

Brae, u. a brow, or bank. 

Brake, B. an instrument for 
breaking the dried stems of flax. 

Brakshy, B. this name is also 
given to the flesh of sheep dying 
of this disease. See Brake-sowt. 

Brandreth steann, c., B. a boun- 
dary stone at the meeting of three 
townships or parishes. 

Branks, B. a game formerly 
common at fairs ; called also hit 
my legs and miss my pegs. 

Branlin' worm, c., B. a good 
bait, and so called from being 
attractive to the brandling trout, 
or from its brindled markings. 

Brat, Brattit, G. a young ewe is 
bratted to prevent it having a 
lamb. 

Brattle can, B. a noisy child; 
and c. a kicking cow. 

Bree, B. 'In a girt bree ' in a 
great hurry; joyous or uplifted. 

Breest, G. breast. The kill breest 
is the horizontal part of a lime- 
kiln or drying kiln. Quarry breest 
and stack breest, the upright part. 
To breest a hedge is to face it with 
stone,or sod and stone alternately. 

Bridle rwoad, G. a way over 
which a horse may be led or 
ridden, but not for other pur- 
poses. 

Broach, c., B. a wooden pin on 
which the ball of new-spun yarn 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



125 



is placed to be wound on the 
garn winnelx. 

Browe, B. an impudent lad. 
Bruffle, B. excitement. 
Brushin' B. small branches fixed 

on the top of stedikk ai\d ryse. 
Brussen, B. burst, overworked. 

' Brossen wi' wark.' 
Buff, c., Boff, B. to strike with an 

axe and not make a clean cut ; a 

stroke with a dull sound. 

Bull-ring, G. a ring put through 
the nostrils of a bull by which he 
ia led. See Bull-ring. 

Buoy, B. boy. < A bit buoy,' a 

little boy. 
Bur, B. a hinderer. ' He bur't 

me.' See Bur. 
Butter sleatt, G. a slab of slate 

kept in the dairy for holding the 

pounds of butter, and preferred 

for being always cool. 

Buzzert, c. a coward or timid 
person. Probably so named from 
the ghost moth, Kepialus humuli, 
which, seen at evening in a 
churchyard, where it frequents, 
was formerly an object of super- 
stitious fear. 

Caaw, B. to walk with the toes 
turned inward. 

Cabbish, G. to purloin. A pla- 
giarist cabbishes. 

Cakum, B. a foolish person. 

Can, c. ' I'll nut can gang to- 
day.' I am unable to go. 

Cantrips, B. unearthly deeds. 
Robert Huntington, of East 
Curthwaite, was fond of observing 
natural phenomena. In 1716, 
when the Aurora borealis was 
more brilliant than usual, he used 
to watch and admire it : hence he 
got the repute of being ' uncanny.' 
Walking out one summer evening, 
one of his neighbours, who had 
just finished cocking a field of hay, 
said to him ' Come, Robin, show 



us yen o' thy cantrips. Aa divn't 
care for tha, God's abeimn the 
deeval.' Just then a whirlwind 
arose (as is frequent in certain 
electric states of the atmosphere) 
and overturned nearly every cock 
in the field. No more cantrips 
were asked for ! 

Cap, c., B. a cloud on the moun- 
tain top ; a weather presage. 
' When CrifFel gets a cap 
Skiddaw wots well of that.' 

Cap, G. to cap corn is to put 
better dressed grain at the top of 
the saok. 

Cappin, G. a patch of leather on 
a clog or shoe. 

Car kist, B., s.w. the body of a 
cart. 

Cat-o'-nine tails, c., B. the ear- 
wig. 

Cat saddle, B. This and the fol- 
lowing are forms in which boys 
arrange their fingers in a certain 
play. Castle ; Dog saddle ; Two 
men haggan a tree and laal Jack 
gedderan spealls (chips) ; Priest 
in his pulpot. 

Cat skip, B. a kind of leap. 

Chap fo'en, B. disappointed, chop 
fallen. 

Charm, G. the charm professed 
for stopping bleeding could only 
be communicated by a man to a 
woman, or vice-versa, and only to 
one. See Charm. 

Cheese band, G. a linen hoop for 
supporting a newly-made cheese. 

Cheese sinker, G. a circular 
wooden die fitting the top of the 
rim when the cheese is in the 
press. 

Chepiter day, B. visitation day 
by the Bishop or Chancellor. 

Chilpers, c., B. young grouse. 

Chimla boke, B. See Eantle tree. 
A beam stretching from the 
'hallan' to the opposite wall of 



126 



SUPPLEMENT : 



the hearth fireplace. Ou this 
beam a slanting wall was built, 
forming the large open flue for 
the ' reek ' to pass ; the inner 
side of the wall being the chimla 
breest, and the part in the up- 
stairs the chimla back. On the 
breast, the drying leg of beef was 
hung, with sausages and black 
puddings ; and for a time the 
' flicks ' of bacon. The hams 
were hung higher up for the 
benefit of being 'reeked.' 

Chollers, B. the wattles of a cock. 
See Chollers. 

Clapper clowe, B. to give a severe 
scolding. 

Clartan, B. besides dirtying, this 
seems to include wasting time. 
* Just clartan on.' 

Clay daubs, B. home-made clay 
marbles. 

Clean heel't, B. active ; and when 
a person runs away through fear, 
he shews ( a pair o' clean heels.' 

Clincher, B. something that set- 
tles an argument. See Clincher. 

Clowe, B. to often scold or up- 
braid. 

Cobs, Cogs, Snow pattens, B. 
snowballs on feet of men or 
horses. 

Codbait, Casebait, c., B. a bait 
used in angling ; the larva of a 
phryganea. 

Coddy, B. a young foal. 
Cofe heed, B. a foolish fellow. 
Co'in', G. a scolding. 
Coitleth, B. cloth for a coat. 

Cook, B. to imitate the call of 

the cuckoo. 

Coom, B. the debris of coal ; culm. 
Corkin' B. a severe heating. 
Claa, s.w. crow. 

Crackers, c., B. the air vessels of 
the Fucus vesiculosiu. 



Crack' t, G. not in his right senses. 

Creuk't axe, Feutt axe, G. an axe 
having the edge turned inwards ; 
an adze. 

Crippy, B. a stool. 

' Bonny lass, canny lass, 

Wilta be mine 1 
Thou's nowder wesh dishes 
Nor sarra the swine : 

But sit on thy crippy,' &c. 

Cropt horse, G. formerly it was 
considered a mark of gentility to 
be the owner of a crop-eared or a 
set-tailed horse for the saddle. 

Cross buttock, G. a term in wrest- 
ling. 

Cruel, c. to cover a hand-ball 
with worsted or thread needle- 
work. 

Cuddy, G. an ass, also a simple- 
ton. 

Cummins, c., B. the rootlets of 
barley when malted. 

Colrik, B. See Scrapple. 
Creeper, B. the larva of the May 

fly. 
Crony, c. , B. , N. a comrade, friend, 

companion. 
Cut, G. a certain quantity of yarn. 

Cutlugs, B. (additional) 'and the 
de'il capt o' mankind.' 

Cow band, G. the cow band of 
the last century was made of 
tough ashwood, and D shaped ; 
now superseded by chains. 

Cwoort cards, c. Cwoat cards, B. 

pictured cards. 

Cwol sill. G. clay shale or sill 
overlying coal. 

Dabbin, B. a dam. 

Dashers, c., B. the inside works 
of a barrel churn. 

Baud, c. a flake of snow. 'It 
fo's i' girt dauds.' 

Day by t' lenth, c. all day long. 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



127 



Deall, B. a field near the house ; 
croft. 

'Deed, B. indeed. 

Deed heat, G. when neither wins. 

Deetin' sheen, B. winnowing 

machine. 
Dicky, B. a short upper garment 

of coarse linen till lately worn by 

working men. 

Dicky bird, G. a general name 
for a canary. 

Dicky sark, G. an additional shirt 
breast. 

Dirl, B. a tremulous motion. 

Dirty gully, B. a butcher's un- 
tidy assistant in slaughtering. 

Div, B. do. 'Div ye gang to 

Wigton market ? ' 
Dobbin, B. an old horse. 

Dockin, G. the leaf of the dock 
is reputed to cure the sting of a 
nettle when rubbed on the place, 
repeating ' Dockin in, nettle out.' 

Dodlin', B. sauntering. See 
Daddle. 

Dreuvy, B. water is so called 
when not quite clear, especially 
from half-melted snow. See 
Dreuv't. 

Drouth, c., B., N. thirst. 

Duffle, G. a coarse woollen cloth, 
generally blue, much worn in the 
days of home manufactures. 

Dumps, G. in so bad a humour 
as not to speak. 

Durdum, G. when the country 
was divided into districts, each 
answerable for the good behaviour 
of its inhabitants, meetings were 
held at the doors of suspected 
wrong-doers to inquire into the 
offence. The sentences of such 
meetings were called the Door- 
doom ; and, as they were often 
accompanied with much noise 
and dispute, hence durdum. 



Dyl't, B. worn down with toil 
and trouble. 

Ear, G., Near, s.w. the kidney. 

Eek, c. eke, to help or aid. ' 0' 
eeks ! ' said the wren, when she 
let a drop of water fall into the 
sea. 

Efterword, G. a word or expres- 
sion habitually repeated. See 
Owerword. 

Esp, B., Hesp, c. a fastening for 
a gate, &c. j hasp. 

Faddeiless stew, B. potatoes 
stewed without meat. 

Fadge, B. applied to a child as 
accompanying some one. ' Come 
on, leylfadge.' 

Faix, or Faith, G. a most binding 
oath among boys. 

Fell thrush, B. the missel thrush. 
Fetch, B. an indrawn breath. 

Fettle, B. to beat. ' Aa'l fettle 
his lug for am.' See Fettle. 

Feutt cocks, Grass cocks, c., B. 

the first and smallest of haycocks, 
the foot being used in their for- 
mation. 

Feuttins, B. two turves set up 
together to dry. 

Feutt axe, G. See Creiikt axe. 

Feyne, Fine, B. Mr. Wood re- 
minds me that this is not al- 
together unmeaning (see Pine). 
It increases the force of the word 
it is joined to, as ' fine laal lad,' 
where the fine does not qualify 
the laal but the lad. 

Fill bow, c., B. a hoop of whale- 
bone used in filling sausages. 

Fingers, c., B. the nursery names 
for these are, thumpkin, lick pot, 
lang man, ring man, laal Tommy 
tidy man. 

Fizzer, B. the same as fiz, only it 
expresses a stronger hissing. 



128 



SUPPLEMENT : 



Green wood fizzes on the fire ; a 
drop of water on the heated bars 
fizzers. See Fizzer. 

Flakker, B. applied to the flut- 
tering of the heart. See Flakker. 

Flange, B. to extend in a sloping 

direction. 

Flapper, G. a young wild duck. 
Fleer, c., B. the floor. 

Fleer't, B. ' Fleer't him,' threw 
him down on the floor. See 

Flear. 

Fleukk, B., Feather, c. the web 
of the plough sock. 

Flipe, B. to remove quickly. 
'He flyp't off his pint, and he 
flyp't o' t' rest off t' teabble, and 
than he flyp't his sel off.' See 
Flipe. 

Flush, c. to spring a woodcock. 

Flush, B. equal to the surround- 
ings ; an architectural term. 

Foald, G. to impound stray cattle 
in a pinfold. 

Foil, ' Eunnin' oald foils,' B. 
following former courses ; a 
hunting term. 

Foor deer, B. front door. 

Fobs, B. woollen substitutes for 
shoes in infancy. See Betitt, 
stockings. 

Foxy, B. crafty. 

Foz bog, B. a shaking bog. See 

Totter bog. 
Freckled sky, c. mackerel sky. 

Freedom, B. cease play. See 

Barley play. 
Frem'd,B. dry, cold, and ungenial ; 

applied to weather. 

Frostit, B. applied to window 

panes encrusted with frost. 
Frowsy, B. an overgrown woman. 

Fry, G. pig's liver. 'Mudder 
sent us a fry o' t' killin' day.' 

Funny beann, B. the point of the 
elbow. 



Fworce, c., s.w. a waterfall; 
as Scale Force, &c. 

Gamman, B. not in earnest ; 

making fun or game of. 
Gang, B. turn to play. ' Its thy 

gang noo.' 
Garth, G. this means garden 

when used alone. 
Geupps, G. a disease among 

fowls. 
Geld, G. cows not in calf. 

Gentles, G. maggots of the blue- 
bottle fly, used for bait. 

Gin keass, c., B. a house to 
shelter horses when drawing 
machinery. 

Girse cocks, c. small cocks of 
newly-cut grass. See Fetitt 
cocks. 

Goodin' his sel, B. indulging. 

Graft, B. a grave. 

Grally, B. disturbance. See 

Skrowe. 
Granny, G. grandmother. 

Greased shun, G. a time was 
when ' weel greas't shun ' was 
the prevailing mode with common 
people, and no blackballing. A 
dancing master noted for his well 
polished shoes was nicknamed 
' Boly his leann,' or alone, B. 

Green side up, G. arable land in 

grass. 
Grimes, G. flakes of soot. 

Grip, G. to take firm hold of. 

See Grip. 
Gudge, c., B. a scooping chisel ; 

a gouge. 

Hinmest o' three, c. hindermest 

o' three ; B. a game played on 

village greens. 
Hitch, B., Hop, c. a spring from 

one foot. 
Hobthrush, Eobin Goodfellow^* 

See Hobthrush. 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



129 



Hod te tail i' waiter, B. so long 
as a fish is not completely out of 
water there is hope for it. See 
Hod te tail i' watter. 

Hog meann, G. the mane of a 
horse clipped so as to stand up- 
right like the hristles of a hog. 

House warmin', c., B. an enter- 
tainment on taking possession of 
a new dwelling. 

Hull, B. to drive a trout into its 
hold. 

How goes it ? G. a sort of slang 
substitute for ' how are you ] ' 
now engrafted on the dialect. 
Other and more legitimate modes 
of saluting are, ' How preuvv ye ?' 
' How fend ye ? ' ' Are ye gaily ? ' 
' Are ye middlin' weel 1 ' &c. 

Ins an' outs, G. the whole of the 
matter. ' He telt ma o' t' ins an' 
outs about it.' 

Iron ub'n, c., B. a flat bottomed 
pan for baking in, a fire being 
placed on the lid as well as below 
the pan. Now superseded by 
cast-iron and sheet-iron ovens. 

Izzert, G. the old name of the 
letter Z (zed). 

Jacky steanns, B. The Eev. E. 
Wood says he was ' lately reading 
an account of a piece of statuary 
found at Pompeii, showing two 
boys playing at Jacky steanns. 
The work seemed of Greek origin, 
and shows that the Komans de- 
rived not only their arts but their 
games from an older civilisation.' 

Jenny Spinner, c., B. a teetotum ; 

the Tipula or long-legs insect. 
Jew't, G. cheated. 

Jimers, B. small cupboard hin- 
ges. See Jamers. 

Joop, B. a short upper garment 
or jacket worn by females. 

Joop't, B. to be domineered over 
by a woman. 



Kayk, G. the cry of a goose. 

Keavv, B. to pass a knife in all 
directions through newly-made 
butter to extract hairs, &c. See 
Keavv. 

Kelt cwoat, c., B., E. a home 
spun coat of coarse cloth of mixed 
white and black wool. 

Kent feasst, B. well known by 
the countenance. 

Kessen, c., B. twisted; wood 

made untrue by rapid drying. See 

Kessen. 
Kest, G. a swarm of bees ; to 

overturn sheaves of corn for 

drying. 

Kill ee, G. the fireplace of a 
drying kiln. 

Kilty cwoat Peggy, B. a woman 
who tucks up her clothes to work ; 
a careful one. 

Kipple, B. couple. Two rams 
chained together by their horns 
are kippl't. 

Knack reel, Click reel, G. a reel 
turned by a handle and giving a 
click when a certain number of 
threads had been wound ; these 
were bound together forming a 
' cut,' and so many cuts made a 
hank. There were two other reels 
called hand reels, a longer and a 
shorter ; and as the threads were 
wound on, the count was made by 
repeating 'yan to yan, two to yan, 
thou's yan ; yan to two, two to 
two, thou's two;' and so on. 
Another was the elbow reel, whei-e 
the thread was wound over the 
elbow, and between the thumb 
and fore finger. 

Kiiifel, B. to pass away time 
idly. See Knyfel. 

Kurk louse, B. the wood louse 
Oniscus. 

Kurn stofe, B. the staff fitted for 
working up and down in a hand 
churn. 



130 



SUPPLEMENT : 



Ladder, B. See Lalder, 

Laggy last, c. lag ma last, Harry 
behint ; B. the one who lags 
behind. 

Lang, G. to long or wish for. See 
Lang. 

Lang creukk, B. the crook hang- 
ing from the chimla boke, many 
from four to six or seven feet in 
length. 

Lant, B. the game of loo. A 
distinction is made between Lant 
and Lanter. Five cards are re- 
quired for the latter. The proper 
designation maybe three-card loo 
and five-card loo. The manner 
of playing is also different. 

Latch, B. an occasional water- 
course ; a miry place. 

Latch, c. a deep cart-rut. 

Leaf, B. the inner loin-fat of the 
pig. See Saim. 

Lee CO 1 , c. the ball thrown over 
the school-house. See Hee bo* 
leep. 

Leet, G. light ; formerly pro- 
nounced leeght. 

Limp, c. flexible. ' As limp as 
an empty stocking.' 

Line wheel, G. the wheel on 
which linen thread is spun. 

Lowp, G. a leap or jump, either 
running or standing. The various 
kinds include Catskip, one hitch 
or hop and one jump. Hitch 
steppiu' hop, step, and lowp ; c. 
a hitch, a step, and a leap. 
Otho two hitches, two steps, 
and a leap. Lang spaug two 
hitches, two steps, a hitch, a 
step, and a leap. 

Lubbart, c., B. a lazy fellow. 

Lug, c., B. the turned-up part of 
the paring spade. 

Lurry, c. hurry ' Tak t' dog 
and lurry them sheep away.' 



Mel deers, B. the passage between 
the front and back doors of a 
farm house. See Mel door. 

Mizzle, G. to go away. 'It's 
gittan leatt an' I mun mizzle' 

Nea co' for 't, G. no reason for it. 

Neuk- window, B. In old farm 
houses there was generally a small 
square window in the corner 
nearest the fireplace of the house 
or sitting room, with two larger 
and mullioned windows on the 
same side. 

Nibbleties, N. novelties. 'Wi' 
nibbleties as guod as nyce.' Stagg. 

Nin, G. none. ' My ruudder she 
thought nin like me.' Anderson's 
Daft Watty. Mr. Wood gives 
this as an illustration of the very 
common custom, in Cumbrian 
speech, of using both the noun 
and the pronoun in the same 
clause of the sentence. 

Noddy 't, B. to omit counting 
a point at the game of Noddy. 

Nutcrack feass, B. nose and chin 
approaching. 

Or, G. ere, before. ' Cuckoo '11 
nut come or April.' See Or. 

Ours, B. a curious excision ! 

The wife, instead of saying ' my 

husband,' calls him ours. See 

Oor Wife. 
Out houses, G. farm buildings 

and not dwellings. 

Ower teiinn, B., Ower word, c. 
words repeated at the end of a 
verse ; a habitual saying. 

Pack threed, G. coarse thread ; 
nonsense. 

Pain, B. that part of the common 
which was forbidden under pen- 
alty to be dug for turf. 

Past, a. beyond. ' A bad teuth- 
wark's past o' bidin'.' 






CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



131 



Peat pot, G. the hole out of 
which peats have been dug. 

Penny doctor, B. a small red 
bodied beetle. 

Pent, G. paint. 

Pick, G. a coal hewer's work tool. 

Pin pointing B. too exact in 
trifles. 

Ton, G. very commonly used for 

upon. ' Ton my word.' 
Posset, c., B. an infant possets 

when it upcasts part of its food. 

Powsowdy, c. same as Lamplugh 
puddin'. 

Prent, G. print. 

Prick, B. for fastening clout, and 

string for tying ; a skewer. 
' Sing, sing, what mun I sing ? 
Cat's run away wi' t' puddin' pwoke 
string. 

Some gat puddin' and some gat 

prick : 
They war n't warst oft 'at gat clout 

to lick.' Nursery Rhyme. 

Prut ! Prut ! G. a call to a horse 
to come. This word or sound can- 
not be expressed in writing. It 
is a jarring expulsion of the breath 
and voice through the lips with 
some force. 

Puddin' pwoke, G. a bag for con- 
taining herb pudding, potatoes, 
<fec., during boiling. 

Puddin' clout, G. a linen cover 
for dumplings, &c., whilst being 
cooked. 

Pulpot, o. pulpit. 

Fund butter, c., s.w. butter 
made up in pounds in contra- 
distinction to being done up in 
bulk. 

Pun' o' mair weight, B., c. one 
boy being laid on the ground and 
several others upon him one at 
a time. 

Purls, B. dried cowdung used for 
lighting fires. 



Pwoke shakkin's G. the youngest 
child. 

Quartern, G. a quarter of a pound 
of flax ready for being spun. 

Quit, G. rid of; the act of leaving. 

Quits, G. ' It's deunn, an' let's 
be quits ' both clear. ' Double 
or quits,' a betting proposal. 

Raid, N. a hostile incursion. 

Raiser, G. an additional ring put 
under a hive of bees to afford 
more room. 

Randy, randy whang, B. an out- 
rageous person. 

Range, c., B. to exercise a young 
horse in a ring. 

Rantipow, N.W. a termagant. 
Rantle tree, B. See Rannel tree. 
Rebbat, G. rivet. 

Reed rowe, B. red raw, applied 
to a sore before it begins to heal. 
See Reed row. 

Reeght, c. right ; now out of use. 

See Beet. 

i Reek't, smeuk't, G. applied to 
hams and other meats cured in 
smoke. 

Reeler, B. a slender iron pin 
(often with a brass head) on which 
the bobbin was placed when the 
spun thread was wound off. 

Rim, B. the rim of a spinning 
wheel included all that part of a 
wheel which was turned round, 
viz , the rim proper, the spokes, 
and the nave. 

Ripple, B. to ripple flax is to 
pull off the seeds. 

Rivy rags, B. one given to waste. 

Ruffs, B. defective parts of the 
ears of corn ; light grain and chaff' 
boiled for cattle food. 

Ruft, B., E. to play a card of a 
different suit. See Rift. 



132 



SUPPLEMENT : 



Rummel't 'taties, B., chop't 
'taties, c. boiled potatoes 
mashed and mixed with milk 
and butter. 

Run bull-neck, B. to proceed 
rashly. 

Sally sober, B. a game among 
girls. 

Sconce, c., B. a stone shelf, 
commonly near the kitchen door, 
and if inside, with a hole through 
it as a sink. See Sconce. 

Scorrick, c. the smallest value. 
* I'll nut give a scorrick mair.' 
'Scover, N. discover. ' Let's tak 
a scover through the fair.' Stagg. 

Scowp, B. to empty out. See 

Scowp. 
Scrabble, B., Scribble, c.to scrawl 

with a pen on paper. 

Scree, B. to separate small seeds 

from corn. See Scree. 
Scrowe, B. a great many. ' A 

scrowe o' f\vok.' See Scrowe. 
Scug, B. to shelter under a 

hedge ; to hide. See Skug. 

Sea purse, c., B. the egg of the 
dogfish. 

Searent, c., B. seared. 
Seavv his bacon, G. to escape. 

Seed-fire, G. the fire under the 
drying kiln, made with the husks 
of dried oats. 

Seet, G. sight. ' It was a grand 
sect to see.' I have heard old 
people pronounce this word seeght. 

See-howe ! G. the note (dwelling 
on the first syllable) given on 
discovering a hare in her form. 

See-how't, B. pursued. 

Shank pan, G. the gradation 
according to size is laal (leyl, 
B.) pan, shank pan, bule pan, iron 
ub n, keall pot, set pot, brass pan 
the last a large vessel used when 
the killed pig was to be scalded 



and drest ; the birch or sycamore 
wine made ; or formerly, the 
home-made web bonked. 

Sheep steull, Sheep furm, G. a 
seat on which a sheep is laid to 
be shorn or salved. 

Shoe cappin, . a patch of 
leather on a shoe. 

Shorten, G. to put a child into a 
short dress for the first time. 

Sitfast, Setfast, G. a hardened 

substance in a sore. 
Sizel, c. to saunter. 

Shrosies, B. -white sweet cakes. 
Qy. Shrewsbury cakes. 

Shurdavine, B. a short and fat 
person. 

Singan ninny, B., E. a rich girdle 
cake common at Alston, <fec. 

Skeevs, B. broken pieces of the 
stems of flax not sufficiently 
dressed. ' A skeevy rockful.' 

Skilly, B. thin broth or soup. See 
Skilly. 

Skipjack, B. a beetle (elator) 
which laid on its back recovers 
its feet by a &udden spring. 

Skowe, B. a severe beating. 
Skutter, B. to run without draw- 
ing attention. See Skutter. 

Slab, c. smooth, soft; the out- 
side plank. 

Slatter can, B. an untidy person. 
Sleatt off, G. somewhat lunatic. 

Sleattit, c., B. spoken of female 

attire when an upper garment is 

too short for covering an under 

one. 
Sledder, B. to walk about in 

shoes much too large. See 

Sledder. 
Sleugh, B. a white grub found 

in watery places, and used as a 

bait for trout. 

Slip, G. a child's pinafore. 
Slop, B. See Slorp. 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



133 



Slopper, B. to bespatter. . 
Slops, c., B. fragments left. 

Smasher, B. a firstborn who had 
never seen a baby larger than a 
doll, when he was shown his new- 
born sister, exclaimed ' It is a 
smasher ! ' a large one. See 
Smasher. 

Smudge, B. to spot. 

Snot, B. the unconsumed part 
of the wick of a candle. See 
Snot. 

Snowk, B. See Snork. ' Tak 
girter snowks, lads, an' it '11 
scunner gang away,' said he who 
had caused an evil smell among 
his fellow workmen. 

Sparables, G. short nails for shoe 
heels, in the shape of sparrows' 
bills. 

Spreckelt, G. spotted, speckled. 

Spring, c., B. the cleft of a quill 
pen. 

Sprits, c. slender and weakly- 
grown rushes. 

Sprung, c., B. when the cleft of 
a quill pen is too long. 

Stand, G. the large washing-tub 
in which the doUy is worked. 

Stand, G. cost. ' Them lambs 
'11 stand me in laal short of a 
pund a piece.' 

Stank, G. the pain accompanying 
the short groan. See Stank. 

Steaddlin', B. a stand for bees. 

See Steaddlin', 
Steep, G. cheese rennet. 
Steiidd, G. stood, did stand. 

Stiffener, B., Stiff an', c. a mani- 
fest falsehood. ' That is a stif- 
fener ! ' 

Stigh ! G. a note used to alarm 
pigs ; probably ' get to thy stye. ' 

Stob, B. a splinter entering the 
flesh. See Stob. 



Stomach, G. 'I can't stomach 
that ; ' cannot believe it. 

Stove, G. to stifle bees with brim- 
stone. 

Stown, G. stolen. 

Stowp, B. a place where slate 
pencils are got from the clay 
slate overlying the coal measures. 

Stowter, B. to stagger or stumble. 

' He stowtert ower, and down he 

went.' 
Strucken, G. fly blown. 

Su, G. a sow. 

Su, G. did sow. ' He su his 

cworn yisterday.' 

Sunkets, N.W. query something. 
But syne 't 'ad pleas'd the pow'rs 

abuin 

To shield them frae annoy, 
'Twas mete that sunkets theydevis'd 
This pestment to destroy. 

Stagg. 

Swarm, B. an overpowering host 
of lice. 

Swattle, B. to use by little and 
little, according to the song of 
the swallow. See Swattle. 

When we went away, at Michaelmas 

da y> 

Barns were full of corn and hay ; 
Now we've come back at cheery May 

day, 
It's all swittled and swattled away. 

Swifts, G. See Garnwinuels. If 
any distinction, Swifts stood 
upright, six or seven feet high ; 
winnels moved horizontally. 

Swine feast, B. an entertainment 
after killing a pig. 

Switchin',B. one of the processes 
of dressing flax by hand. 

Sye heel, G. the crooked part of 
the scythe blade let into the shaft. 

Sye nail, B., Grass nail, c. a 
small iron hook connecting the 
scythe blade with the shaft. 

Sye nog, c. the handle fixed on 
the scythe shaft. 



134 



SUPPLEMENT : 



Tak neyberheed, B. accept assist- 
ance. When a poor person dies 
the neighbours subscribe to bury 
him. 

Tap lash, B. the weakest part of 
a brewing of ale ; generally three 
kinds yel, or yal ; smo' beer, 
and tap lash. 

'Taty gun, G. a pop gun made of 
a goose quill, and the quill 
punches the bullets out of a slice 
of potato. 

'Tatyseoose, B. See 'Taty hash. 
Taylear, G., Teaylear, N.W. tailor. 
Teem, G. to empty; to pour out. 
Thea, B. these. 
Thick o' hearin', G. partially deaf. 

Things, G. any necessary mate- 
rials tea things, dinner things, 
&c. 

Thole, c., N. to endure ; to suffer. 

Thropwife, B. See Thrang. A 

correspondent writes that he did 
not know Throp, and that Throp's 
wife hung herself in her dishclout, 
inferring that care and anxiety 
killed her. 

Tig, c., B. a game where the 
touching of wood gives freedom. 

Tit for tat, G. giving as much as 
you get. 

Tom tayleor, B. a water insect. 
Toom, Turn, B. to tease wool. 

Trudgin, B. ' leyl trudgin ' 
spoken of a little boy following 
some one. 

Truncher, B. See Truncher. A 
game requiring dexterity. A 
young man lies flat, resting only 
on his toes at a certain mark at 
one extremity, and on a trencher 
in each hand at the other. He 
then tries to reach out the trench- 
ers as far as possible, and if not 
held at the right angle and edge- 
wise, down they go and he is 
defeated, 



Tummel tails, B. apt to fall. 

Tum'ler, G. an ale glass. Origi- 
nally this was a round bottomed 
glass which could not be made to 
stand, and was obliged to be 
emptied at once, or held in the 
hand. 

Tweezle, B. to shake or ruffle 
violently. ' Theer ! tweezle't up,' 
as the man said when the wind 
was blowing a gale and he had 
secured his own crop. 

Twig, B. to lay hold of ; to catch 
the meaning ; to twig or pull his 
hair. ' It's a twiggan neet o' 
frost' as if it grasped land and 
water keenly. See Twig. 

Twitter, B. very near. See 
Twitter. 

Uppermer, c., B. the higher. 

Up wid, c. to be even with ; to 
raise or lift. ' He up wid his 
neef and doon't him, and he was 
up wid him than ! ' 

Use n't, G. used not. ' He use 
n't to be so queer when he was a 
lad.' 

View hollo, G. the cheer given 
when the hare is killed by the 
hounds. 

Wand, G. the one year's shoot 
of the willow. 

Want, G. to deserve or require. 
' He wants a good skelpin to mak 
him behave his sel.' 

Waar, c. to ware, to spend. ' He 
nobbet .war't sixpence at t' fair.' 

War, G. were. (Pronounced 
short. 

Watter yet, B. a heck hung be- 
low a waiter stang or pole, to act 
as a fence. 

Wangh, B. a weak scent. When 
meat begins to decay it gives out 
a waitgh. See Waugh. 



CUMBERLAND GLOSSARY. 



135 



Way, G. this is used as expressive 
of comparison or degree. ' It's a 
lang way better to gang that way, 
for it's faraway t' baiuer way.' 

Wayster, G. a thief in the candle. 

Wee, N. little; Wee an', N. a 
small one, a child. 

Went on, G. continued. ' They 
went on fratchan at a parlish 
rate.' 

Weelish off, G. in easy circum- 
stances. 

Weshers, c., B. the inside works 
of a barrel churn. 

Wheem, B. quiet of manner, 

whim. See Whim. 
Whew! c., B. an expression of 

contempt. 

Whimmy, c. given to whims and 

fancies. 

Whisk, B. a slight cleaning. 
' She gev't a whisk an' a kengeud.' 
See Whisk. 

Whopper, B. a big lie. See 
Whapper. 

Whup hand, G. the advantage. 

Whurlygig, Whirlgig, B. a small 
shining beetle that disports itself 
on the surface of water, constantly 
circling round and round, and 
diving if disturbed. 

Winch, B. a vice or iron screw. 

Wind row, B. peats or turves set 
up in a long row, being the second 
process in drying. 

Wires, B. the frame work on the 



spindle of a spinning wheel, with 
crooked wires to guide the thread 
to the bobbin . 

Woatin', woat leather, B. a thin 
band of leather nailed on to con- 
nect the upper leather with the 
clog sole. 

Wots, B. knows ; is aware of. 
See Cap. 

Wulls, B. wills ; will. Sometimes 
a bargain is closed on a bystander 
saying, ' Come ov his wulls.' 

Woo wheel, G. a wheel on which 

wool is spun. 
Wrang, 'Rang, G. wrong. It's 

wrang to wrang ennybody.' 

'Wuvver, B., Awivver, c. how- 
ever ; indeed. 
Wuzzel, B. the weasel. 

Yaddearn, B. talking much. 

Yak cubbert, G. dating about 
1640. There are many large 
oaken cupboards built into the 
internal walls of old farmhouses. 

Yance to bed, B. said when a 
person begins to yawn. 

Yems, B., Heamms, c., s. w. 

hames. See Heamms. 
Yer, G. your. Ye'r, s.w. you are. 
Yerl, c., Yuri, B. earl. 
Yet stoop, B. gate post. 

Yope, G. a constant talking in a 

loud voice. See Yope. 
Yuly, yuly, B. a call to bring 

geese together. 



A. Ireland & Co., Pall Mall, Manchester. 



WOEDS IN USE IN 

WEST AND BAST CORNWALL. 



GLOSSARY OF WOEDS 



IN USE IN 



CORNWALL. 



BY MISS M. A. COURTNEY. 



(Jomfoall 

BY THOMAS Q. COUCH. 



LONDON: 

PUBLISHED FOR THE ENGLISH DIALECT SOCIETY, 
BY TRUBNER & CO., 57 & 59, LUDGATE HILI,. 

1880. 






CLAY AND TAYLOR, THE CHAUCEU PRESS. 



CONTENTS. 



I. SBest dTorutoaU. BY Miss M. A. COURTNEY. 

INTRODUCTION ... ... ... ... ... ix 

GLOSSARY ... ... ... ... ... 1 

ADrENDA ... ... ... ^,. ... 65 

II. (East CorntoaU. BY THOMAS Q. COUCH. 

INTRODUCTION ... ... ... ... ... 69 

GLOSSARY ... ... ... ... ... "5 

ADDENDA ... 101) 



[In the sketch map which faces the title-page, it should be understood that the 
line of demarcation is only approximately indicated. Mr. Couch writes : 
" From long observation I can distinctly trace the western brogue and speech 
beyond Truro eastward, though it has become shaded off." J. H. N.] 



BY MISS M. A. COURTNEY. 



. 



INTRODUCTION. 



1. Decay of the Dialect in West 

Cornwall. 

2. Pronunciation and Grammar. 



3. Proverbial Sayings. 

4. ^.Cornish Names. 

5. The Present Glossary. 



1. WITH the introduction of railways and the increased means 
of communication, that has brought and brings every year more 
strangers to West Cornwall, the peculiar dialect is fast dying out, 
giving place to a vile Cockney pronunciation with a redundancy of 
h's. The younger generation are ashamed of and laugh at the old 
expressive words their parents use. One seldom now hears such 
Shaksperian terms as giglet, a giddy girl ; fadge, to suit ; peize, to 
weigh ; nor the old form of the plural housen, houses ; peasen, 
peas ; nor derivative adjectives with the prefix en, such as feasten 
and stonen. But in the outlying fishing villages and inland parishes 
the dialect still lingers. 

2. A stranger meeting one of our country labourers or miners 
on the " Downses " (downs), and asking him a question, would pro- 
bably have some difficulty ih understanding the answer. Should the 
words in which it was given be common all over England, the sing- 
song drawling tones of the high-pitched voice, and the different 
sounds given to the vowels and diphthongs, would greatly puzzle 
him. The pronunciation differs considerably in places not more than 
ten or twelve miles apart, and persons who live in Penzance and 
make the dialect their study, can easily distinguish a St. Just from a 
Newlyn or Mousehole man, and both from a native of Camborne or 
St. Ives. The most marked difference in speech, however, is found 



X WEST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 

between the dwellers on "the mainland" (Penzance, &c.) and the 
inhabitants of Scilly, or, as they would call themselves, " Scillonians." 
With them thread becomes " tread," and three " tree." / is changed 
into oi, as pint, " point ; " isles, " oiles ; " but a point -would be a 
"pint," and boil " bile." Their voices, too, are pitched in a different 
key. Although none of the islands are more than three miles from 
St. Mary's, the largest, 011 which is Hugh-town, the capital, each 
" Off-oisland " has a pronunciation of its own, and the people on St. 
Mary's often laugh at the peculiarities of the " Off-oislanders." They 
are fond of giving their children Scriptural names Obadiah, Methu- 
selah, Melchizedek, Emmanuel, Tobias; which they shorten into 
Diah, Thus, Dick, Manny, Bias. This custom formerly prevailed in 
all the villages of West Cornwall. One man was baptized Maher- 
shalalhashbaz, although known as Maal, and women still live who 
bear the names of Loruhameh and Kerenhappuck. 

Of the dialect and pronunciation of the eastern part of the 
county I know from personal experience next to nothing, never 
having spent more than a few weeks in that locality, except that the 
vowels are broader and the consonants harsher than in West Corn- 
wall, and that it resembles the dialect of Devon. 

The following table will show the peculiarities of pronunciation 
in the Land's End and adjacent districts : 

A pron. aa : call, caal ; half, haalf ; master, maaster. Have, in 
reading, with old parish clerks and others, is haave. (au Scilly : call, 
caul.) 

A, pron. ee : square, squeer ; care, keer. 

Ai, pron. ae, both vowels sounded : nail, nael; tail, tael. 

E, as e, with but few exceptions, where it becomes a, as yellow, 
yallow ; secret, sacret. 

Ee, as i, in been, bin ; and meet, mit. 

Ea diphthong, as ai : meat, mait ; clean, clain ; bream, braim. 

Ea in heard, heerd. 

En in earth and ear is sometimes spoken with a faint sound of y 
ycarth, year. 

" En is sometimes also separated, as e-arth, we-ar, at Zennor. 
,T. W. 



INTRODUCTION. II 

Ea in tea retains the old sound tay, and sea becomes say. 

Ea in proper names is ay : Pendrea, Pendray ; Tredrea, Trediay 

Ei diphthong, pron. ee, as skein, skeen ; seine, seen; except in 
receive, where it becomes a. 

/, pron. e, as river, rever ; shiver, shever. 

/, pron. ee, as kite (the bird), keet ; child, cheeld ; &c. 

le diphthong, pron. a : believe, b'lave ; relieve, relave. 

0, as a ; grow, graw ; know, knaw ; &c. 

0, as u : column, culumn ; pollock, pullock. 

O, as o where it is u in other counties, as front, not frunt ; among, 
not amung. 

in won't as a long, wan't. 

In proper names the o in the prefix Pol is always long, as Poltair, 
Poletair; Polsue, Polesue. 

Oo, preceded by h, is oo long : hood, not huod ; hook, not 
huok. 

U is pronounced as u in pull : dull, duol j puzzle, puozzle. 

G sometimes y, as angel, anyel ; stranger, stranyer. In words o 
more than one syllable ending in ing the g is omitted, as going 
goin ; singing, singin. 

P as b in peat, beat. 

Words ending in sp retain the old form ps, as clasp, claps ; hasp 
haps ; crisp, crips. 

Y in yellow is often changed into j, jallow. 

Old people generally add y to the infinitive, as dig, diggy ; hack, 
hacky ; paint, painty ; walk, walky ; and put an a before the imper- 
fect part., as " goin' a diggin'." 

Be commonly takes the place of are, and be not is corrupted into 
b'aint ; and when preceded by the verb the pronoun you is almost 
invariably changed into 'ee, as " Whur be 'ee jailin, my son? Goin' 
to Mittin, are 'ee 1 " Where are you walking so fast, my son ? (my 
son is applied to all males, and even occasionally to females.) Going 
to Meeting, are you? (A Mittin or a Mittin-house is a Noncon- 
formist, generally a Wesleyan, Chapel.) " You b'aint a goin' to do 
et, sfire-ly?" " Ess-fye ! I be." (Yes, I am.) "Hav"ee most catched 
up your churs 1 " (Have you most finished your housework ?) " Did 



Xll WEST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 

'ee ever knaw sich a g'eat maazed antic in all your born days 1 " (Did 
you ever know such a mad fool ?) &c. " I'll gi' 'ee a click under the 
y-ear." (I'll give you a box on the ears.) 

Verbs and pronouns are often used in the second person singular 
instead of the second person plural, as " Coom thee wayst in, thee 
g'eat chucklehead, or I'll gi' 'ee a scat on the chacks that 'ull maake 
'ee grizzle the wrong side o' th' moueth. Thee thinkst o' nawthing 
but gammut. (Come in, you great stupid, or I will give you a slap 
in the face that shall make you laugh the other side of your mouth. 
You think of nothing but play.) "Beest 'ee goin' to painty to-day, 
Jan 1 " (Are you going to paint to-day, John T) 

Him and it are contracted into 'n, as " I don't think much of "n." 

CPeat takes the place of great, as " a g'eat bufflehead " (a great 
fool); bra 1 of brave, "a bra' fine day" (a very fine day). "And 
between two adjectives applies the preceding one to the latter 
' bra" and wicked,' bravely or very wicked, although brave alone 
would be a term of commendation." J. W. The article a is put 
before plural nouns, as " a trousers," " a bellers " (bellows). 

The preposition up is very commonly used after verbs, as " I must 
finish up my work," " I must do up my odds and ends ; " and where 
in other places in would be used, as " Take up (not take in) two 
loaves for to-morrow." Sometimes a superfluous verb is added, as " I 
looked to see." 

The Cornish are fond of doubling their negatives, " Never no 
more, says Tom Collins." 

" When he died, he shut his eyes, 
And never saw money no more." 

Old Nursery Rhyme. 

" I don't knaw, ant I " (I don't know, not I) ; and a favourite answer 
to a question is, " Not as I knaw by," or " Not as I know," all pro- 
nounced quickly as one word, "Notsino." Couldst, wouldst, and 
shouldst are contracted into cu'st, wu'st, and shu'st ; as " How cu'st 
'ee (thee) be such a big fool?" "Thou shu'snt tell such lies;" 
" Wu'st 'ee (thee) do et 1 " But to multiply examples would take too 
much space for an introduction, and to those especially interested in 
this branch of the subject, I would recommend the works of the 



INTRODUCTION. Xlll 

late Tregellas, Bottrell's Traditions and Hearth-side Stories of West 
Cornwall, first and second series; and a little work by "Uncle Jan 
Trenoodle" (Sandys), which contains amongst other things a col- 
lection of poems in the Cornish dialect by Davies Gilbert. 

3. Like all other Celts, the Cornish are an imaginative and 
poetical people, given to quaint sayings, similes, and pithy proverbs. 
I have heard of a man being " so drunk that he couldn't see a hole 
in a nine-rung ladder ; " of a piece of beef " as salt as Lot's wife's 
elbow." A woman a few days since in describing the " Bal gals," 
said, " they were all as sweet as blossom ; " and another that some 
boy " was as hardened as Pharoah." You may be often greeted on 
entering a house with, " You are as welcome as flowers in May." A 
servant when she adds a little hot to cold water, will speak of it as 
" taking the edge off the cold." A labourer will tell you that " he's 
sweating like a fuz' bush (a furze bush) on a dewy morning." Any 
one who has seen such a thing will recognize the force of the simile. 
Once I asked an old Land's End guide what made all those earth- 
heaps in a field through which we were passing ? His reply was, 
" What you rich people never have in your house, a want " (a mole). 

Few proverbs express more in a few words than the following : 
" Those that have marbles may play ; but those that have none must 
look on." " Tis well that wild cows have short horns." " You've 
no more use for it than a toad for a side pocket." " All play and no 
play, like Boscastle Market, which begins at twelve o'clock and ends 
at noon." 

A great many of the sayings relate to long-since-forgotten 
worthies, such as : " But says Parson Lasky." " Oh ! my blessed 
parliament, says Molly Franky." "All on one side, like Smoothy's 
wedding." " Like Nicholas Kemp, you've occasion for all." " As 
knowing as Kate Mullet, and she was hanged for a fool." 

A few may be interesting from an antiquarian point of view : 
" To be presented in Halgaver Court." " Kingston Down well 
wrought is worth London town dear bought." " Working like a 
Trojan." " As deep as Garrick." " As bright as Dalmanazar." " As 
ancient as the floods of Dava." Of the two last I have never heard 
an explanation. 



XIV WEST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 

Each parish has its own particular saint to which the church is 
dedicated. " There are more saints in Cornwall than there are in 
heaven." The saints' feasts are held on the nearest Sunday and 
Monday to dedication day, Feasten Sunday and Monday. The 
inhabitants of every parish have a distinguishing nickname. 

One curious custom is nearly obsolete, that of speaking of a 
married woman as "Kitty Ben Eoscrow," "Mary Peter Penrose," 
instead of Kitty, Be a Roscrow's wife, &c. 

4. Cornish proper names of men and places have the accent 
on the second syllable, as Borla'se, Boli'tho, Trela'wney, Carne'gie, 
Pendre'a, Polme'nnor (Poleme'nnor). In true Cornish compound 
names the noun is put before the adjective, as Chegwidden (white 
house), che, house, gwidden, white ; Vounderveor (great road), 
vounder, road, veor, great (through ignorance now called Vounder- 
veor Lane). When the word is formed of two nouns, the distin- 
guishing one is last, as Nanceglos (church valley), nanc (c soft), 
valley, eglos, church ; Crowz-an-wra (a road-side cross), crowz, cross, 
wra, road ; Peninnis (island head), pen, a head, innis, an island ; 
Egloshayle (river church), eglos, a church, hayle, a river (now Pen- 
innis Head, Egloshayle Church). These rules hold good even when 
the words are half Cornish, half English, as Street-an-Nowan (the 
new street, of some antiquity), Caini Du (black cairn), Castle Vean 
(little castle), Castle au Dinas * (a reduplication), Chapel Ury, Chapel 
St. Clare. 

5. When asked some years since by the English Dialect 
Society to write a West Cornwall Glossary, wishing to make it as 
complete as possible, I consulted all the published works on the 
subject which were in the Penzance Library, and added to my list 
the words in them unknown to me. Those that I have given on the 
authority of Polwhele alone are, I am afraid, although common in 
the beginning of this century, now quite forgotten except by a very 
few. Had I been aware that I was to have been associated with Mr. 
Couch, I should have taken no examples from his works ; but I have 
retained them, as they were nearly all familiar to Mr. Westlake, Q.C. 
(J. W.), to whom I now take this opportunity of tendering my 
1 " Some make castle a fortification of stone, dinas of earth." Baimister. 



INTRODUCTION. XV 

sincere and hearty thanks for his very valuable services, ungrudgingly 
given, he having kindly gone over the entire MS. with me. I must 
also thank Mr. H. E. Cornish (H. E. C.), who has done the same by 
the proof-sheets, and Mr. Thomas Cornish (T. C. ), who placed all his 
Cornish words at my disposal. Those signed W. JS". I had from Mr. 
Wni. Noye, and Davy, Zennor through Mr. Westlake. Garlands are 
from a list by the late Mr. Garland in the Journal of the Eoyal 
Inst. Cornwall. I have, too, incorporated in this glossary a list of 
words collected by the Eev. Flavell Cook (F. C.) when at Liskeard, 
and kindly sent me through the Eev. W. W. Skeat ; and some from 
those published in the Cornishman by Bernard Victor (B. V.) and 
Wm. Fred. Pentreath (W. F. P.), of Mousehole ; and by F. W. P. 
Jago, M.B., Plymouth. To all these gentlemen my thanks are due. 



MARGARET A. COURTNEY. 



Alverton House, Penzance, 
January, 1880. 



A GLOSSARY OF WORDS 



IN USE IN 



WEST CORNWALL 



Abear, v. to dislike : always used 
with a negative. " I caan't abear 
what I caan't abide." 

Accroshay (accrochet), a kind of 
leap-frog. A cap or small article 
is placed on the back of the 
stooping person by each boy as 
he jumps over him ; the one who 
knocks either of the things off 
has to take the place of the 
stooper. The first time he jumps 
over the boy says Accroshay, the 
second Ashotay, the third Asshe- 
flay, and lastly Lament, lament 
Leleeman's (or Lelena's) war. 

Acres, phr. in his acres; in his 
glory. 

Addle-pool, a cesspool. 
Ad rabbet, inter, bother. 

Adventurer, one who takes shares 
in a mine. 

Afeard, p. p. as adj. afraid. " I'm 
afeard of my life to go upstairs 
arter dark." 

Afore, adv. before. "He took 
me up afore I were down." He 
corrected me before I had made 
a mistake. 

After, Arthur. "I'm coom for 



the dennar for After, who works 
at old Dolcoath." 

After - elapses, after - thoughts ; 
superfluous finery. "I caan't 
manage the after-clapses." Some- 
thing happening after the cause 
is supposed to have been re- 
moved. H. E. C. 

After-winding, waste corn. 

Agait, adj. very attentive; ear- 
nest. 

Agar, adj. ugly. Davy, Zennor. 

Aglet, Aglon, Awglon, Orglon, 

the berry of the hawthorn. 

Ailer, a receiver of stolen goods. 
" The ailer is as bad as the 
stailer." (He who aids and abets 
the thief by standing within hail 
as sentry. H. E. 0.) Heller, 
Lostwithiel. J. W. 

Aipernt, an apron. 

" A slut never wants a clout 
Whilst her aipernt holds out." 

Airy -mouse, a bat, M. A. C. 
Airy-Mouse, H. E. C. Hairy- 
Mouse, J. W. 

Aitch-piece, the catch or tongue 
of a buckle. 






WEST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 



Ake, a groove in a stone used for 
an anchor (peculiar to Cornwall), 
to receive a rope or iron band to 
prevent it from slipping. Mouse- 
hole fishermen. E. P., through 
W. Noye. 

Aketha, quotha. 

Alaire, a short time ago. Video 
says this is in common use; I 
query it. M. A. C. 

Allee-couchee, phr. to go to bed. 

Ammenuts, nuts. Almond nuts, 

almonds. 
Anan ? Nan ? inter. " What did 

you say ? " 

Anatomy, Atomy, a thin person. 
Also Anatomis. H. E. C. 

Aneest, Aneist, prep. near. " I 
caan't bear him to come aneiat 
me." 

An end. To drive an end is to 
excavate a level (a gallery) in a 
mine. 

Angallish, a gallows. "You 
angallish dog, you." 

Angle - twitch, an earth-worm. 
"Wriggling like an angle- 
tivitch." 

Anointed. ' ' An anointed rogue" 
= an out-and-out rogue. 

An-passy, Passy, et cetera. 

Anti, plir. not I. Always used 
with a negative. " I caan't say 
on." 

Antic, a foolish person ; a merry 
rogue. "I never seed such an 
antic in my born days." 

Apple -bird, a chaffinch. Pol- 
whele. 

Apple-drain, a drone ; a wasp. 

Apsen-tree, an aspen. " Bevering 
(shivering) like an apsen-tree." 

Aptycock, a clever little fellow. 
"Well done, my little apticock." 
W. Briton, April 3, 1879. 



Araa ! Arear ! Areah ! an inter- 
jection of surprise. Arrea-faa. 
B. Victor and W. V. Pentreath. 
Mousehole. 

Ardar, a plough. 
Ardur, a ploughman. 

Argee, Argeefy, v. to argjue. 

" He's all' ays ready to orgee" (</ 

hard). 
Arish, stubble. " Turn them into 

the arishes " (stubbles). 

Arish-field, a stubble-field. 
Arish-geese, stubble-fed geese. 

Arish-mow, a rick of corn made 
in the field where it was cut. 

Arm-wrist, the wrist. 

Arter, adv. after. " He's all'ays 
tinkering arter her." 

Ascrode, adv. astride. " She 
rode ascrode." 

As lev', adv. as lief. " I'd as 
lev' do et as not." 

Assneger, Assinego, a silly 
fellow; a fool. "Do 'ee be 
quiet, thee assneger." 

Athnrt, adv. athwart. " He looks 
athurt" (he squints). 

Attal, Attle, rubbish cast out 
from a mine. 

Atwixt and atween, pJir. be- 
twixt and between. "Neither 
the highest nor lowest ; but 
aturixt and atween, says Bucca." 

Aunt, An', Aint, a term of re- 
spect, commonly used for elderly 
women. "Too fine, like An 
Betty Toddy's gown." 

Awner's 'count, owner's ac- 
count ; at the expense of the 
employers. 

Axed out, p.p. as adj. having 
the banns called in church. 
"I 'be axed out f keep company ! 
Get thee to doors, thee noodle." 
Uncle Jan Trenoodlt. 



WEST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 



Baal, v. to beat. 
Baaled, p. p. beaten ; grieved. 
Baaling, a beating. 
Babby-rags, small bits. F. C. 

Backlet, Backside, a court or 
yard behind a house. 

Backysyfore, phr. hind-part be- 
fore. F. U. Backsyforcy, J. W. 

Bagonet, a bayonet. 
Bakester, a baker. 

Bal, a bother. " What a bal the 
dog es ! noozling up agen me." 

Bal, a mine. 

Balch, a small rope ; a sash cord. 

Bal-girl, a mine girl. 

Balk, squared timber. 

Ballarag, v. to scold. 

Ballaragging, a scolding. " She 
gov' me a sound ballaragging ." 

Ball-eye, a wall-eye. "Billy 
ball-eye. 11 

Balscat, a cross-patch. " She's a 
regular ould balscat." Poor, con- 
temptible. Sometimes applied to 
wine, as balscat port. J. W. 

Balshag, a coarse flannel with a 
long nap, used in mines. 

Bandeleer, a wooden toy, in 
shape like a thin flat reel ; it is 
made to move up and down by a 
string which winds and unwinds. 

Banger, a large thing or person. 

Bankers and Dorsars, cushions 
for seats and backs of settles. 
BottreU. 

Bankroute, a bankrupt. 
Bannel, the broom, Genista. 

Bare -ridged. He rides bare- 
ridged = without a saddle. 

Barm, Burm, yeast. Barm-cake 
is cake made with yeast. 



Barragon, fustian. Barracan, 

H. E. C. 
Barro, Borro, a boar. 

Barwell, Barvil, a leather apron 
formerly worn by fishermen when 
hauling in their nets and taking 
the fish out of the same. Capt. W. 
Pentreath, Mousehole, through 
W. Noye. 

Bazaam, the heath ; a purple 
colour. 

Be, baint, are ; are not. " Like 
Jan Trezise's geese, never happy 
unless they be where they baint." 
"Where be 'ee going ? " = where 
are you going ? 

Beagle it ! (sometimes Ad beagle 
it !) a West-country imprecation. 
T. C. A troublesome person ia 
often called a beagle or bagle. 
" Be quiet, you young bagle." 
M. A. C. 

Beal, a bird's bill ; the nose. " I 
knawed 'ee by your leal." 

Beat, a turf; also the verb to 
make or attend to a fire of 
turves. 

Beat burrow, Beat turf, a heap 
of burnt turves left in the fields. 

Bedabber, Bejabber, v. to fade 
by keeping in the hands. 

Bedabbered, p.p. as adj. faded. 
"Yours flowers are bedabbered." 

Bed-ale, groaning-ale; ale brewed 
for a christening. Polwhele. 

Bedoling-pain, a constant pain 
not acute. 

Bedoled, p. p. used as adj. stupe- 
fied with pain or grief. "I'm. 
bedoled with the rheumatiz." 

Bed-tye, a feather bed : often 
called a feather tye. 

Bee-skip, Bee-but, a beehive. 

Beety, v. to mend the net. 
Mousehole fishermen, through 
E. P. and B. V. 

B 2 



WEST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 



Begibd, p. p. as adj. allotted. 
" "Tis not begibd to me " (g hard). 
E. Hunt, F.RS. 

Beheemed, adj. sickly. " A poor 
beheemed cretur " (creature). 

Belk, v. to belch. 

Belong. " I belong at home " 
= I live at home. " I am not 
BO ill as I belong to he " = not 
so ill as I generally am. " She 
belongs to stay in to-night " = 
it's her turn to stay in to-night. 

Belve, v. to bellow. 

Belving, part. " Belving like a 

bull." 
Bender, anything unusually good 

of its kind. 
Berrin, a funeral. " Bin to the 

berrin, ha' 'ee ? " 
Benin-tune, a tune to which a 

hymn is sung by the relations 

and friends on the way to the 

church. 
" To shaw our sperrits lev' us petch 

The laast new berrin-tune." 

Tregellas. 

Besting it, going to sea when the 
weather looks threatening, and 
cruising on the fishing ground 
without shooting the nets, to see 
whether the sky will clear or 
not. T. C. Also commonly used 
for considering a thing, as " I am 
besting if I shall go to church to- 
night." M. A. C. 

Better -fit. Used for better. 
"You'd better-fit ha' done what 
I told 'ee." 

Better-most, adj. best. "My 
better-most dress." " The better - 
most people were there." 

Betwattled, Bewattled, p. p. as 
adj. mad, foolish. "Thee art 
betwattled ; that were afore I 
were born." 

Bib, a small fish ; a blind. 
Biddix, a mattock. 



Bilder, hemlock; water dropwort. 

Billees, a bellows : facetiously 
called the Cornish organ. 

Biscan, Vescan, a finger-glove of 
leather used in support of a 
wounded finger ; sometimes a 
simple bandage of cloth, Bes- 
gan, W. N. 

Bitter, adv. very. " He's bitter 
cross this morning." "A bitter 
wet day." 

Biver, Sever, v. to shiver. " I'm 
all of a biver." 

Bivering, Beveling, part, shiver- 
ing. 

Black-a-moor's teeth, small 
white-ribbed cowries. 

Black-cake, wedding-cake. A 
rich plum-pudding is a black- 
pudding. 

Black-head, a boil. 
Black jack, blend. 

Black strap, gin and treacle. 
An inferior wine given to infe- 
rior guests. J. W. 

Black tin, tin ore ready for 
smelting. 

Blast, a sudden inflammation. " I 
caught a blast in my eye." 

Blaw. " A man caan't go farther 
than he can blaw," i. e. he can't 
do impossibilities. 

Blind buck a davy, blindman's 

buff. 
Blink, a spark. " There's not a 

blink of fire in the grate." 

Blob, Blobber, a bubble. 
Blood-sucker, the sea anemone. 

Bloody warrior, a wallflower ; 
also the red crane's-bill. 

Blowser, one who assists in the 

pilchard fishery. 

Blowsing, working in seine boats. 
Blowth, blossom. " There's no- 



WEST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 



thing prettier than the apple 
blowth." 

Blubber, Blobber, the sea nettle. 
Sometimes called sting blubbers. 

Blue -poll, a species or, more 
probably, a variety of salmon, 
remarkable for the steel-blue 
colour of its head and for ascend- 
ing our rivers (e. g. the Camel) 
about Candlemas-day ; hence 
when appearing in numbers 
they are called the " Candlemas 
School." It is observed by fish- 
ermen that the great majority 
are males or kippers. Couch. 

Board 'em, an old-fashioned round 
game of cards. It can be played 
by any number of players from 
two to eight, either for fish or 
low stakes ; but there must not 
be less than six fish in the pool. 
Six cards are dealt to each per- 
son, and the thirteenth if two are 
playing, the nineteenth if three, 
and so on, is turned up for 
trumps. The forehand plays, 
and the next (if he has one) 
follows suit; ii not, he may 
play another suit or trump. The 
highest card of the original suit, 
if not trumped, takes the trick 
and one or more fish, according 
to the number staked. If you 
have neither card in your hand 
that you think will make a trick, 
you may decline to play, in 
which case you only lose your 
stake ; but if you play and fail 
to make a trick, you must pay 
for the whole company, and are 
said to be "boarded." 

Bob, the largest beam of a mine 
steam-pumping engine. 

Bobble. " An ugly bobble in the 

sea" = a ground swell. 
Bock, v. to shy. "The horse 

hocked at the hedge." 

Boften, p. p. as adj. bought. 

Boften bread, baker's bread, not 
home-made. Boften dough is 



sometimes used to express the 
same idea. "As plum (soft) as 
boften dough " applied to a very 
foolish person. 

Boiling 1 , a number, crowd, or 

family. "The whole boiling of 

'em were there." 
Boist, corpulence. Boustis, stout. 

J. W. Lostwithiel. Busthious, 

H. E. C. 

Bolk, adj. firm. Probably from 
balk, squared timber. 

Soldering, adj. louring ; inclin- 
able to thunder. " 'Tis boldering 
weather." Polwhele. " 'Tis bold- 
ering hot." J. W. 

Bolt, a stone-built drain. 
Boo, a louse. 

Boobus, a wick for a small lamp. 
Booba, Boobun, Newlyn. 

Boostering, part, labouring so as 
to perspire. 

Boots and shoes, the flowers of 
the monk's-hood. 

Boryer, a borer; a bar of iron 
used to make holes in granite ; a 
mining tool. 

Boshy-man, a fop ; a conceited 

fellow. 
Botany-bay, the hydrangea. 

Botham, a tumour arising from 
the blow of a stick on any part 
of the body. Polwhele. 

Bothem, the feverfew. 

Bottom-pie, slices of potatoes and 
pork baked on a thick layer of 
dough. W. Noye. 

Bottoms, a narrow, uncultivated 
valley. 

Bougie, Bowgie, a sheep's house; 

a shed. 
Bouldacious, Bould, adj. bold. 

Boulter, a moored line, with 
hooks attached, for catching pol- 
locks. 



WEST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 



Boutigo, Bout-a-go, Bout-'i-go 
(prow. Boutshego), a tramp. "I 
caan't abear loutigoa coming 
round the town plaace" (the 
farm-yard). 

Bowed, bent. "A little botoed 
old man." 

Bowerly, adj. burly; corpulent. 
" A fine bowerly man." 

Bowings, bowings of the legs; 
the under part of the knee-joint. 

Bow-jowler (aw like hoic), a place 
in fishing boats for hauling foot- 
line through. Mousehole fisher- 
men, through W. F. P. and B. V. 

Boys. " There are no men in 
Cornwall; they are all Cornish 
boys." 

Boy's love, southernwood. 

Braave, Bra, adj. and adv. fine ; 
very. "He's grown a bra 
cheeld." " I'm braave and well, 
thank 'ee." And between two 
adjectives (in Cornwall) applies 
the preceding one to the latter. 
Brave and wicked (bravely or 
very wicked), although brave 
alone would be a term of com- 
mendation. J. "W. " A brave- 
looking man " is a good-looking 
man. 

Brace, the mouth of a shaft. 
Mining Record, through W. 
Noye. 

Brage, v. to scold violently. 
Couch. 

Braging, part, roaring ; raging. 

" Braging like a lion." 
Braggashans. " But I scorn to 

stand speeching braggashans." 

Uncle Jan Trenoodle. 

Braggaty, adj. spotted ; mottled. 
" A braggaty cow." 

Brake, a large quantity : parti- 
cularly applied to flowers, as a 
brake of honeysuckle. 

Brandis, a three-cornered iron 
rest for baking meat on; also 



used to hold a kettle, or support 
burning brands. 

Brash, an eruption ; a rash. 

Breach. A horse or cow is said 
to breach when it breaks down 
fences. A " breachy cow" is one 
that breaks bounds. 

Breachy water, brackish water. 

Bread -and -cheese, the young 
leaves of hawthorn, often eaten 
by children. 

Breal, Breel, a mackerel "W. K, 
B. V. 

Breed, Breedy, v. to make or 
mend fishing-nets with a mesh 
and needle. 

Bren, Brend, v. to wrinkle the 
forehead. "Don't brend your 
brows so." 

Brow brenner, eye winker. Old 
Nursery Rhyme. 

Brick, Breck, a rent or flaw. 
" There wasn't a brick in it." 

Brimming, the phosphorescence 
of the waves. 

Brink, the gill of a fish. E. P., 
through W. Noye. 

Briny, adj. luminous ; phosphor- 
escent : applied to the sea ; the 
medusae. 

Brit, a small kind of fish the 
size of a sprat. F. W. P., Jago, 
M. B. 

Brithyll, a trout (pron. truff). 
H. E. C. 

Broad-fig, a Turkey fig. 

Broft, p. p. brought. " She was 
broft home in a cart." 

Broil, earth on the surface indi- 
cating a vein of metal. "The 
burnt stuff, word used by Berry- 
man, who professes to find lodes 
to this day by the divining rod." 
T. C. 

Broil, v. to discover metal from 
the earth thrown up by the heat 
of the vein. 



WEST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 



Brood, impurities mixed with ore. 

Broom-swike, a twig of a heath- 
broom. 

Brose-of-het, a great heat. " I'm 
in a brose-of-het." At boiling 
point. 

Broasen, burning quickly. Mouse- 
hole fishermen, through W. P. 
P. and V. B. 

Brother - law, brother - in - law. 
Father-law, &c. , &c. 

Brown-wort, figwort or throat- 
wort. 

Browse, bruised fish used as bait. 
"I'll pommel thy noddle to 
broiuse." Bottrell. 

Browse, brambles and thorns. 
P. C. 

Browthy, adj. light ; spongy : 
applied to bread. 

Brush,~a nosegay. 

Brush, dried furze used for fires. 
"Not quite baked; he'd take 
another brush : " said of a half- 
witted man. 

Bruss, short twigs of heath or 
furze. ' ' When a younger sister 
marries first, her elder sister is 
said to dance in the bruss ; from 
an old custom of dancing with- 
out shoes on the furze prickles 
which get detached from the 
stalk." H. E. 0. 

Bruyans, crumbs. Buryans, Bot- 
trell. 

Bucca, a stupid person ; a term 
of derision. 

" Penzance boys up in a tree, 
Looking as wisht (downcast) as 

wisht can be ; 

Newlyn buccas, strong as oak, 
Knocking 'em down at every 
poke." 

Bucca-boo, a ghost ; a bug-bear j 

a black bucca. 
Bucca - gwidden, a precocious 

child ; a simple innocent ; an 



T. C. A white 



Buck, fermentation in milk or 
cream, produced by moist heat. 
"The buck is in the milk." 
Buccha-boo, Polwhele. 

Buck, the spittle fly. 

Buck, v. to bruise copper ore into 

small fragments. 
Bucking-iron, a flat hammer used 

for crushing copper ore. 

Buckle-up, v. to shrink or curl 
up with the damp. " My dress 
buckles-up in the dew." 

Buckshee-buck, a game played 
by an indefinite number of play- 
ers. One shuts his eyes, and the 
others say in turn, " Suckshee ! 
Suckshee-buck I How many fin- 

fers do I hold up ? " When the 
lindrnan guesses correctly, the 
one whose number is guessed 
takes his place. 

Buckthorn, Buckhorn, a salted 
and dried whiting. 

Bucky-how, a boy's game, resem- 
bling touch-timber. 

Buddie, a kind of tub for wash- 
ing ore. 

Buddie-boy, a boy employed in 
washing ore. The operation is 
called " buddling." 

Buddies, bubbles. " Blowing 
buddies, art 'ee, cheeld ? " 

Bud-picker, the bullfinch. Pol- 
whele. 

Buffle - head, a simpleton ; a 
foolish person. " I niver seed 
sich a g'eat buffle-head." 

Bulgranack, the pool-toad, or 
locally bull-toad, in sea-rock 
pools. H. E. C. 

Bulgranade, a stickleback. 

Bulhorn, a snail. "If tinners 
in going to bal (the mine) met 
with a bulhorn in their path, 
they always took care to drop 



8 



WEST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 



before it a "crum" from their 
dinner, or bit of grease from 
their candle, for good luck." 
Bottrell. 

Balk, v. to toss on the horns of a 
cow. 

Bulk, v. to cure pilchards, by 
placing alternate layers of salt 
and fish ; also a pile of pilchards 
about a yard in breadth and five 
feet in height : with the heads 
turned outward. 

Bulk-headed fool, always running 
his head against a wall. H. B,. C. 

Bullies, round, smooth pebbles ; 
boulders. 

Bullocky man, a swaggering 
fellow. 

Bullum, the fruit of the bullace 
tree. 

Bun-bread, phrase to "express a 
severe thrashing. " I'd beat him 
to bun-bread." Longrock, T. C. 

Bunken, Bumpkin, a piece of 
iron projecting from the bow of 
a boat, to which the jib is fast- 
ened. W. Noye. 

Bunker-headed fools. Gwinear, 
T. C. 

Bunting, part, sifting flour. 

Burn, twenty-one hakes (probably 
a burden) ; a pile of furze kept 
in country houses for fuel ; a 
rick of hay. 

Burranet, the shelldrake. 

Burrow, a barrow or tumulus. 

Bush, two hoops fixed on a short 
pole, passing through each other 
at right angles. They are covered 
with white calico, and used as 
signals by a person standing on 
a hill to show where pilchards 
lie in a bay. 

Bush, v. Instead of thrashing 
corn with a flail, when straw 
was wanted for thatching, women 
were employed to beat out the 
corn into a barrel with the head 



out ; the ears of corn were struck 
against the cask. 

Bush the fire, phr. to put on 
more furze : only used where 
there are open chimneys and no 
grates. 

Busk, a thin slip of wood or 
whalebone, about an inch and 
a-half broad by fourteen long ; 
formerly worn by all, now only 
by old women, in front of their 
stays. 

Busker, an undaunted, persever- 
ing fisherman in stormy weather, 
in contradistinction to in-and- 
outer. E. P. , through W. Noye. 

Bussa, a large earthenware pot or 

jar. 
Bussa-calf, a calf kept on the 

cow till it weans itself. Pol- 

whele. 
Bussa -head, an empty-headed 

person. 

Bussy milk, the first milk after 
calving. 

Bustious, adj. over-fat ; burden- 
some to oneself. 

Busy, requires ; wants. "It es 
busy all my time looking arter 
the childern." " It es busy all my 
money to keep house." 

But, a buttock of beef. 

But, v. to sprain or put out of 

joint. 
Butted, p. p. " I've butted my 

thumb." 
But-gap, a hedge of pitched turf. 

Polwhele. 
Butt, a heavy, two-wheeled cart, 

with timber and yoked oxen. 

Butter - and - eggs, the double 
yellow daffodil. 

Buyed, v. bought. " I buyed un 
at the draper's." 

Buzza. " Stinking like buzza." 
E. Opie, through W. Noye. "A 



WEST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 



buzza used before cess-pits." H. 
E. C. 

Bye, adv. lonely. " Our house is 
rather bye." 

Caal, Call, v. to give public notice 
by a town crier. " Have it caaled, 
be sure." To have the banns 
"caaled out'' (called out) is to 
have them read in church. 

Caalves-henge, a calf's pluck. 

Cab, a horny gall on the hand 
caused by friction. "Called a 
callous." H. E. 0. 

Cab, a dirty mess. Also v. to 
soil by handling over-much. A 
cabby mess is a dirty, sticky 
mess. 

Cabaggled, p.p. as adj. messed 
and dirty. J. W. Lostwithiel. 

Cabesta, space between the hook 
and lead in a fishing line. Mouse- 
hole fishermen, through W. F. 
P. Cobesta, V. B. 

Caboolen-stone, a stone used by 
seiners (the crew of a seine boat) 
as a means of keeping the fish 
enclosed in the seine but not 
caught from making their escape. 
It is continually thrown into the 
sea, a piece of rope being attached 
to it, until the seine can be drawn 
so close together that the fish can 
be dipped up in baskets. W. F. 
P. and B. V. 

Cader, a small frame of wood on 
which a fisherman keeps his 
lines. Cantor, Penzance. 

Cadge. " Out on the cadge" 
on the tramp; begging. "They 
get their living by cadging,* 
begging from door to door. 

Cafenter, a carpenter. 

" I'm coom for the dennar for After 

(Arthur), 

Who works at old Dolcoath ; 
And if you be the caf enter's dafter 

(daughter), 
You'll send enough for both." 



Jaff, n. refuse, rubbish. 

3age. " She has a beautiful cage 
of teeth." 

Hal, tungstate of iron. 
alcar, the lesser weever or sting 
fish, with the lance fish in Sennen. 
H. E. 0. 

am, Cand, fluor spar. 
[Darnels, camomile flowers. 

[/anker, a cock crab. M. Matthews, 
through W. Noye. " Crane and 
Crancod." H. E. C. 

Cannis, v. to toss about carelessly. 
Couch. 

Cant, v. to tip on one side. 
" Cant up the bottle." A fall. 
Polwhele. Cant of a way = a 
long way. W. Noye. 

Capel, Cockle, schorl. " Capel 
rides a good horse " indicates the 
presence of tin. 

Caper-longer, the shell-fish Pinna 
ingens. Couch. Tonkin applies 
the name Caper-longer to the 
razor-shell Solen solignia. 

Capperouse (pron. like house), a 
great noise. ' ' What a capperouse ; 
'tes like Bedlam broke loose." 
" Cab-a-rouse is in seamen's lan- 
guage to pull together at a cable, 
shouting and singing." H. E. C. 

Cappnn. The superintendent of 
a mine is always called cappun. 

Carbona, Carbonas, a large mass 
of rich ore, sometimes called a 
hottse. 

Care, the mountain ash, branches 
of which are used as charms to 
prevent cattle being "ill wisht" 
(bewitched). 

Carn, Cairne, a pile of rocks. 

Carny, v. to coax ; to natter. 
" He thought to carny over me." 

Carrack, Garrack, a rock : only 
used as a proper noun. 

Casling, a prematurely-born calf. 



10 



WEST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 



The skins are often made into 
waistcoats. 

Cassabully, winter cress. Pol- 
whele. 

Catch up, v. to dry. " The clothes 
will soon catch up this windy 
weather." " The roads are nicely 
caught up." Also applied to 
household work. "When the 
churs (chars) are caught up." 

Cat-in-the-pan. To turn cat-in- 
the-pan is to turn head over heels, 
sitting on a rail, whilst keeping 
hold of it. Traitor, J. W. 

Cats and dogs, the catkins of 

the willow. 
Cattern, Catherine. 
Cauch, a sloppy mess. J. "W. 

Cauchy, adj. wet ; sloppy. " The 

roads are very cauchy." 
Caudle, a mess. 

Caudle, v. to do household work 
in an untidy manner. Caddie, 
F. W. P., Jago, M. B. 

Gaudier, one who caudles or 
makes a mess. Caddler, one 
who is always caddling about the 
house, t. e. working but messing. 

Caudling, part, making a mess ; 

also wasting ; improvident. 

" Caudling away all his money." 
Gaunter, a cross-handed blow. 

Cause, case. " If that's the cause 

I must work later." 
Cawnse, Coanse, stones; a flagged 

floor. 
Cawnse - way, Coanse - way, a 

paved foot-path. " Coanse-way 

head," a street in Penzance. 
Cay-thollic. "Like Cay-thollic, 

the more he eats the thinner he 

gets." 

Censure, v. to give an opinion ; 
consent. " I gived (or gov) my 
censure for they." 

Chacking, adj. thirsty. "Half- 
famished." Couch. 



Chacks, the cheeks. " I'll gi' 'ee 

a skat (slap) in the chucks." 
Chad, a young bream. 

Chad. "We say, Put a chad, 
that is, a turn of rope, in the 
horse's mouth." J. H. Nanki- 
vell. 

Chainy, china. "A chainy tay- 

pot." 
Chall, a cow-house. 

Champion lode, a large vein of 
metal. In St. Just "guides." 

Chape, the catch of a buckle. 
Chaunce, v. to cheat. 

Chaunt, Chaunty, v. to scold ; to 
mutter to oneself ; to prate. 

Chaunting,^?ar. scolding. "Chea 
chaunter " = cease chaunter ! 
stop your prate ! H. B. C. 

Cheeld, a child; pi. Childern. 
Old people call a little child "a 
cheeld vean." "Like Malachi's 
cheeld, chuckful of sense." 

Cheeses, seeds of mallow, often 
eaten by children. Chokky- 
cheeses, F. C. 

Cheevy, adj. thin ; miserable- 
looking. 

Cheins, Cheens, the small of the 
back. ' ' I've a bad pain in my 
cheens." 

Cherk, a half -burnt cinder. Chare, 

H. E.C. 
Chet, a kitten. 

Chevy-chace, a great bustle or 
noise. "What's all the Chevy- 
chace about ? " 

Chewidden-day, the day on which 
white tin (smelted tin) was first 
sold in Cornwall. 

Chickchacker, the wheatear : so 
called from its note. Chickell, 
Polwhele. 

Chien, Cheem, v. to germinate in 
the dark, as potatoes. 

Chiff-chaff, the chaffinch. 



WEST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 



11 



Chiffer, Cheffer, v. to bargain. 
" I never heerd a woman cheffer 
like she do." 

Childer, Childern, children. 

Childermas-day, Innocents'-day. 
" It's unlucky to sail on Childer- 
mas-day." 

Chill, a small earthen lamp, in 
shape like the old Roman lamp, 
formerly used for burning train 
or pilchard oil. 

Chimbley, a chimney. 
Ching, the chin. 
Chipper, the crossbill. 

Chitterlings, the frills formerly 
worn on gentlemen's shirts. 

Chod, a stew. 

Choris, a carouse ; a feast. 

Choust, a cheat. 

Choust, v. to cheat. "They'll 
choust 'ee out of all thy money." 

Chow, v. to chew. 

Chowter, a female fish-vendor. 
More commonly jouster. Gener- 
ally those who go about the 
country in carts. 

Chrestmas - curls, carols. On 
Christmas- eve the choir of the 
parish church goes from house 
to house singing " cur'ls" 

Chrestmas - stock, Chrestmas - 
mock, the Christmas log. A 
piece of this year's Chrestmas- 
mock is often saved to light the 
one to be burnt at the next 
Christmas. 

Chriss-crossed, adj. cross-barred ; 
checkered. 

Chuck, the under part of the 
face ; the throat. " I like a pig's 
chuck." 

Chuck, v. to choke. " He looks 
as if butter wouldn't melt in his 
mouth and cheese chuck him/' 



Chuck -cheldern, the shad: so 
called from its particularly bony 
nature. 

Chuckle-head, a stupid person. 

Chuck-sheep, an epithet. F. C. 

Chuff, adj. sullen ; sulky ; fat. 

Chuggy-pig, a pig. 

Chug-chug (Chee-ah, Bottrell). 
Used to call the pigs to feed. 

Chur, a small piece of work. 
"I've caught up my churs" = 
I've finished my work. 

Chur, Churrey, v. to go out by the 
day to do servant's work. 

Churrer, a charwoman. " She's 
a very good churrer." 

Church-ale, a feast in commemo- 
ration of the dedication of a 
church. 

Church-hay, a churchyard. 

Church-hay-cough, a hollow, con 
sumptive cough. 

Church-town, a village. Three 
or four houses, and even a single 
house, is called a town in Corn- 
wall. A farm-yard is a town- 
place. London is often spoken 
of as "Lunnon church-town." 

Clack, a great noise ; much talk- 
ing. " Hould your clack." 

Clacker, a rattle to frighten away 
birds ; the tongue ; a valve of a 
pump. ''The clacker of the 
billees" (bellows). 

Clain-off, adv. at once ; without 
a mistake. " I did it clain-off." 
"I told it (repeated it) clain- 
o/." 

Clam, a stick laid across a brook 
to clamber over, supplying the 
place of a bridge. E. Cornwall, 
Polwhele. A plank bridge. J. 
W. Lostwithiel. 

Clammed, clamoured; often ill. 
Polwhele. 

Claps, a clasp. Clapses, pi. 



WEST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 



Clean, v. to wash ; to make one- 
self tidy. " I am going to clean 
myself." 

Clecky, adj. stiff; lame. 

Clem, v. to choke with thirst. 

Clemb, Climber, v. to climb. 
" He's such a boy to climber." 

Clems, fish and potatoes fried to- 
gether. Also called pick up. 

Clever, adj. well-grown; good- 
looking ; in good health. " A 
clever little maid." " How art 'ee, 
my son?" " Clever, thank 'ee." 

Clibby, adj. adhesive; sticky. 
Cliggy, F. W. P., Jago, M. B. 

Click, a blow. "I'll gi' 'ee a 
click under the ear." 

Click-hand, the left hand. Thof 
(although) I'm lame in my click- 
hand." Uncle Jan Trenoodle. 

Click-handed, adj. left-handed. 

Gliders, a plant ; the rough bed- 
straw. " Clivers, Cleavers, 
goose-grass." H. E,. C. 

Clidgy, a sweetmeat ; hardbake : 
so called because it sticks to the 
teeth, 

Clidgy, adj. sticky. 

dig, Cligged, v. to cling to ; to 
stick to in the manner of glue or 
honey. As, " My fingers are 
digged together;" "Bird-lime 
digs more than anything." F. 
W. P., Jago, M. B. 

Clink, a small room where vaga- 
bonds and drunkards are con- 
fined. 

Clinker, a burnt-out coal. 

Clip, a smart blow. 

Clip, v. to turn the ground to put 
in crops. 

Clipper, one who turns the 
ground. 

Glitter, a flutter, v. to flutter. 
" I was all of a clitter." " Glitter- 
ing its wings." 



Cloam, earthenware. 

Cloamen, made of earthenware. 
An old cloamen cat hollow to the 
toes = a hypocrite. Garland. 

Cloamers, painted clay marbles. 

Glob, a clod or lump of earth. 
Walls made of marl mixed with 
straw are called dob or cob walls. 

Clobbed, p. p. as adj. begrimed. 
" A choked pipe of any kind 
would be said to be clobbed up. 
Dirty clothes or utensils are said 
to be clobbed with dirt." F. W. 
P., Jago, M. B. 

Clock, the crop or craw. Speci- 
mens of Cornish Dialect. Unch 
Jan Trenoodle. 

Clop, v. to limp. 

Clopping, limping. " Clop and 
go one." " Mother was clopping. " 

Close, reserved. " She's a dose 

woman." 
Clouchin. " He's a clouchin sort 

of a fellow," i. e. a man of no 

character, not to be believed. St. 

Buryan. T. C. 

Clout, a blow ; a slap. " Stop 
thy grizzling (giggling), or I'll 
gi' 'ee a clout shall make 'ee 
laugh the wrong side of thy 
mouth." 

Clouted cream, clotted cream ; 
cream made from milk scalded 
over a fire. 

Clubbish, adj. rough ; brutal. 

Cluck, ?;. to bend down ; to squat. 
" C lucky down behind the hedge." 
"The hen has got the duck" 
(wants to sit). Clutty, W. F. P. 

Clunk, v. to swallow with an 
effort; to bolt "Clunk un 
down." 

Clunker, the uvula. T. Q. Couch. 

Clut, a gap in a hedge. To fall 
with a clut is to fall in a heap, 
leaving a gap. 



WEST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 



13 



Clyne, a sea-Bird's feast. Matthias 
Dunn, Mevagissey. 

Clysty, adj. close ; moist : as 
badly-made bread or bad pota- 
toes. " These taties are bra' and 
clysty." 

Co ! interj. an exclamation of 
entreaty. " Come along, Co !" 

Coady. Sheep are said to be 
coady when their livers are 
affected. Stratton district. 

Coats, petticoats. " I never seed 
a cheeld with such short coats." 

Cob, a bunch of hair on the fore- 
head, often applied to the top 
locks of a horse's mane. 

Cob, v. to beat or thump. 

Cobbing, a beating. " Gobbet, a 
blow." Garland. Cobbing, in 
mining, is breaking copper ore 
into small pieces done by 
women. 

Cobbing-hammer, a miner's tool. 

Cobba, a simpleton. 
Cobshans, money or savings. 
"What, give my cobshans up to 

thee! 
Be Mistress Jan indeed." 

Uncle Jan Trenoodle. 

Cock-haw, a game played by boys 
with victor nuts (hazel nuts). 
One boy takes off his cap, saying, 
"Cock-haw! first blaw ! Up 
hat, down cap. Victor." His 
opponent lays his nut, holding 
it by the string, on the cap. The 
first boy strikes it with his nut. 
Should he fail to crack it, the 
other boy places his down, and 
so on until the nut is broken. 
The nut that cracks the other 
is called a " cock-battler." If 
another nut can be cracked with 
the same nut, it is called a " two- 
cock-battler ; " the nut that 
breaks that a " three- cock - 
battler," and so on. Polwhele 
calls the game " Cob-nut," and 
the nut it is played with " cob." 



Cock -hedge, a trimmed thorn 
hedge, sometimes double for dry- 
ing clothes on. 

Cockle-bread (pron. cock-le). To 
make cockle-bread is to turn "head 
over heels on a bed. 
' ' Up with your heels ; down with 

your head ; 

That is the way to make cockle- 
bread" 

Cockle-button (pron. coc-kle), the 

seed of the burdock. 
Cockle up, v. to shrink or curl 

up with damp. " My dress 

cockles up with dew." 

Codger, Cadger, a tramp ; a mean 
pedlar ; a term of contempt. ' ' An 
ould cadger." 

Codger's end, cobbler's wax-end. 
Codgy-wax, cobbler's wax. 
Coin, a corner. 

Coin-stone, a corner-stone. To 
coin is to strike off the corner of 
a block of tin, to discover its 
quality before it is stamped. 

Collar, boards near the surface 
for securing the shaft of a mine. 

Colley-brands, summer lightning. 
" Smut in corn." Couch. 

Colley-wobbles, a pain in the 

stomach ; diarrhoea. 
Collopping, a flogging. 

Colp, a blow; a short rope for 
carrying sheaves from the rick to 
the barn. 

Colpas, a prop or underset to a 

lever. 
Cool, a large tub or half-barrel 

used to salt meat in. When 

people brewed their own beer, 

the tub in which it was put to 

cool. 
Comb, an unturned ridge left in 

ploughing. 
Comfortable, adj. complaisant ; 

agreeable. " A very comfortable 

man." 



14 



WEST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 



Comical, adj. ill-tempered. " A 
comical ould fellow." " A comical 
temper." 

Coinposants, the meteor Castor 
and Pollux. Couch. The phos- 
phorescent balls that are some- 
times seen on the masts of vessels 
before a storm. 

Condidled, p. p. as adj. mislaid ; 
stolen ; conveyed away by trick- 
ery. 

Condudles, plays; performances. 
" As I never had seed sich con- 
dudles afore." 

Uncle Jan Trenoodle. 

C.ongee, a bow; a parting. 

"Make your congees" (pron. 

con-gees). 
Congee, v. to bow ; take leave. 

" We congeed and parted" (pron. 

con-geed). 

Conger - donee, sweet conger. 
Couch. Conger - dousts, Pol- 
whele. 

Conkerbell, Conkabell, an icicle. 
Cock-a-bell, H. E. C. 

Consait, a fancy. " I took a con- 
sait to go out." Sometimes used 
as a verb : "I consaited to do it." 

Come-by-chance (pron. coom-be- 
chaence), something that comes 
into your possession by accident. 

Come-upping (pron. coom-upp- 
ing), a flogging. "I'll gi' 'ee a 
sound come-uppiny." 

Cooche - handed, left - handed. 
Stratton district. 

Coor, the time a miner works ; 
eight hours. There are two day 
and one night coor. "Out of 
coor," out of the regular course. 
A gang of miners is also called a 
coor. " I belong to the night 
coor." 

Coose, course. "Iss, o' coose" 

yes, of course. 
Coose, adj. coarse. " Fine coose 

cotton," very coarse. 



Coot, a thrashing. " I've bin and 
gove he a putty coot to-day." 
Tregellas. 

Cop, a tuft of feathers on a fowl's 
head. 

Coppies, tufted fowls. 

Copper-finch, chaffinch. 

Cor-cri. " I'll kiss the Bible to 
it, if there was a cor-cri (Corpus 
Christi ?) between every leaf." 
St. Just. T. Cornish. 

Cornish, v. to use one drinking- 
glass for several people. "To 
cornish together." J. W. 

Cornish-hug, a peculiar grip used 
by Cornish wrestlers. 

Corrat, adj. pert ; spirited. " As 
corrat as Crocker's mare." 

Correesy, Corrizee, an old grudge; 
a sort of family feud handed 
down from father to son. Cor- 
rosy, Polwhele. 

Corve, a large crab-box kept 
afloat. Capt. Henry Eichards, 
Prussia Cove. 

Corwich, the crab. 

Cos' send, p. p. as adj. hammered 
into shape and new steeled. "I'm 
like f ay ther's ould piggal (a large 
hoe used for cutting turf) new 
cos'sened." H. E. C. 

Costan, a straw and bramble 
basket. 

Costeening, a mining term ; ex- 
amining the back of a lode (vein 
of metal) by digging pits. 

Country, the ground. "The 
country fell on him and killed 
him." A house is said to be 
built against the country when 
the side of a hill forms the back 
of it. 

Courant, a running romp ; a row. 
' ' What' s aU the courant ? " Coiv't 
courant, rough, noisy play. 

Cousin, a familiar epithet. All 
Cornish gentlemen are cousins. 
Coutin Jan, a Cornishman. 



WEST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 



15 



Cousin Jacky, a foolish person ; 

a coward. 
Cousse, a chat; a gossip. "We 

had a bra' comfor'ble cousse." 
Cousser, a gossiper. " She's a 

regular cousser." 
Conssing, part, gossiping. "She's 

allus coussing." 
Coussy, v. to chat ; to gossip ; to 

loiter on an errand. Coursey, 

BottreU. 

Cow, a windlass, at top shaped 
like a cowl, for supplying mines 
with air. 

Cowall, Cawell, a basket to hold 
fish, carried by the fish- wives. A 
broad strap passes over the top 
of the head ; the basket, which 
in shape somewhat resembles a 
cowl, rests on the back. 

Cow-flop, cow parsnip ; hogweed. 

Cowl, a fish bladder. Mousehole, 

W. F. P., B. Y. 
Cowleck, Cowlake, a glutton; 

one over greedy of gain. Mouse- 

hole, W. F. P., B. Y. 

Cowshern, cow-dung. 

Cowsherny, adj. the colour of 
cow-dung, dark green : applied 
to the sea. 

Coxy, adj. pert ; foppish. " What 

a coxy fellow he is." 
Crabalorgin, the thornback crab. 

F. C. 
Craky, adj. hoarse. "I niver 

heerd sich a craky voice." 

Cram, v. to crumple; to crush. 
" This stuff crams." " You have 
crammed your dress." 

Crame down, v. to creep down. 

Crawn, a dried sheep-skin. Davy, 
Zennor. See Crowdy Crawn. 

Craze, v. to crack. " I've crazed 
the jug." " Craze a squeer " is to 
crack a pane of glass. 

Crease, a ridge tile. 



Creem, Crim, a shiver; a creeping 
of the flesh. "I feeled a crim 
coom o'er me." 

Creem, v. to squeeze ; to mash. 
" Creem the taties." To hug in 
wrestling. J. W. 

Green, v. to grieve ; fret ; pine. 

Greening, part, complaining. 
"He's creening all day long." 
"A creening woman lives for 
ever." 

Greener, one who complains 
habitually. " She's bin a creener 
ever since I knawed her." 

Creeved, p. p. as adj. underdone ; 
half raw; badly baked. "The 
dennar is barely creeved." 

Crellas, prop, noun, ancient 
British hut circles. " An exca- 
vation in a bank, roofed over to 
serve for an outhouse." Bottrell. 

Cresser, a small fish resembling a 
bream, but of a brighter red 
colour. Taskis, Newlyn, through 
H. E. C. 

Crib, a crust of bread ; fragments 
of meat. " Eat up your cribs." 

Crib, v. to break oif small pieces. 
" He cribs a bit here and there." 
Crib-a-flent (flint) is to renew the 
edge by breaking off small pieces. 

Cribbage-faced, phr. marked with 
the small-pox. "Lanthorn-jawed, 
a small, pinched face." T. Q., 
Couch. 

Crickle, v. to break down. It is 
applied to a prop or support when 
it breaks down through feeble- 
ness and simple perpendicular 
pressure of a weight above. 
Video, through W. Noye. 

Cricks, dry hedgewood. Polwhele. 

Crips, adj. crisp ; stiffly curled. 

Crock, a large iron pot standing 
on three legs, used for cooking 
purposes. " The crock calls the 
kettle smutty." " From crockan, 
a bowl; hence croggan shells." 
H. R. C. 



16 



WEST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 



Croft, a small common. "An 
enclosed common not yet culti- 
vated." J. W. 

Croggans, shells of limpets. 

Crooks, crooked pieces of wood in 
the form of a half- circle slung on 
each side of a horse. Used in 
the time of pack-horses to carry 
light loads on. 

Croom, a crumb ; a drop. "Taake 
a croom o' caake and a croom o' 
comfort " (spirits). 

Croony, adj. childish; doating. 

Crouging, part, shuffling. "He 
goes crouging along." 

Crow (as in crowd), a hut ; a 
small house. Pig's-crow, a pig- 
stye. 

Crowd, a wooden hoop covered 
with sheep-skin, used for taking 
up corn. " Sometimes used as a 
tambourine, then called crowdy- 
crawn." Davy, Zennor. 

Crowd, a fiddle. 
Crowder, a tiddler. 
Crowdy, v. to play the fiddle. 

Crownin, a coroner's (crowner's) 
inquest. "They held a crownin 
on him." 

Crow-sheaf, the top sheaf on the 
end of a mow. Mow in W. Corn- 
wall is pronounced like cow. 
" The corn was cut and mowed" 
(stacked). 

Crowst (ow like cow), refresh- 
ments given to farm-labourers 
in the field at harvest- time. 

Cruddle, v. to curdle. 
Crudly up, v. to curl up. 

Cmds, curds. Grudge, T. C., St. 
Just. 

Cruel, adv. very. " She was 
cruel sick " (very ill). "A cruel 
shaape" (shape) is a great mess. 
4 ' 'Twere plaise sure in a cruel 
shaape." Uncle Jan Trenoodle. 



Crull, a bushy, curly head. " His 

head es all o' a crull." "Owld 

Crull" 
Crum, adj. crooked. "Her 

finger is crum." 
Crum-a-grackle, mess, difficulty, 

bother. ' ' Here's a pretty crum- 

a-grackle ! what shall we do by 

it?" St. Just, T. 0. 
Grummet, a small bit ; a crumb. 
Crumpling, a little sweet wrinkled 

apple prematurely ripe. 
Crunk, v. to croak as a raven. 

F. 0. 

Cuckoo, Guckow, the wild 
hyacinth. " Fool, fool, the 
Guck-ow ! " said by one boy to 
another when he has succeeded in 
fooling him on April Fool's day. 

Cud, a quid of tobacco. 

Cuddle, Goodie, a cuttle-fish. 
" Staring like a coodle." 

Cue, an ox shoe ; an iron heel 
put on a shoe or boot. 

Culiack, a good-for-nothing per- 
son. Davy, Zennor. 

Cuny, adj. mildewed. 

Custance, a term used by boys 
in playing. When two boys are 
partners, and by accident hit 
each other's marbles, they cry, 
No custance ! meaning that they 
have a right to put back the 
marble struck. If they neglected 
to cry they would be considered 
out of the game. 

Custis, a flat piece of board with 
a handle, formerly used by 
teachers in school to strike the 
palm of the hand. Custis is now 
applied to a smart cut given 
across the palm of the hand by 
a cane. " I'll give you a custis'" 

Custit, adj. sharp in reply ; 

impudently sharp. Couch. 
Custom (pron. coostom), raw, 

smuggled spirits. " A drap o' 

coostom." 



WEST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 



17 



Dabbety Fay! an expression 
formerly used by old people in 
W. Penwith as a pious inter- 
jection, equivalent to ' ' Give us 
faith ! " H. E. C. 

Daffer, small crockery -ware. 
" Bring the daffer," -that is, 
"Bring the tea- things, cups and 
saucers." Polwhele. 

Dag, a mining tool ; an axe. 

Bagging, part, hanging down; 
trailing. " That tree is dagging 
with fruit." " Her dress is dag- 
ging in the mud." 

Dane, " red-headed Dane" a term 

of reproach. 
Dame-ku, a jack snipe. E. H. B., 

through W. Noye. 

Daps, Dops, an image ; a resem- 
blance. "He's the very daps of 
his mother." Down-daps, Lost- 
withiel, J. W. 

Dash-an-darras, "the stirrup- 
glass. This old custom, ' to 
speed the parting guest' (his 
foot in the stirrup) with a dram, 
still obtains in the W. of Corn- 
wall." Polwhele (1808). 

Daver, v. to soil; to fade as a 
flower. See Bedabber. 

Davered, p. p. as adj. soiled ; 

faded. "Davered flowers." 
Day-berry, the wild gooseberry. 

Dead, p.p. as adj. fainted. " She 
went off dead." 

Dead and alive, adj. apathetic; 
dull. 

Deads, the refuse of mines. 
Deaf-nettle, wild hemp. 
Dealsey, Delseed, a fir cone. 

Deef, adj. deaf; empty; rotten. 
"A deef nut." "The seeling, 
being deef, was scat" (broken). 
Uncle Jan Trenoodle. 

Denneck. "There is another 
species of tub-fish caught here 
(Mousehole) very similar to, but 



much smaller than the former 
(i. e. tub), sometimes called Piper 
or Peeper, and by others Ellick, 
Denneck, orEedannech." W.F.P. 

Devil's bit, Devil's button, the 

blue Scabious. If picked the 
devil is said to appear at your 
bedside in the night. 

Dew-snail, a slug. " As slippery 

as a dew-snail." 
Didjan, a small bit. 

Dido, a great noise. " The cocks 
and the hens kicking up such a 
dido." 

Dig, Diggy, v. to scratch. " Don't 

dig your head so." 
Dijey, a small farm. "A very 

small homestead." Bottrell. 
Dimmet, Dummet, twilight. 
Ding, v. to reiterate. 
Dinged, reiterated. " He dinged 

it into my ears from morning to 

night." 

Dinky, adj. tiny. F. C. 

Dinyan (pron. din-yan), a little 
corner. "I don't like fitting 
carpets into these stupid din- 
yans." 

Dippa, a small pit : a mining 
term. 

Dish, the revenue received by 
the .lord of a tin-mine for the 
right of working it. Now paid 
in money, formerly in kind, 
when every fifteenth or twentieth 
dish was put by for him. In 
W. Cornwall the country people 
still speak of a cup of tea as 
" a dish o' tay." 

Disknowledge. " He did not 

disknowledge it." T. C., St. Just. 
Dissel, Diesel, a thistle. 
Doat fig, a Turkey fig. "And 

dabb'd a ge'at doat fig in Fan 

Trembaa's lap." 

Dob, v. to throw stones at any- 
thing. 

c 



18 



WEST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 



Dobbet, adj. short. "She's a 

regular little dobbet." 
Dock, the crupper of a saddle. 

Docy, adj. pretty ; kind ; neat. 
Speaking of a young girl, she is 
said to be docy. Thus, " she's a 
docy little maid." F. W. P., 
Jago, M. B. 

Dogged. "And timber had to 
be dogged (dragged) many miles." 
BottreU. 

Doldrums, low spirits. "I'm 

down in the doldrums." 
Dole, a parcel of copper ore ; a 

share in a mine ; mine dues. 

' ' What dole do you pay ? " 

Dollop, a large piece. "Don't 
cut such a dollop" 

Dooda, a stupid. 

Doodle, v. to cheat ; to deceive ; 

to trifle. 

Doodling, part, cheating. 
Doole, Dolley, v. to toll a bell. 

Douse, v. to yield ; to give up. 
' ' Douse out your money." 

Dousse. "I have known poor 
people call a pillow stuffed with 
husks of winnowed corn a dousse 
pillow." F. W. P., Jago, M. B. 
Chaff from winnowed corn is 
doust. 

Doust, v. to pelt. " I maade the 
purpoashals to doust 'em with 
stoanes." Uncle Jan Trenoodle. 

Doust, Douce, a blow. " A douce 
on the chacks." Polwhele. 

Douster, a fall ; a thump. Gar- 
land. 

Dousting, a thrashing. 

Dover, to pay all talkers, no 
listeners. 

Dow. "The aw'd dow, a dis- 
agreeable, cross old woman, one 
who will not do what she is 
wanted to." Gwinear, 1868, T. C. 

Down, Down-daunted, p. p. as 



adj. cast down ; depressed. "He's 
dreadfully down-daunted, regu- 
larly down in the mouth." 
Downses, downs; commons. 
" Out for a walk on the downses." 

Down-souse, adv. plainly; 
frankly; out-spoken. "I up 
and told un down-souse." 

Dowse, v. to throw on the ground. 

Dowser, a man who discovers 
metal by dowsing. 

Dowser, a forked twig of hazel, 
used by Cornish miners to dis- 
cover a vein of metaL It is held 
loosely in the hand, the point to 
the dowser's breast, and is said 
to turn round when they are 
standing over metaL 

Dowsing, part, discovering metals 
by means of a dowser. 

Drag, v. to drawl. " Don't drag 
out your words." 

Drain, a drone. 

Dram, a swathe of cut corn. 
BottreU. 

Drang, a narrow passage; a 
gutter ; a drain. 

Drash, v. to thrash corn. 
Drashel, a flail. 

Draw-bucket, a bucket to draw 
water from a well. 

Dredge, a mixed crop of barley, 
oats, and wheat. 

Dredgy ore, a stone impregnated 
or traversed by mineral veins of 
ore. Mining Record. The poorer 
sort. Borlase Nat. Hist., 203, 
through W. N. 

Dresser, a stand with shelves for 
earthenware. "All over the 
house, -like Aaron's dresser" 
Halliwell says, N. Country, 
"Down with his apple-cart, an 
overturning." In Cornwall, 
" Down with your dresser," or 
" Over goes your apple-cart." 
M. A. C. 



WEST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 



19 



Dresshel, Drexel, the threshold. 
Dreckstool, Polwhele. 

Drethan, a spot of sand. It is 
a mutation of "treathen," as in 
Pentreath, "the head of the 
sands." W. F. P. " Dretlien, 
a sand spot ; a sand area. Good 
fishing ground heneath the sea." 
B. V., Mousehole fishermen. I 
don't think Pentreath is from 
treath, sand, but from Pentref, 
a village. H. R. 0. 

Drib, a dribble. " Dri/, a small 
quantity, not now commonly 
used. ' ' Video, through W. Noye. 

Drilsy, a monotonous, continued 
sound. " My dear cheeld, do stop 
your drilsy." A. guck-oo song 
is a regular drilsy. 

Bring, a crowd of people. To be 
dringed up is to be much pressed 
or worried. 

Dripshan, mother's milk ; spirits. 
"A little drap o' dripshan." 

Broke, a wrinkle ; a furrow ; a 
passage. 

Broil. " It is the duty of the 
last man leaving a level part of 
a mine to explain to the first 
man of a relief party coming to 
it the state of the end they have 
been working, i. e. what holes 
for blasting they leave bored, 
what fired off, what have missed 
fire this is called telling the 
droll." . T. C. Droll, an old tale, 
a legend. It is sometimes ap- 
plied to a tiresome, long-winded 
person. "He's a regular owd 
droll." 

Brop-curls, ringlets. 

Brops, window-blinds. " I knew 
he was dead the drops were 
down." 

Brover, a fishing-boat employed 
in driving or fishing, with drift 
or float nets. 

Bruckshar, a small solid wheel. 

Brug, a drag ; v. to drug a wheel 
(to put on the drag). 



Brule, v. to drivel. 
Bruler, a driveller ; a fool. 
Bruling, part, talking in a silly 

manner. 

Brum, v. to flog. 
Brumming, a flogging. 

Brumble, v. to go about a thing 
awkwardly ; to fumble. 

Brumble -drain, a drone; a 
humble-bee. 
" But Graacey were a keen chap 

too, 

She were no drumble-drane." 
Uncle Jan Trenoodle. 

Bryth, used by washerwomen 
when clothes don't dry. " There's 
no dryth in the air." 

Buffan, a man who praises him- 
self; a self-righteous hypocrite. 

Buffy, a blunt, out-spoken person. 
" A blunt, happy-go-lucky per- 
son." Bottrell. 

Bug, a push. 

Buggle, v. to walk about like a 

young child. 
Bule, Bool, comfort ; consolation. 

Bull, hard of hearing ; deaf. 
"He's very dull of hearing to- 
day." 

Bumble dory, the cockchafer : 
sometimes called Spanish dumbh- 
dory. "No more heart than a 
dumbledory" (a coward). "As 
blind as a dumbledory." 

Bumdolly, a misshapen marble. 

Bung, mud; dirt. "Sweating 

like dung" 
Bungy, adj. muddy; dirty. 

" What dungy shoes." 
Bunyon, a dungeon. "As dark 

as a dunyon." 

Burgy, a short, stout person. 
Burk, adj. dark ; blind. " Durlc 

as petch (pitch) a wonside and 

hafe of a crepple." Uncle Jan 

Trenoodle. 

c2 



20 



WEST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 



Durnes, Burns, the panels around 
a door; the door jambs. "I 
were squabb'd (squeezed) 'gen 
the durnes" 

Dwaling, part, speaking in a 
rambling, confused manner. 

Ear-bussas, the tonsils. Ear- 
bussums, T. Q. Couch, 

Eave, Heave, v. to thaw; to 
become moist. " Uneeve," Pol- 
whele. 

Ees-fye, adv. in faith ; certainly. 
" Ees-fye, there's a bad smell 
here." 

Egg-hot, a Christmas drink made 
with hot beer, sugar, eggs, and 
rum. 

Elements. "The lightning went 
all across the dements." 

Elicompane, a sweetmeat ; hard- 
bake. "What's your name?" 
" Elicompane" " Who gave you 
that name ? " " My Master and 
Dame." 

Elicompanie, a tomtit. "There 
is a vulgar tradition that the 
elicompanie is a bird by day and 
a toad by night." Polwhele. 

Elvan, blue porphyry. Elvan is 
derived from Old Cornish elven, 
a spark, the rock being so hard 
as to strike fire. 

Em-mers, Timers, embers. 

Emmut, stroke, as spoken of the 
wind.' " Eight in the emmut of 
it," that is, right in the stroke of 
it. Polwhele. 

En, the plural termination still 
in use, as "house, housen; prim- 
rose, primrosen." 

Ene, mene, mona, mi, Pasca, 
lara, bona (or bora), bi. Elke, 
belke, boh. Eggs, butter, cheese, 
bread, stick, stack, stone dead. 
Said by children in W. Cornwall 
when they want to know who 
shall be blind-man in blind-man's 
buff, &c. See Vizzery. 



Ent, v. to empty. 

Enties, empty bottles. Empt is 
often used as a contraction, as, 
" Empt the bag." 

Ettaw, a shackle for fastening 
two chains together, so as to 
make them one long one. Mouse- 
hole fishermen, through W. F. P. 

Eval, a three-pronged stable-fork. 
Turn-down eval, a garden tool for 
digging. 

E-ver, a grass; evergreen rye. 
" Eaver, so called in Paul parish, 
is the darnel principally found in 
red wheat." H. E. C. 

Every one week, plir. every 
other week. "There's a collec- 
tion at our chapel every one 
week.'" 

Ewet, Ebbet, a newt 
Eyeable, adj. pleasant to the eye. 
" Make it eyeable." 

Fackle, an acute inflammation in 
the foot. 

Faddy, Flora, Furry-day, a feast 
held at Helstone on the 8th May, 
when all ranks (each keeping to 
its own class, and starting at 
different hours) dance through 
the town, to a peculiar tune 
called "The Flora or Furry ;" 
sometimes going in through the 
front door of a house and out at 
the back. There is always a ball 
in the evening. 

Fade, v. to dance from town to 
country. 

Fadge, Fadgee, v. to suit ; to 
agree ; to do. " That 'ull never 
fadge." " How do 'ee fadgee ?" 
how do you do ? 

Faggot, a bad woman. "It is 
also used to describe a secret and 
unworthy compromise. In wrest- 
ling, a man who ' sells his back ' 
is said ' to faggot.' " Couch. 

Fainaigue, v.io cheat; to deceive; 



WEST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 



21 



to flatter ; to trump a card, hold- 
ing one of the suit. Furnigg, 
Couch. 

Fainaiging, part, as adj. cheating ; 
imposing. ' ' Afuinaiging vellun " 
(villain). 

Fainaiguer, a cheat ; a deceiver. 

Feneaged. " He agreed with the 
hoy for a month at 4 a-year, 
and he went away and feneaged 
that hoy, and never took him 
nor paid him." Probus district, 
through T. C. 

Fair-a-Mo, a fair held in St. Ives 
in November (pig fair). 

Fairy, a weasel. T. Q. Couch. 

Falky, a long -stemmed plant. 
Halliwell. 

Fallows, boards fastened to the 
sides of a cart to make it hold 
more. 

Fal - the - rals , Falderal s, non- 
sense; frippery. "Dressed up 
in such fal-the-rals." 

Fang, v. to earn ; to take ; to take 
to. "I don't fang to your 
notions." 

Fangings, wages. "Why a 
spent all hes fangings laaste 
Saturda' nite." Uncle Jan Tre- 
noodle. 

Fare-nut, the earth or ground- 
nut. 

Farthing, a measure of land. 
"Thirty acres." Halliwell. 

Fast. The fast is the under- 
stratum, supposed never to have 
been moved or broken up since 
the creation. Polwhele. 

Fatch, v. to get home (fetch). " I 
shaan't be longfatching home." 

Feasten, adj. connected with the 
two days yearly dedicated to a 
patron saint (Sunday and Mon- 
day). " Madron (pron. maddern) 
feasten Sunday." 

Feather -hog, a quagmire. 



Feather-tye, a feather-bed. See 
Bed-tye. 

Features. "He features his 
father," resembles him. 

Fee, freehold property. " Our 
house is fee" 

Feehs, Feeps, pitch-and-toss. 

Fellon, a cattle disease ; an in- 
flammation ; mortification. 

Fellon-herb, mouse-ear ; chick- 
weed. 

Fencock, the water-rail. 
Fernicock, Fernweb, a small 

brown beetle used as bait for 

trout. 

Fescue, a pin or pointer used to 
teach children to read. "Pro- 
nounced also Tester." Polwhele. 

Fetch up, to get stronger. " She'll 
soon fetch up again." 

Few, a little. " A few broth." 
Broth are always plural in Corn- 
wall : " They are too salt," &c. 
J. W. 

Fig, phr. " in full jig" very fine ; 
smart : spoken of a person with 
all his orders on. 

Figs, raisins. 

Figs and nuts, almonds and 

raisins. 
Figgy pudden, plum pudding. 

Filth, a slut. " She's a dirty 
filth." 

Filth, fill. " He had his filth of 
meat." " A poor dear old sister 
that has not got her filth of 
bread." Gwinear, T. C. 

Find myself, phr. know myself. 
' ' I shouldn' t find myself, dressed 
up like that." 

Fine, adv. very. " A fine clever 

boy." " Fine and coarse cotton " 

(very coarse). 
Fine and well, very well. " I'm 

getting on fine and well, thank 

'ee." 



WEST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 



Fire. "As drunk as fire" mad 
drunk. 

Fire-engine, a steam-engine. "A 
favourite sign for a public- 
house." 

Fire-pan, a fire-shovel. 
Fire-tail, the redstart. 

Firk, v. to tease roughly by hand. 
F. C. 

Fish-fag, a fish-wife : more com- 
monly called Fish-j ouster. 

Fish-jousting, part, hawking fish. 

Fisted, p. p. struck with the fist. 
" I fisted her." 

Fit, v. to prepare meat for cook- 
ing. "When shall I fit the 
dennar?" " Will 'ee ha' a pie 
fitted f " The devil won't come 
into Cornwall for fear of being 
put in a pie." 

Fitcher, a pole-cat. "Stinking 
like nfitcher." 

Fitchered, p. p. to be baulked 
to be stopped. " Used in mining 
when some difficulty occurs in 
boring a hole for blasting." 
Garland. 

Fitty, adj. nice ; becoming ; 
clever. " Your dress isn't look- 
ing fifty." "He gov' a fitly 
answer." 

Fitty-ways, adv. properly. " Do 
behave fifty-ways." 

Flaad, p. p. as adj. puffed out 
with flatulency, as cattle after 
too much green food. 

Flaire, fat arcmnd a pig's kidney. 
Flam-new, adj. quite new. 

Flannin, flannel. "A fiannin 
shart." 

Flasket, a large basket with a 
handle at each end ; a clothes 
basket. 

Flay-gerry (g hard), a frolic ; a 
spree. 



Fleet, v. to gutter, as a candle in 
a draught. " v. to float." W. N. 

Flem, an instrument for bleeding 
cattle. 

Flesh - mait, butcher's meat. 
" They don't ait fiesh-mait once 
a month." Pork is often spoken 
of as flesh in contradistinction to 
beef. 

Fleukan, a cross-cut that cuts off 
a lode (a vein) of metal. " He's 
cut out by the fleukan" 

Flied, p. p. flown, 

Flink, a fling. " She went out 
with a flink." 

Flink, v. to fling; imp. Flinkt. 
" She flinkt out of the room." 
"She flinkt o& her hat." 

Flip-jack, a rude fireplace. 

Flisk, a large tooth-comb. 

Flitters, tatters. " She tore it to 

flitters" " Her dress is hanging 

in flitters." 
Flood-hatch, a flood-gate, phr. 

" It's raining a flood." 
Floor, a grass meadow. In 

mining, planks laid for dressing 

ore. 
Flop, v. to drop clumsily. "He 

let un flop on the planchen " 

(floor). 
Flopt, v. imp. " She fiopt down 

on her sait" (seat). 
Flopper. an under petticoat. 

Polwhele. 
Flora-in-distress. A woman with 

dishevelled hair is said to look 

like Flora-in-distress. 

Flosh, v. to spill ; to shake over. 
" Don't flosh the water on the 
floor." 

Flouery-milk, hasty pudding. 

Flushed, p. p. as adj. fledged. 
" The birds have flushed and 
flied" (flown). 

Flushet, a clam in a stream. 



WEST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 



23 



Flybanite, a giddy girl. 

Fo'ced, p. p. as adj. forced ; 

obliged. " A forced put is no 

choice." 
Fogo, a cave in a cliff; a hollow. 

Folger, Folyer (follower), a boat 

that carries the tuck -net in 

pilchard fishing. 
Fooch, a makeshift. "A fooch 

of a dennar" (dinner). 
Fooch, v. to make a thing serve ; 

to do upon a push. ' ' Can 'ee 

fooch along wi' that ? " 

Fooch, v. to push; to thrust 
yourself forward. " Where be 
ee fooching ? " 

Fooching along, doing indiffer- 
ently well. " How be 'ee, Jan?" 
" Fooching along, thank ' ee." 

Foothy, Forthy, adj. forward. 
" A fine forthy maid." "He's 
bra' andfoothy." 

Fore-stroll, v. "I have never 
walked with her. I may have 
seen her fore-stroll, and gone to 
overtake her." St. Just, T. C. 

Fo'right-bread, Foreright- 
bread, bread made from unsifted 
flour. 

Fo'right, Foreright, person, adj. 
an out-spoken person. 

Forrel, the cover of a book. 
Forth-and-back, adj. inconstant. 

Fousse, v. to crumple ; to ruffle ; 
to disarrange. " You've foussed 
your cap." " Don't fousse the 
clain clothes." 

Frange, v. to spread out like a 
fan. 

Frape, v. to bind. Couch. 

Freath, a gap in a wattled hedge. 
Couch. Frith, a gap in a hedge 
made up. J. W. 

Freathed, adj. wattled. 
Freathe, v. to weave. 



Freathe out, to unravel. " This 
stuff freathes out very quickly.' 

French nuts, walnuts. 
Fret, v. to ferment. 

Frickets, Flickets, sudden heats 
in the face. 

Friday-in-lide, a miner's holiday. 
The first Friday in March. 
" Ducks won't lay till they've 
drinked lide water." "Friday- 
in-lide is marked by a serio- 
comic custom of sending a young 
man on the highest bound, or 
hillock of the work, and allow- 
ing him to sleep there as long as 
he can ; the length of this siesta 
being the measure of the after- 
noon nap for the tinners through- 
out the ensuing twelvemonths.' ' 
T. Q. Couch. 

Fringle, the grate of a kitchen. 

Fringle-hole, the place under the 
grate where the ashes lie. 

Frivolous, adj. thin; liable to 

break. " This wool is very 

frivolous." 
Full-butt, phr. face to face. " I 

met him full-butt." 
Fulsome, adj. cloying. " This 

tart is swate and/ufoome." 
Funny, well-pleasing. " It looks 

funny " it looks well-pleasing ; 

regular. Polwhele. 

Fur, v. to pull the ears. F. C. 
Fuz', furze. "Sweating like a 

/wz'-bush on a dewy morning." 
Fuz'-chat, the stone-chatter. 
Fuz'-kite, the ring-tailed kite. 
Fuzzy-pig, the hedgehog. F. C. 

Gad, a mining tool ; a wedge for 

splitting rocks. 
Gaddle, v. to drink greedily. T. 

Q. Couch. " To fill up; to brim 

over." Garland. 
Gad-je-vraws, ox-eye daisies. 



24 



WEST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 



Gaern, a garden. 

Gaggled, p. p. as adj. daggled. 

Gale, an ox. " A childless man." 
Garland. 

Gale - ey grounds. " Ground 
where springs rise in different 
places." Polwhele. Carew speaks 
of Gaully grounds. 

Galliganter, a tall, ungainly 

person. 
Gallish, the gallows. " As cross 

as the gallish." 

Gal-yant, adj. gallant. 

Gambers, inter/. " Yes, by gam- 

lent" 
Gambrils, the small of the leg. 

Gammut, fun ; nonsense. " She 
thinks of nothing hut gammut." 

Gange, Ginge, v. to gange a hook 
is to cover it with a fine brass or 
copper wire, to prevent its being 
bitten off by the fish. " Ging, 
ginge, the fine wire twisted to 
the line above the hook to pre- 
vent congers from biting the 
line." H. E. C. 

Garey, v. Husband and wife 
both trying to tell the same 
story (very loud), wife turns 
round on husband "One is 
quite enough to garey ;" and 
husband subsides. St. Just, 
through T. C. 

Gashly, adv. ghastly. 

Gathorn, a mischievous spirit 
supposed to haunt mines. 

Gaver, a sea crayfish. Polwhele, 
Halliwell. 

Gawkum, an awkward person. 

Gay. " One is a play, two is a 

gay." 
Gays, children's toys : often, 

broken earthenware. 
G'eat (pron. gaite), great. 

Geek, v. to pry; to look round 
curiously. " Oeeking about like 



a Custom-house officer." ".So" 
geek," bo-peep. 

Gerrick, a whistler fish; sea- 
pike. 

Gidge, interj. " Oh my gidge ! H 
Gift, a white mark on the nail. 

' ' A gift on the thumb is sure to 

come; 

But a gift on the finger is 
sure to linger." 

Giglet, a thoughtless, laughing 
girl. " There's nothing but a 
passle (parcel) o' giglets going." 

Gijoalter, part of the rigging of 

a ship. J. Kelynack, Newlyn. 
Girts, groats ; oatmeal. 

Girty-milk, oatmeal; milk por- 
ridge. 

Giss, Geist, a hempen girdle; 
the girth of a saddle. 

Gissing round, Geesing round, 

v. peering about ; spying. 

Giz' dance, Guise dance, Geese 
dancers, people that go about" at 
Christmas disguised and with 
masks on, generally three or 
four in a party. They come into 
your house uninvited, and are 
often very unruly. Sometimes 
they act an old play, " St. George 
and the Dragon." "As good as 
a Christmas play" is said of any- 
thing very funny. This custom 
has been abolished in Penzance 
for about ten years. 

Gladdy, the yellow-hammer. 

Glands, the banks of a river. 
Polwhele, Halh'well. 

Glase, v. to stare. 

Glassenbury dog, a term of re- 
proach, the origin at present 
unknown to the editor. Uncle 
Jan Trenoodle. 

" Do le' ma knaw the Olasseiibury 
dog" 

Glaws, Gouse, dried cow-dung 

used for firing. 
Glen adder, the cast skin of an 



WEST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 



adder worn as an amulet. " The 
foot of a toad is worn in a bag 
around the neck as a cure for 
epilepsy." H. E. C. 

Glidder, a glaze ; an enamel. 

Glow, Glower, v. to stare; to 
look cross. 

Glumps, sulks. "She's in the 
glumps." 

Glumped up, p. p. as adj. sitting 
sulkily. " Glumped up in a 
corner." 

Go abroad, v. to dissolve. " The 
sugar has gone abroad." 

Go-a-gooding, v. to go from house 
to house asking alms. On 
Christmas Eve large parties of 
poor women, sometimes as many 
as twenty in a party, call on all 
their rich neighbours, asking 
alms. This they call going a 
gooding. 

Goal, a slow, aching pain. T. Q. 
Couch. 

Go around land, plir. to die. 
" They don't care how soon he 
goes around land." 

Goffans, Coffans, old surface ex- 
cavations in a mine. 

Goggle for gapes, v. to look 
astonished; to stare foolishly. 
" Or stand goggling for gapes 
like an owl at an eagle." Uncle 
Jan Trenoodle. 

Golden chain, the flower of the 

laburnum. 
Gommock, a fool. 

Gone dead, v. " He's gone dead 

three years since." 
Gone poor, v. " He used to be 

rich, now he's gone poor." 
Goodness, butter or any kind of 

fat put in pastry. " There's not 

enough goodness in this cake." 

Goodspoon, a mischievous child. 
"A regular young goodspoon. 1 ' 
" A ne'er do weel." J. W., Lost- 
withiel. 



Goody, v. to thrive; to fatten. 

" Our cheeld don't goody" 
Goonhilly, a Cornish pony reared 

on Goonhilly downs. 
Goosechick, a gosling. 
Go ss, a fuss or perplexity. 

Goss, a bulrush ; a reed. " Goss 
moor " is a reedy moor, Gorse. 
J. W. 

Gossan, an old wig grown yellow 
from age and wear ; yellow earth 
just above a vein of metal. 
' ' Keenly gossan " is earth that 
looks promising for metal. 

Gourd, Goad, a linear measure ; 
a square yard : so called from 
being measured with the goad or 
staff by which oxen are driven. 

Gove, v. imp. gave. " I gove et 
to the dog" (gov'). 

Gowk, a large bonnet worn by 
country women, often made 
from printed calico ; it has a 
protruding front, and a large 
curtain at the back to keep off 
the sun. 

Grab, something very sour, pro- 
bably a crab apple. " Sour as 
grab." A grab. Lostwithiel, J. W. 

Grafted, v., p. p. as adj. be- 
grimed. " It's grafted with dirt." 
" The dirt is grafted in." 

Grail, a trident for spearing fish. 

Grainy, adj. proud. "A cut 
against the grain" is a cross, 
disagreeable person. 

Grambler, a stony place. 

Grammer sow, a millipede; a 
wood-louse. " Cafenter." F. C. 

Grange, Gringe, v. to grind the 
teeth. 

Grass, a mining term for the sur- 
face of a mine. The ores are 
said to be brought to grass when 
they are brought to the surface, 
and the miner says he is going 
to grass when he comes up from 
underground. " Grass capun " 



26 



WEST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 



(captain) is a man who superin- 
tends the preparing the ore after 
it has been brought to grass. 

Graving clouds, clouds blowing 
from the quarter of the wind 
branching over the sky in a 
contrary direction, foretelling a 
storm. 

Grebe, a handful. 

Green sauce, common sorrel ; 
Oxalis. 

Green side, land kept in pasture. 
" The green side is the most pro- 
fitable after all." 

Grend, a kink or twist in a 
chain. Mousehole fishermen, 
through W. F. P. 

Grey, "a badger." Polwhele. 
" Grey as a badger " is a Cornish 
proverb. 

Grey bird, the song thrush. 

Griddle, a gridiron, v. to grill. 

Griddling, part, sitting on a low 
stool before the fire warming 
oneself. 

Grief. " To make grief" to make 
mischief. 

Griggan, a grasshopper. 

Griglans, Griglings, heath. 
" Heathy moorlands are grig! an 
moors." H. E. C. Heath- 
brooms, griglan-besoms. 

Grizzle, v. to grin ; laugh ; show 
the teeth. "What's the g'eat 
buffl ehead grizzling at ? " " He 
grizzled at me; he was as vexed 
as fire." 

Grobman, " a sea bream about 
two-thirds grown," Polwhele, 
Halliwell. 

Grock, v. to pull ; to tweak. 
" Grock is to tweak the hair up- 
wards over the ears or above the 
nud'eck " (the nape of the neck). 
H. RC. 

Gross, adj. stout; big. "A 
gross man." 



Growan, loose granite. 

Growder, soft granite used for 
scouring. Decomposed granite 
often called " scouring geard." 

Groyne, a seal. 

Grudglings, Grooshans, dregs; 

sediment left in the bottom of a 

tea-cup. 

Gruffler, a child. 

Grute, Greet, coffee grounds; 
finely pulverised soil. " The 
greet board of a plough is the 
part which turns the furrow." 
T. Q. Couch. 

Guff, stuff; refuse. 

Guinea pig, the small white 
cowrie. 

Guldize, Goolandize, the harvest- 
home feast. 

Gulge, v. to drink greedily. 

Gully-mouth, a small pitcher. 
"He's a regular gully-mouth" 
(one that takes in everything). 

Gunnis, a crevice in a mine or 
lode. Camborne, through T. C. 

Gurgoe, Gurgey (both g's hard), 
a low hedge ; a rough fence for 
waste land. 

Gurgoes, long narrow lanes. "VV. 
F. P. 

Gurrie, a hand-barrow for carry- 
ing fish ; or a wicker-basket with 
four long handles, carried like a 
sedan-chair. 

Gwaith, the breast hook of a 
boat. 

Gweans, scallops ; periwinkles. 
Sometimes called Queens. 

Gwenders, a disagreeable tingling 
in the extremities produced by 
cold. Also called Wonders. "I 
have the gwenders in my fingers. " 
" I have the wonders for the first 
time this winter." 

Hack, Hacky, v. to dig lightly. 



WEST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 



27 



Hail, v. to cover with slates 

(slat). H. R. 0. 
Hain, a hind ; a farm bailiff. 

Hair-pitched, adj. bald. " Hair- 
pitched ould hermit," term of 
reproach. Newlyn, T. C. 

Haivery (the accent on the first 
syllable), miserly. F. W. P. J. 

Half (pron. haaf), Half-baked, 
Half-saved, half-witted. "He's 
only haaf -baked ; he was put in 
with the bread and taken out 
with the cakes." 

Half-crease, " to put out bees to 
feed." Half the increase, when 
the owner has half the honey, 
and the person who takes care of 
the bees the other half. J. W. 

Halish, adj. pale. " She's a poor 
halish creetur." 

Hallan, Hallan- apple, a large 
apple given to each member of 
the family at Hallantide. 

Hallan-tide, All Saint's Day. 
Hall-nut, a hazel nut. 

Halvaner, one who receives the 
half produce of his labour. 

Halvans, refuse of the lode (or 
vein of metal) after the ore is 
separated from the rock. 

Halvans, half produce of labour, 

given instead of wages. 
Haly-caly, v. to throw things to 

be scrambled for. 

Hame, a circle of straw rope ; a 
straw horse collar, with wooden 
collar- trees. "A hame is used 
to fasten the fore-leg of a sheep 
to his neck, in a somewhat un- 
merciful way, to prevent him 
from breaking fence." Couch. 

Hand - gloves, gloves. " What, 
begging with hand-gloves on ! " 

Handsel, Hansel. When a man 
is well paid for any chance job 
early in the day, he says " that's 
a good hansel." 



Hankcher, a handkerchief. 
Haps, a hasp. Hapses, pi. 
Hardah, elvan. Couch. 

Hard-head, the refuse of tin 
after smelting. The plantain, 
J. W. 

Hare's-meat, wood-sorrel. 

Hark, v. to listen. " I wouldn't 

hark to her nonsense." 
Harve, a harrow. 

Hastis, adj. hasty. " Hysty 
(Cornish), haste, make haste." 
Uncle Jan Trenoodle. 

Hatches, dams ; mounds. 
Hatchet-faced, adj. thin-faced. 
Hatter-flitter, a jack-snipe. 

Haveage, the family ; the race ; 
the lot. " They come from a bad 
haveage.' ' 

Haysing, following hares by 

night. 
Head and henge, the pluck of 

an animal. 
Heap, the thigh. 

Heap. " When I heard it I was 
knocked all of a heap' 1 (fright- 
ened, astonished). 

Heavy-cake, a flat cake about an 
inch thick, made of flour, cream, 
currants, &c. It should be eaten 
hot from the oven. 

Hedge a-boor, a hedgehog. 

Heed, v. to hide. Mop-and- 

heedy, hide-and-seek. 
Heel of the hand, tbe inside, 

thick part of the thumb. 
Hele, v. to cover. 
Heller, Hellier, a thatcher ; a 

tiler. 
Helling, a roof. 

Helling - stone, flat slate for 

roofing. 
Hepping-stock, a horse-block. 

Hepping-stocks, or liepping-stones, 



WEST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 



are often seen by old garden 
walls. Upping- stock. 

Heps, a hatch ; a short half-door, 
often seen in country shops. The 
lower half is kept shut, the top 
open. There is generally a bell 
fastened to it to give notice of a 
customer. When a person has 
been brought before his superiors 
and remanded, he is figuratively 
said " to have been made to ride 
the heps." " More tongue than 
teeth ; she had better keep a heps 
before her mouth." 

Het-up (heat-up), v. to cast in 
one's teeth. " She het it up to 
him that he was drunk last 
night." 

Hev-a, a word shouted through 
St. Ives' s streets when there are 
pilchards in the bay. 

Hewer, Huer, a person that 
makes signals from the cliffs to 
the fishermen in their boats, to 
let them know in what direction 
the pilchards lie. 

Hewing, part, making signals 
from the cliffs to the boats. 
There is generally a shed on 
the highest cliff to shelter the 
hewer, called the hewing-house 
or bacon-house (beacon-house). 

Kicking cough, a dry, hacking 

cough. 
Hick-mal, Hekky-mal, the blue 

titmouse. Ekky-mowl, F. W. 

P. J., M. B. 

Hile, Aile, He, the beard of 
barley. 

Hilla, the nightmare. 

Hippety - hoppety, adv. " He 
goes hippety - hoppety ' ' (walks 
unevenly). 

Hitch, v. to sew lightly. " Don't 
put too many stitches; hitch it 
together." 

Hitcher, the chape of a buckle. 
See Aitch. 



Hobban, Hoggan, a cake made 
of flour and raisins, often eaten 
by miners for dinner. Some- 
times called Figgy Hoggan 
or Fuggan. A pork pasty. 

Hobban, or Hoggan -bag, a 
miners' dinner-bag. A piece of 
meat baked or boiled in paste is 
sometimes so called. 

Hobble, v. to tie together the 
front and hind leg of an animal 
to keep it from straying. 

Hobbler, an unlicensed pilot ; a 
man who tows in a vessel with 
ropes. Two or three generally 
own a boat between them. 

Hobble, the share each hobbler 
gets when they bring in a vessel. 

Hobby-horse Day, a festival held 
in Padstow on May 1st. A 
hobby-horse is carried through 
the streets to a pool called 
Traitor's Pool, a quai-ter of a 
mile out of the town. Here it 
is supposed to drink; the head 
is dipped in the water, which is 
freely sprinkled over the specta- 
tors. The procession returns 
home singing a song to comme- 
morate the tradition that the 
French having landed in the 
bay, mistook a party of mum- 
mers in red cloaks f jr soldiers, 
and hastily fled to their boats 
and rowed away. 

Hoddy-man-doddy, an overgrown 
stupid boy ; a simpleton. 

Hog, Hogget, a two -year -old 
ewe. 

Hog lamb, a sheep under twelve 
months. 

Hoity-toity, a see-saw. "She's 
a hoity-toity thing" (capricious, 
haughty). 

Hole to grass, plir. working a 
vein of metal to the surface. 

Hollibubber. " A man who, un- 
attached to the woi-ks, makes a 
living out of the refuse of the 



WEST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 



29 



slate quarries at Delabole." T. 
Q. Couch. 

Hollow-pot, a loud-talking per- 
son. 

Hollow - work, in embroidery, 
open-work. 

Holm, the holly. 

Holm scritch, the missel-thrush. 

Holster, a retreat or hold for 

anything. J. W. 
Home, Horn'. " Shut home the 

door." Put home, v. to escort 

home. 
Homer, homeward. " The homer 

fields." 
Honey Pin, a peculiar sweet 

apple. Bottrell. 
Hoop, a bullfinch. 

Hoot, v. to bray like a donkey. 
"A bad hoot," a bad job. " That's 
a bad hoot, says Madison." 

Hootin cough, whooping cough. 

Hoozy, adj. hoarse. " I'm very 
hoozy." Oisy. " T m oisy, so 
that I can hardly speak." St. 
Just, T. 0. 

Horny-wink, a lapwing ; plover. 
Horrywink, Couch. 

Horny-wink, "a toad. An old 
tumble - down house has been 
revilingly described as an old 
shabrag horny-wink place." H. 
J., Eoyal Institute of Cornwall. 

Horny-winky, adj. " desolate ; 
outlandish; like a moor where 
hornwinks or lapwings resort; 
thence a tumble -down house 
might be so called." J. W. 

Horse, a fault in the rock; a 
piece of matrix rising in a lode 
(vein) of metal, throwing it out 
of its course. " The lode has 
taken horse." 

Horse-adder, the dragon-fly: so 
called because it is supposed to 
sting horses. 

Hosgid, a hogshead. 



Housel of goods, houseful, or a 
furnished house. Morvah, T. C. 

Hove, v. heave ; threw. "I- hove 
my ball over the wall." " Why 
did you heave it so high?" 
"Heft it upon the ground," *. e. 
heaved. St. Just, T. C. 

Huccaner, a wood corner. 

Hucksen, the knuckles. " Muck 
(dirt) up to the hucksen." 

Hulster, Holt, a hold or retreat. 
" This rubbish is only a hulster 
for snails." T. Q. Couch. 

Hulster, v. to harbour. " How 
dare you hulster my daughter 
here?" 

Hummock, a stout, unwieldy 

woman. 
Hungry, adj. greedy; stingy. 

"He's as hungry as the grave." 
Hunk, Hunch, a large piece. "A 

hunk of bread and cheese." 

Hurle, the filament of flax. " As 
dry as hurle." 

Hurling, a Cornish game played 
with a ball. The players are 
divided into two equal parties, 
each of which tries to secure and 
keep the ball in their possession. 
The prize is one made of cork 
covered with silver. " Fair play 
is good play" is the hurlers' 
motto. 

Hurly-burly, a scramble. "A 
hurly-burly for nuts." 

Hurried, p. p. as adj. frightened ; 
startled. ' ' I was bra'ly hurried 
when I heard of it." "What's 
your hurry ? " phr. why are you 
going ? 

Hurted, v. imp. "murder com- 
mitted, but nobody hurted." 

Hurts, whortleberries. 
Hush-a-bit, phr. go gently. 

Hushed out (pron. hoosh), v. 
imp. turned out by a slight 
noise. "They hushed the hen 
out of the nest ." 



30 



WEST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 



Hutch-work, small ore washed 
by a sieve. 

I-facks, adv. in faith ; certainly. 

lies, small flat worms found in 
the livers of sheep the cause of 
rot. 

Illck, Ellick, " the red gurnard, 
called soldiers at St. Levan." H. 
E. 0. 

Ill-wish, v. to bewitch. The 
common people still believe if 
they have a sudden illness that 
they are ill-ivished, and pay a 
visit to the conjuror (white 
witch) to try and find out who 
has done it. 

Ingots, tin cast in small oblong 
iron moulds ; large moulds are 
called blocks. 

Inkle, tape. 

Inkle-maker, a tape weaver. "As 

thick as inkle-makera" (very 

friendly). 
Innerds, the bowels. " A pain 

in my innerds? ' 
Insense, v. to make a thing plain 

to any one. " I'll insense him 

into it." 

Insi-coat, an inside coat ; a petti- 
coat. 

Ishan, dust from winnowing. 
" Take up the ishan and put it 
in the costan," meant "take 
up the dust and put it in the 
basket." F. W. P. 

Jack Harry's lights, phantom 
lights, generally seen before a 
gale, taking the form of a vessel 
sure to be wrecked. Called after 
the person who was said to have 
first seen them. 

Jacky-ralph, a wrasse. 

Jaffle, a handful : generally ap- 
plied to a bunch of flowers. " A 
jaffle of flowers." " Jeffull, 
Yaffle, handful. ' Je/ulls of 
hay.' " T. C., Morvah. 



Jail, v. to walk fast. "Where 
be 'ee jailing?" "He jails 
along." Jaale, T. C. 

Jakes, a dirty mess. 

Jailer, Jallishy buff, adj. yellow. 

" I want a bit of jallishy buff 

prent, to make a frock for my 

cheeld." 
Jane Jakes, Jean Jakes, a snail. 

Penzance, T. C. Jan - jeak, 

Camborne, Garland. 
Janjansy, a two-faced person. 

" I don't like her ; she's a jan- 

jamy." 

Jannek, Jannak. "The great 
jannek thoft he could thrash his 
tenant, but the tenant fought 
him out afore the door, and beat 
him rarely.' ' Mem. The J. was 
a lout 6ft. 4in. high. Paul, near 
Penzance. T. C. 

Japes, a jackanape. 
Jaunders, the jaundice. 

Jay-pie, a jay. " Sweet as a 
jay-pie sang a Cornish song." 
Janner, H. E. C. 

Jenny-quick, an Italian iron. v. 
to iron with an Italian iron. 

Jerry-pattick, a simpleton. 
Jewish woman, a Jewess. 

Jew's bowels, small pieces of 
smelted tin found in old smelt- 
ing works. Tradition always 
connects Jews with tin in Corn- 
wall. 

Jicks, Jiccups, hiccough. 

Jiffy, adv. at once ; quickly. 
"I'll do it in 



Jig, v. to separate the ore from 
the refuse by means of a sieve ; 
so placed in a box of water that 
by the continuous action of a 
brake-staff the ore is precipi- 
tated to the bottom of the sieve. 
The work is done by girls called 
jiggers. 

Jigger, an ill-made thing. 



WEST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 



31 



Joan Blunt, a rough, plain-spoken 

woman. 
Joan -the -wad, the name of a 

pisky (pixie). 

" Jack-the-lantera, Joan-the- wad, 
That tickled the maid and made 

her mad, 

Light me home, the weather is 
bad." 

T. Q. Couch, Polperro. 

Joggle, v. to shake ; to shake the 

elbow. 
" Hold your glass up to your chin, 

And let your neighbour joggle it 
in." 

Johnny Fortnight, a packman. 
Josing, a scolding. 

Jouds, pieces. " He scat all to 
midjans and jouds ' ' (he broke all 
to pieces). 

Joudy, v. to walk in the sea with 
boots and stockings on. Mouse- 
hole fishermen, W. F. P. and 
B. V. 

Jowst, a fall from a donkey's 
back. 

Jowster, a person that buys 
things to sell again; a huck- 
ster ; a fish-dealer. 

Juck, the oil in the fleece of 
wool. 

Junket, a dish made of new 
milk, sugar, and rum; curdled 
with rennet, and eaten with 
clotted cream. 

Kager, Keggas, wild parsnip; 
wild carrot. " Keggas, often 
called kai-yer, are good pigs' 
feed." H. E. C. 

Kaig-nail, Keg-nail, a misshapen 
finger-nail or toe-nail. 

Kaille-alley, a ninepin-alley. 

Kailles, ninepins. 

Kan-kayers, "two or three con- 
federates who unite to disparage 
anything they wish to buy, or 



make fictitious offers and praise 
anything they wish to sell; 
tricksters." Bottrell. 

Kayer, a coarse sieve used to 

winnow corn. 
Keamy, adj. mouldy. Cider is 

said to be keamy when there is a 

thick scum on the top. 
Keddened, covered over with 

mud or dust. W. F. P. 
Keddened and Cabaged, booted 

with mud; dirty. Mousehole, 

B. V. Haggled, H. E. C. 
Keem, v. to comb the hair with 

a small tooth-comb.*. 

Keeming-comb, a small tooth- 
comb. 

Keenly, adj. promising. " A bra' 
keenly lode," spoken of a pro- 
mising vein of metal. Some- 
times ' ' A bra' kindly lode." 

Keenly, adv. deftly. " He takes 
to it keenly." 

Keep company, v. Engaged 
people are said to keep company. 

Keep on, v. to scold incessantly. 
"What are 'ee keeping on 
about?" 

Keeve, a brewer's tub. "She 
must speak out ; she can't 
under the keeve." " Consider 
St. Knighton's kieve, also a 
potato kieve, where potatoes are 
kept covered with earth." J. "W. 

Keggle, v. to draggle. 

Kelter, order, condition. "In 

bad kelter." 
Kendle-teening, candle-lighting 

time. To light a candle is to 

teen it. 
" 'Twas kendle-teening when yung 

Mall Treloare." Uncle Jan 

Trenoodle. 

Kennel, an ulcer in the eye. 

Kenning, T. Q. Couch. 
Kenning-herb, the crowfoot : used 

in incantations for curing kon- 

nings. Polwhele. 



32 



WEST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 



Kente pathen-gy, wooden pins 
belonging to the stone anchor 
used in punts. B. V. Kente- 
purthurgy (g hard), W. F. P., 
Mousehole fishermen. 

Kern, v. to curdle. 

Kerned, p. p. as adj. turned from 
flower to fruit. " The apple 
blowths have kerned." The word 
set is often used, as " the blos- 
soms have all set." Metal fixed 
or concreted around quartz is 
also said ' ' to have kerned. 1 ' 

Keveran, the leather that joins 
the two pieces of wood in a flail. 

Kib, v. to mend a gap in a hedge 
with thorns. 

Kibbed, fenced by wood, thorns, 
briars, &c., being laid down, as 
applied to a hedge. Polwhele. 

Kibble, a mine bucket. 

Kibby, adj. sticky. "To play 
kibby" a term of contempt used 
by boys in playing marbles when 
the marbles hit the player's 
nails. 

Kibby heels, chapped heels. 

Kicker, a small mizen used by 

fishing boats. W. F. P. 
Kicklish, adj. ticklish ; tottering. 

Kicky, v. to stutter ; to stammer. 
" A kick-hammering fellow," a 
stammerer. " A kick in his 
speech," a defect. 

Kiddaw, a sea-bird ; a guillem. 

Kidge, v. to stick ; to unite, as 
broken bones. " We don't kidge," 
we don't agree. 

Kidley-wink, Tidly-wink, a beer- 
shop. A man is sometimes said 
"to keep a kidly." 

Kidling, adj. ailing] physically 
weak. S. C. J. Kidling or 
kidly, T. C., tricking; cozening. 

Kiggal, "a spindle. Kiggal- 
rings, spindle whirls." Bottrell. 
Killas, clay -slate; schist. 



Killick, a stone set in a frame of 
wood, or thick rope used to 
anchor boats on rough grounds. 
"I must up killick and go," I 
must be off. 

Killimore, an earth-nut. Halli- 
well. Cornish, literally the grove- 
nut. Polwhele. 

Kimbly, the name of an offering, 
generally a piece of bread or 
cake, still given in some districts 
to the first person met on going 
to a wedding or a christening. 
Sometimes given to a person 
bringing the news of a birth to 
an interested person. A cake, 
called a groaning cake, is made 
in some houses after the birth of 
a child, of which every caller is 
expected to partake. " The mother 
carries the groaning cake when 
going to be churched." H. E. C. 

Kings, donkeys. Redruth, Corn- 
ish Telegraph, Sept., 1879. 

Kip, a cap or net. 

Kipes, a thin, lanky person. 

Kipesy, adj. thin; lanky. "A 
kipes, as thin as a bundle of 
pipes." 

Kiskey, a dried, brittle stem. 
The dry stems or stalks of 
"keggas," wild carrot, or wild 
parsnip. "A withered kiskey of 
a man." 

Kist-vean, a small stone chest. 

Kit, a smear, v. to dab. Halli- 
well. 

Kit, kith and kin. " The whole 

kit of them." 
Kit, a kite. "As yellow as a 

kits foot" (pron. keet). 
Kitt, v. to steal ore. 
Kittens, the kidneys. 

Kittereen, a primitive omnibus. 
" The Kit-Tereen was an open 
car that ran between Penzance 
and Truro, set up by Christopher 
Treen." J. W. 



WEST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 



33 



Kitting, part, stealing. " The 
famous kitting case." Tregellas. 

Kitty-bags, rags wrapped round 
labourers' legs to keep off the 
wet, or straw bands. 

Kity, adj. cracked ; harebrained. 

Knack, a knock. v. to stop. 

" The bal is knocked." "Knack 

up." 
Knap, "the top or brow of a 

hill." T. Q,. Couch. 

Knawed, v. imp. knew. 
Knitster, a woman who knits. 

Lace, a rood or perch; a land 
measure. 

Lace, v, to flog. A lacing is a 
flogging. 

Ladies' trees, small branches of 
dried seaweed, hung up in chim- 
neys to protect the house from 
fire. 

Lafts, lathes. 

Lag, a dirty mess on the bottom 
of a dress. " I hate a lag as 
much as any one." v. to draggle 
in the mud. 

Lagen, v. walking in the water 
with naked feet. P. W. P. 
iLaggen, v. to splash in the 
water : applied to fish, also to 
children playing in the sea 
without shoes or stockings. B. 
V., Mousehole. 

Laister, the yellow water iris. 

Lake, a portion of a bay, as 
G-wavas lake, Penzance. "At 
Lostwithiel a brook is called a 
lake." J.W. 

Lammy, a kid ; sometimes made 
into a pie called " lammy pie." 

Lampered, mottled. " Lampered 
all over." T. Q. Couch. 

Land-yard, two staves, or 18ft., 
are a land-yard, and 160 land- 
yards an acre. 



Lanthorn-fish, a smooth sole. 
Lap, v. to beat. Garland. 

Lap, anything disagreeable to eat 
or drink. " I don't like such 
cold lap" 

Lappior, a dancer. Halliwell, 

Polwhele. 
Lappy, v. to lap. 

Lash, v. to pour. " A lash of 
rain" is a torrent of rain. " To 
lash in pieces" is to break in. 
pieces. 

Lasher, a large thing. " This 
fish is a lasher." 

Lasking, a word used by the 
. Cornish fishermen when nearing 
a point. They say " Keep the 
boat lasking," i. e. steer the boat 
so that she may go near the 
point. P. W. P. Lasking, keep 
near shore ; a term used by fish- 
ermen. B. V., Mousehole. 

Lattice, tin-plate. Latteen, Lost- 
withiel, J. W. 

Lattice- ware, tin-plate ware. " A 
lattice cup," a tin cup. 

Launder, a trough for washing 
tin ; a gutter for carrying off the 
water from the roofs of houses. 

Lawn, Lawen, a large, open 
mine- working in the back of a 
lode left in a 'dangerous state. 
Towednack, T. C. 

Lawrence, the patron saint of 
idlers. " He's as lazy as Law- 
rence." " One would think that 
Lawrence had got hold of him ' ' 
(pron. La'rence). 

Layer, a winnowing sheet. 

Leaf out, slightly insane. " Like 
Crocker, a leaf out. 1 ' 

Leaping- stock, a horse-block. 

Leary, adj. hungry; weak. 
"Empty," J. W. "Lairy," 
Couch. 

Lease, v. to pick stones from the 



34 



TTEST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 



surface of the fields. " Leasing, 
picking stones." Polwhele. 

Leat, a gutter ; a narrow artificial 
water; a mill-stream. "Don't 
waalk in the hat ; thee baist." 

Leave. " I'm not left to go out 
in the cold." Lev' for let. " Lev' 
us go." 

Lemon plant, the verbena. 

Lent lily, the common yellow 

daffodil. 
Lerrick, v. to flap about. 

Lerrupping, a flogging, adj. 

large. 
Lerrnps, the scraps of meat sold 

by butchers. Larrups, Scilly. 
Lestercock, a toy-boat sent out 

before the wind by fishermen in 

rough weather with a string of 

hooks. 

Let, v. to stop ; to hinder. " You 
let my marble." T. Q. Couch. 

Letterpooch, an old Cornish 
dance. 

Leustre, v. to plan. 
Level, a gallery of a mine. 
Levener, Elevener, a luncheon. 

Levers, the marsh iris (pron, 

layers). 
Lewth, Lew, a place sheltered 

from the wind. 
Liard, a liar. "You're a g'eat 

Hard, you are." 

Libbety-lat, a game for children. 
They stand before a hassock or 
step, and put the right and left 
foot alternately on it as fast as 
they possibly can, keeping time 
to the words, 

" Libbety, libbety, libbety lot, 
Who can do this and who can do 

that? 
And who can do anything better 

than that ? " 

Libbings, the webs of a water- 
fowl's feet. " Wingy, wingy, 



> Hbbings and all ; 
oh, where is iny mallard ? " 

Lick, v. to smear lightly. "You've 
licked your sleeve in the mus- 
tard." " Your dress is licking in. 
the mud." 

Lidden, a word ; talk ; a burden 
of a song or complaint. " The 
same old lidden." A. monotonous 
song. T.Q. Couch. Also "broad," 
H. E. 0. 

Lie, v. " The wind has gone to 
lie" (subsided). " The corn has 
gone to lie" (broken by wind 
and rain has fallen flat). 

Lig, Liggan, a kind of seaweed. 

Liggan, " manure composed of 
autumnal leaves washed down 
by a stream and deposited by 
side eddies." Fowey, T. Q. 
Couch. 

Liggan. " He's coming home 
with penny liggan" (lacking, 
like a bad penny returned). " I 
can't play any more, I'm penny 
liggan" 

Likes, adv. probability ; likeli- 
hood. "Do 'ee think there's 
likes o' rain ? " 

Lilly-banger. Until within the 
last twenty years it was the 
custom in Penzance on Easter 
Monday to bring out in the 
lower parts of the town tables 
before the doors, on which were 
placed thick gingerbread cakes 
with raisins in them, cups and 
saucers, &c., to be raffled for 
with lilly-bangers (cup and dice). 
The stalls were called "lilly- 
banger stalls." 

Limb. " Your daughter looks 
well." "No, she's but slight; 
her face is her best limb." 

Lime-ash, a composition of sifted 
ashes and mortar used for floor- 
ing kitchens. 

Limner, a painter. " You caan't 
paint a boat as well as our 



WEST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 



limner,' ' Newlyn : spoken by a 
fisherman of an artist who lives 
there. 

Linch, v. to beat severely. 
Liner, a threshed sheaf of corn. 
Linguister, an interpreter. 

Linhay, an out-house with a 
lean-to roof ; a shed for cattle. 

Linkum, a term of endearment. 
" She's her mother's linkum." 

Linsing, a thrashing. 
Lintern, the lintel. 

Lipsy. " He taalks lipsy " (he 
lisps). "I had a seizure ten 
years ago, and I can't talk but 
lipsy" Penzauce, T. 0. 

Liquorice - ball, liquorice. " A 
pennard of liquorice-ball." 

Lirrup, a strip ; a sloven. 

Lirrupping, hanging in strips; 
coming down. " Your gown is 
lirrupping in the mud." See 
Lerrups. 

Listing, p. p. as adj. writhing 
with pain. 

Little-mount, an old-fashioned 
child. ' ' She's a regular little- 
mount. The Mount (St. Michael's 
Mount) will never be washed 
away whilst she's living." 

Loach, a doctor's draught ; also 
a lotion. 

Loader, " a double apple." T. Q. 

Couch. 
Lob, v. to throw or knock about 

in a careless manner. 

Lobba, Loblolly, an idle, stupid 

fellow. 
Locust, long, thin sugar-stick, 

always rolled up in paper. 
Lodden, a pool. Also Plodden. 
Lode, a vein of metal. 
LofF, v. to laugh. 
Log, '. to oscillate. 



Logan-rock, a stone that oscillates. 

Loggers, ears. " I'll grock (pull) 
thy loggers for thee." 

Logging, moving to and fro. 

Long - cripple, a lizard. "In 
Devonshire a snake." J. W. 

Long-dog, a greyhound. " Run- 
ning like a long-dog. 1 ' 1 

Long oyster, " the sea crayfish." 

Polwhele. 
Looby - weather, warm, misty 

weather. 
Looch, filth ; refuse. Hayle, T. C. 

Looking, part, asking ; demand- 
ing. " They are looking a shilling 
a dozen." 

Loon, the northern diver. 

Lootal. " Stinking, great lazy, 
great looted ; if thee canst have a 
veil and go walking about the 
lanes, that's all thee carest for." 
Penzance, T. C, 

Lop, Loppy, v. to limp. 
Lopperd, a limper. F. C. 

Losting, part, losing. "Our 
horse is lasting his coat." 

Louggy, fagged. " The crew of 
the brig seemed very louggy," 
Q-. E., Penzance, Cornithman > 
Dec., 1879. 

Loustre, v. to work hard. See 
Leustre. " He that caan't leustre 
mustloustre," or " He that caan't 
planny must work.' ' 

Loustring man, a strong man, 
able to do a hard day's work. 

Love entangle, "the nigella or 
fennel-flower." Halliwell, Pol- 
whele. " Love - in - tangle," 
J. W. 

Lubbercock, Lubberleet, a 
turkey-cock. 

" Lubber, lubber-leef, 

Look at your dirty feet ! " , 
Said by boys in a harsh voice to 
D 2 



35 



WEST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 



turkeys to vex them. "As red 
as a hibbercock" 

Lad. " Sent all of a lud," struck 

all of a heap. W. N. 
Lug, the "beach-worm, used for 

bait. 
Lugs, ears. " I'll gi' 'ee a click 

tinder the lug" a box in the ear. 
Lug-sand, the fine sand close to 

the water' s edge in Mount's Bay. 
Lugg, the undergrowth of weeds 

in a field of corn. 
Lump, v. " If you don't like it 

you must lump it." " Swallow 
" 



Lumping-eel, Sudles-eel, a fish. 
' ' A lamprey of the family called 
Petromyzidic (query)." H. R. C. 

Lumpous, adj. all of a heap. 

" She sat down lumpous." 
Lurker, a "boat in which the 

master seiner sits to give instruc- 

tions. 
Lurk, Lurgy, idleness; laziness. 

"The fever of lurk, two stomachs 

to eat, and neither one to work ; " 

or the fever of lurgy. 

Lutter- pooch, Litter -pooch, a 

slovenly person. 

Mabyer, a young hen that has 
never laid. "As stiff as a 
mabyerC ' 

Madgiowler, a large moth. 

Maggety-pie (y's hard), a magpie. 

Mahogany, a drink made of gin 
and treacle. 

Mair. " The weather was so 
catching that I could not put my 
sheaves of corn either into shocks 
or arish-mows ; but made them 
into mairs." These are built 
longitudinally, about 18ffc. in 
length by 12ft. deep. St. Levan, 
through H. B, C. 

Make-home, v. to shut. " Make- 
. Itome the door." 



Make wise, a make-belief. " He's 

only a make-write." 
Making-wise, v. to make belief. 
Malkin, a cloth nailed to a stick ; 

used to clean out ovens ; a dirty 

person. 

Manchet, a small loaf of bread, 
not baked in a tin, in shape like 
a large bun ; called by the com- 
mon people "Manchun bread." 

Market-jew, Marazion. A cor- 
ruption of the old name, Mai- 
raiew ; a Thursday's market 
(Carew). Norden spells it Mar- 
cajewe, and gives it the same 
meaning. " In his own light, 
like the Mayor of Marketjew" 
" Capital inhabitants," the cor- 
porate electors of Marazion. 
Through J. M. Cornish, Pen- 
zance. 

Market -jew turmut, a large 
white turnip grown in Mara- 
zion, or Yellow Dutch. 

Mashes, a great number. " Aye, 
a caled the poor doctor a mashes 
of names." Uncle Jan Trenoodle. 

Maun, Maund, a large coarsely- 
made hamper used for sending 
potatoes, &c., to market. 

Maw, a piece of bread and butter. 
" A sugary maw," bread, butter, 
and sugar. (Morsel, pron. 
Mawsel. ) 

Maxim, a whim. ; idea. " That's 
old Ann's work; she's full of 
her maxims." 

May, the young shoots of the 
sycamore. 

May-bee, a cockchafer. 

May-bird, the whimbrel. Couch. 

May-game (pron. maygum), an 
odd, foolish action ; also a person 
who so acts. " Don't make mock 
of a may game; you may be struck 
comical yourself one day." 

May-horn, a large tin horn blown 
by boys on May-day. Sometimes 
as early as five in the morning, 



WEST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 



37 



parties of boys, five or six in a 
party, will assemble under your 
windows, blowing tin horns and 
conch shells, and begging for 
money. With the money col- 
lected they go into the country 
and have bread-and-cream jun- 
ket, &c. An additional ring of 
tin is added to the bottom of the 
horns every year. 

Mazed-antic, Mazegerry, Maze- 
gerry-pattick (pron. maazed), 
a wild, foolish, frolicsome fellow. 

Mazzard, a small black cherry. 

Meanolas, a kind of stove. It 
: was a square box filled with 
stones and clay, used by fisher- 
men in their boats, before the 
invention of stoves, as a fire- 
place on which they dressed 
their meat. W. F. P., Mouse- 
hole. M6nolas, H. E. 0. 

Meat (pron. mait), v. to feed. 
" Mait the pigs." " Meat is 
still used in Cornwall in its 
general sense, and not for ani- 
mal food only." J. W. 

Meat-earth, soil. 

Meaty, adj. fleshy. " She's a 

maity little pig." 
Meayer, a measure. 

Meeder, a mower. Polwhele, 
Halliwell, Couch. 

Men, a stone. Men is not used 
as a common noun, but only in 
proper names. 

Men-an-tol, a stone with a round 
hole in it. Called by the country 
people " crick-stone," because it 
is supposed to have the power of 
healing those who would crawl 
through it. " Maen tol, or the 
stone with a hole, on Anguidal 
Downs in Madern, famous for 
curing pains in the back, by 
going through the hole, three, 
five, or nine times." Borlase's 
"Antiquities," p. 178. 

Men-skryfa, an inscribed stone. 
Sometimes spelt " M en scry/a." 



Merle, a link of a chain. 

Meryon, an ant ; a term of en- 
dearment. " She' s fayther' s little 
meryon" (pron. mer-yon). 

Merry-dancers, the Aurora 
Borealis. 

Merrysole (pron. merisol), a 
French sole. 

Mewed, p. p. "scattered by 

fright." Sennen, T. C. 
Midget, a very small bit; a scrap. 
Midgetty-morrows, the fidgets. 
Midgetty-por, a great confusion. 

' ' What a midgetty-por you have 

around you.' ' Miggalconpore, 

H. E. C. 

Midjans, small bits ; shreds. 
" The cup is skat (broken) to 
midjans." 

Milchy - bread, moist, sticky 
bread, made from milchy corn. - 

Milchy-corn, corn that has germi- 
nated. 

Milpreve, a coralline ball worn 
as a charm against adders. 

Mimsey, the minnow. 

Minch, Minchy, v. to play the 
truant. Meech, Polwhele. 

Mincher, one who plays the 

truant. 
Misment, a mistake. " 'Twas a 

misment on my part." 

Miz-maze, Mizzy-maze, a bewil- 
derment. " I'm all o' a mizzy- 
maze" 

Mock, a large block. A piece of 
this year' s Christmas mock is in 
some parts saved to light the 
next year's. See Chrestmas- 
stock. 

Mock, the cheese or compound of 
apples and reeds in the wring or 
cider press. Polwhele. 

Mocket, a bib attached to an 
apron to keep the front of the 
dress clean. 



38 



TVEST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 



Mood, the fungus produced on 
liquor by fermentation. J. W. 
A sweetbread. " Vegetable sap. ' ' 
Couch. 

Moonshine, spirit that has been 
smuggled. 

Moor, Maur, the root of a plant 
or tree. "Nack't the mabyers 
(little hens) both stiff wi' a great 
maur of fuz" (furse). Uncle 
Jan Trenoodle. 

Moorstone, granite. 

Money-penny, the small white 
cowrie. Scilly. 

Mop and needy, hide and seek 
(mope and hide). "Every fit 
and turn, mopping about to- 
gether. Mopping = going to- 
gether in company; spoken of 
a young man and woman sup- 
posed to be courting." Towed- 
nack, T. C. 

Mor, Murre, a guillemot. 

Moral, a resemblance ; a likeness. 
' ' The very moral of his fayther.' ' 

Morrabs, Morraps, land near the 
sea. Now used as a proper noun. 

Mort, hog's lard. 

Mort, a plenty ; a great number. 
" A mort of people." 

Mort, Morty, v. to digest; to 
turn to fat. 

Mot, the root. 

Moth, moss. F. C. 

Mouth-speech, speech. " Hav' 
'ee lost your mouth-speech ?" 

Mow, Brummal, a round mow, 
enlarging in diameter from the 
base up to a certain height, from 
which it again contracts to the 
apex. All the sheaves are placed 
with the ears inward in the 
lower, and outward in the upper, 
part. (Brummal Mow.) 

Mow, Pedrack, a round mow 
preserving the same diameter 
throughout until it begins to 
contract at the apex, having all 



the ears inside." (Pedrack Mow.) 
Davy, Zennor. 

Mowhay (pron. mo-ey), an en- 
closure of ricks of corn or hay. 
" Out in the mo-ey close." 

Moyle, a mule. " A hybrid be- 
tween a stallion and an ass." T. 
Q. Couch, " As stubborn as a 
moyle." Moyle is a surname in 
Cornwall. 

Muggets, sheep's entrails. 
Muggety-pie, a pie made of 

sheep's entrails, parsley, and 

cream. 

Mule, v. to work hard ; to knead ; 

to make dough. 
Muller, a stone formerly used for 

reducing tin ore to powder. 
Mumchance (pron. chaence), a 

silent, stupid person. " To sit 

mumchance, to sit silent." J. W. 

Mumming -booth, the tent in 
which strolling players perform. 
The performers are never spoken 
of as actors, but play-actors. 

Mun, decaying fish used for 
manure. 

Mundic, iron pyrites ; sometimes 
cut, polished, and sold for orna- 
ments under the name of " Mar- 
casite." 

Munge, v. to chew ; to knead. 
" Munge your dough well." 

Munged (g soft). " He did not 
strike me ; he munged me upon 
my side with his knee when I 
was on the ground." Penzance, 
T. C. 

Munger, a horse-collar made of 
twisted straw. Polwhele. 

Mur, Murs, " a mouse, mice ; a 
dormouse, dormice." (Qu. mures 
Lat.) I heard a woman in Meneg 
say of two children asleep, "They 
are sleeping like two little mwra." 
Polwhele. 

Mured, p. p. squeezed. " He 
mured me up agen the wall." 



WEST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 



39 



Murely, adv. almost. " I war 
murely ready to daunce where I 
stood." Uncle Jan Trenoodle. 

Murfled. freckled. 
Murfles, freckles. 
Murgy, a dog-fish. 
Murrick, a sloven. E. I. C. 
Musicianer, a musician. 

Mute, a mule. "The hybrid 
between the male ass and mare." 
Couch. See Moyle. 

Mutting, cross; glum; sulking. 
" Don't sit mutting there." 

My-ivers, My-lverinos, interjec- 
tion of surprise. 

Nackan, Nacker, Nackin, a 

pocket handkerchief. 

Nacker, the wheatear. T. Q. 
Couch. 

Nagging-pain, a dull pain. 

Nag-ridden, troubled with the 
nightmare. 

Nail-spring, a hang-nail. 
Nale, Nawl, an awl. 
Nanny- viper, a caterpillar. 

Nash, adj. pale ; debilitated ; 
susceptible of cold. 

Natey, " applied to meat when 
fairly composed of fat and lean." 
T. Q. Couch. 

Natlings, the small entrails. 
Neap, a turnip. 
Neary, adj. stingy. 

Neck, the last sheaf of corn, 
which is cut by the oldest reaper. 
He calls out " I have et ! I have 
et ! I have et ! " The others 
say "What hav' 'ee? What 
hav' 'ee? What hav' 'eeP" 
He answers, " A neck ! A neck! 
A neck ! " They then all hurrah 
loudly three times. The neck is 



afterwards made into a minia- 
ture sheaf, gaily decorated with 
ribbons and flowers; carried 
home in triumph, and hung up 
to a beam in the kitchen, where 
it is left until the next harvest. 
T. Q,. Couch, Polperro, p. 159, 
gives rather a different account 
of this custom, and says that 
the neck is given on Christmas 
Eve to the master bullock in the 
stall. 

Neck of the foot, phr. the instep. 
Neflin, Newfoundland cod. 

Nepperkin, the eighth part of a 
pint. 
"We'll drink it out of the 

nepperkin, boys. 
Here's health to the Barley 
Mow." The Barley Mow. 

Nestle-bird, nestling ; the smallest 
bird of a brood; a pet. "The 
youngest of a family left at 
home, when the others have gone 
into the world." J. W. 

Nibbles, nebulous clouds. 

Nice chance, phr. near chance. 
" 'Twas a nice chance I didn't 
throw it in the fire." 

Nicey, sweetmeats. " A ha' pord 
of nicey.' 

Nicked, p. p. deceived. " I've 
nicked him." 

Nickers, Nuggies, gnomes ; mine 
fairies ; heard working before 
the miners. 

Nickly-thize, the harvest-home 
supper. Scilly Isles. 

Nicky-nan-night (Hall Monday). 
" On the day termed ' Hall Mon- 
day,' which precedes Shrove 
Tuesday, about the dusk of the 
evening, it is the custom for 
boys, and in some cases for those 
above the age of boys, to prowl 
about the streets with short 
clubs, and to knock loudly at 
every door, running off to escape 
detection on the slightest sign of 



40 



\VEST CORNWALL GLOSSARY; 



a motion within. If, however, 
no attention be excited, and 
especially if any article be dis- 
covered negligently exposed or 
carelessly guarded, then the 
things are carried away, and on 
the following morning are seen 
displayed in some conspicuous 
place, to expose the disgraceful 
want of vigilance supposed to 
characterise the owner. The 
time when this is practised is 
called ' Nicky-nan-night,' and 
the individuals concerned are 
supposed to represent some imps 
of darkness, that seize on, and 
expose unguarded moments." 
Couch (Polperro), p. 151, Royal 
Institution of Cornwall, 1842. 

Niff, a slight quarrel ; a tiff. 

Niffed, />. p. vexed. " She's gone 
away niffed" 

Night -nobby, a commode; a 
night-stool. 

Nimpingale, a whitlow. 

Noggin, a gill, the fourth part 

of a pint. 
Noggin-wall, a wall built of 

rough stone. 

Noggle-head, Noggy, " a block- 
head." Garland. 

Noise, a scolding. " I said there 
would be a bitter (great) noise 
when Missus know'd you'd brok 
un" (broken it). 

Nool, v. to thump ; to beat. 
Nooling, a beating. 

Noozled the nepple, v. to nuzzle 
or nestle, as a child to its mother's 
bosom. " Thof (though) I've bin 
ever sense I noozled the nepple." 
Uncle Jan Trenoodle. 

No quarterings, no halfings, no 
pick-a-daniels, a term used by 
boys when they find anything. 

Nones, Nonce, Nines, on pur- 
pose; for the occasion. "He 
gove me a scat (slap) on the 
chaks for the nonce." " Dressed 



up for the nones." " Nauns : 
' He didn't do it for the nauns,' 
that is on purpose." (Camborne), 
T. C. 

Notino, Notsino, no ; emphatic 
denial ; not that I know, or not 
as I know. 

Nowle, a pig's bead. 

Nuddick, tbe neck. Niddick, 

T. Q., Couch, 
Null, a dry crust. 

Nurly. " He's a nurly fellow to 

deal with," i. e. sulky. T. C. 
Nuthall, the hazel. 

Oak-web, a May-bee; the cock- 
chafer. 

Oft, v. ought. "He oft to 
do et." 

Ogos, caves along the shore. 
Polwhele. 

Oiler, a waterproof mackintosh. 

Old, must. "It tastes of old." 
"The clothes smell of old" 
(musty). 

Old hunderd, Little hunderd, an 

old-fashioned person or child. 
"What an old hunderd she es." 
Query, as solemn as the old 
100th Psalm. 

Ollick, the bouse leek. 

Ool, wool. "As plum as 'ool" 
(very soft). 

Oost, a disease of cattle caused by 
worms in the windpipe. 

Ope, a narrow c'overed passage 
between two houses ; an opening. 

Oreweed, sea-weed. 
Organ, Orgal, penny royaL 

Orrel, a porch or balcony. " The 
ground-apartment of a fisher- 
man's house is often a fish cellar, 
and the first floor serves him for 
kitchen and parlour. The latter 
is reached by a flight of stone 



WEST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 



41 



steps ending in an orrel or porch." 
Couch. 

Ounce, the sixteenth part of any 

property. 

Outlander, a foreigner. 
Out- window (pron. wender), a 

bay or how window. 
Overfanged, p. p. as adj. strained ; 

stretched. "What overfanqed 

. v ij 

notions you have." 

Overgone, p. p. as adj. over- 
powered; faint. F. C. 

Overlook, to bewitch ; overlooked ; 
bewitched. 

Ovvis, the eaves of a house. 
" Oves." Couch. 

Paddle, an agricultural instru- 
ment ; a small, sharp piece of 
iron with a long handle for cut- 
ting out the roots of weeds. 

Padgetypoo, a frog ; a tadpole. 
" Frenchmen with their wooden 

shoes 

Eating snails and padgety : poos." 
Uncle Jan Trenoodle. 

Padgypow, an eft ; a lizard ; the 

newt. 
Pair, a set of miners that work 

together in a gang. 
Pair of movies (mules), usually 

about thirty, for carrying tin. 

Palched, always ailing; half- 
cured; patched: applied to inva- 
lids. " A poor palched creature. ' ' 

Pallace, a cellar for the bulking 
of pilchards : usually a square 
building with a pent house roof, 
enclosing an open area or court. 
Couch. 

Palsh, palsied. Towednack, T. C. 
Palshallals, the diarrhoea. 
Paine, the palm of the hand. 
Pan-crock, an earthen pan. 
Pane, a parsnip. 
Pane-seed, parsnip-seed. 



Pank, v. to pant ; to breathe 
hard. 

PansMon, a milk-pan. 
Pare, a field (proper noun). 

Pasher. "He's a pasker" a 
clumsy workman. Ludgvan, 
T. C. 

Pass, a slap ; a beating. 

Pass. " Quietus, they'll give him 
his pass some night or other." 
J., Royal Institution of Corn- 
wall. 

Passle (parcel), a great number. 
" A bra' passle of people." 

Pasty, a meat and potatoe or 
fruit turnover. 

Patch-hook, a bill-hook. 
Pattick, a merry fellow ; a fool. 
Pattick, Paddick, a small pitcher. 

Paul's pitcher-day, St. Paul's 
Eve (January 24th); a miner's 
holyday. They set up a water- 
pitcher, which they pelt with 
stones until it is broken to pieces. 
They then buy a new one which 
they carry to a beer-shop and 
fill, and empty it until they get 
drunk. In Ilfracombe the boys 
fill a pitcher with filth, and going 
about the streets throw it slily 
into people's houses. 

Pawn, a forfeit. " Here's & paten, 
and a very pretty pawn, and 
what shall the owner of this 
paivn do ? " 

Payse, Peize, v. to weigh. 
Paysen, Peizen, weights. 

Payser, Peizer, a man who 

weighs tin. 

Pea, the hard roe of a fish. 
Peach, chlorite. 

Peach away, v. to coax or entice 
away. 

Peecher, " a bait ; an allure- 
ment." B. V. 



WEST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 



Peart, adj. smart. " He's a 

peart fellow." 
Peasen, the plural of peas. 

Peathy, adj. witty ; full of quaint 
sayings. " He's a peathy man." 
"Peathy old fellow with plenty 
of gumption." 

Pedalincan, the great cuttle-fish. 
SciUy Isles, through H. E. C. 
(pron. padilincan). 

Pednameny, a game played with 
pins : also called Pinny-Ninny. 
' ' Pedna -a- mean, heads - and - 
tails, a game of pins." B. V. 

Pednan, small pieces of turf. 
Davy, Zennor. 

Pednbokshrlostwithel. Spoken 
by fishermen in describing the 
peculiar model of a boat : is said 
to mean ' ' cod's head and conger's 
tail." W. P. P. 

Pedn-borbas, cod's head. B. V. 

Pedn-paly, the blue-tit. 

Peel, a pillow. Polwhele. 

Peendy, adj. tainted, applied to 
meat. 

Peeth, a welL 

Pellar, a conjuror; a cunning 

man, applied to in supposed 

cases of bewitching. 

Pellas, Pillus, oats without 
husks. "I hove down some 
pellas amongst 'em to eat." Pil- 
corn, Avoid Nuda. 

Pellowe-bere, Pillow-bere, a 
pillow-case. "I were glad to 
put ma head 'pon the pellowe- 
bere." Uncle Jan Trenoodle. 

Pend, v. to shut in. T. Q. 

Couch. 
Pendle, a pendulum. 

Penique, adj. firm ; precise ; neat. 
" She's a penique little thing." 
" You are looking quite penique." 

Perjinkety, adj. apt to take 
offence. 



Phrase. " I shall soon learn the 
phrases of the house " (the habits 
of the family). Polwhele. 

Pick-up, fish and potatoes mashed 

together and fried. 
Picrous-day, the miner's great 

holyday, supposed to be in 

honour of Picrous, the discoverer 

of tin. 

Pie. " Your hands are like pie " 
(very warm). ^ 

Piecen (pron. peacen), v. to 

patch ; to put in a piece. 
Piff, a slight quarrel ; a tiff. 

Piggal, a pick-axe ; a large hoe 

used for cutting turf. 
Piggy-dog, a dog-fish. 

Piggy-whidden, the smallest or 
youngest pig, sometimes applied 
to the youngest child. ' ' My 
piggy-whidden " (a white pig). 

Piggy - whidden - pie. " Some 
would die, and some did die, 
and of these we made piggy- 
whidden-pie." 

Pig's-crowe. See Crowe. 

Pilcher, a pilchard. "Money 
without love is like salt without 
pitchers." ' ' Killed as dead as a salt 
pilcher." "Like crame (cream) 
upon pilcher s," or pilchards. 

Pile, deeply involved. "In a 
pile of wrangle," i. e. deeply in- 
volved in the dispute. Polwhele. 

Filer. " A farm implement used 
to pound, or cut the beards from 
barley in winnowing." B. V. 

Pilf, light grass and roots raked 
together to be burnt. 

Pilf, Film, Pillem, light dust or 
fluff. West Cornwall. "In the 
east of Cornwall applied to dried 
mud." Polwhele. 

Fillers, places on the downs in- 
terrupting their smoothness ; 
tufts of long grass, rushes, &c., 
forming covers for hares. 



WEST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 



43 



Piljack, a poor, mean fellow. 

Piliack, Davy, Zemior. 
Pill, a pool ; a creek. 
Pimpy, the after cider, made "by 

throwing water on the almost 

exhausted mass of alternate apple 

and straw (beverage). 

Pin, the hip. 
Pin-bone, the hip-bone. 
Pindy, mouldy. J. W. 
Pinnick, the wryneck. 
Pinnikin, weakly ; puny. 

Piran-day, the fifth of March; 
a tinner's holyday. St. Piran 
is the patron saint of tinners, 
popularly supposed to have died 
drunk; the proverb says, "As 
drunk as a Piraner." 

Pisky, Pixie, a fairy. " Laugh- 
ing like a. pisky" " See-saw, 
Margery Daw, sold her bed and 
lay upon straw. Sold her bed 
and lay on hay, Pisky came and 
took her away." 

Pisky-led, one who has lost his 
way, and is supposed to be be- 
witched. The remedy is to sit 
down and turn your stockings. 
"Pisky-led, often whiskey-led." 

Pisky-stool, a mushroom. 

Pitch, the working of a piece of 
a mine, sold by public auction 
to two or four workmen every 
two months. The whole mine 
is let out in pitches. "A good 
pitch " is a good bargain. 

Pitched, p.p. taking root after 
transplanting. "The turmats 
(turnips) are pitched." "Also 
fruit set after the flower is gone 
is said to be pitched (the mean- 
ing in all these cases is set)." 
J. W. 

Pitch-to, v. to set to work. 

Planchen, a board; a wooden 
floor. "Thrawed his hat on 
the planchen, and died kickey 
rather. " " Tendar ! tendar ! stop 



the injun, left ma boondle on the 
planchen" (called out of a rail- 
way carriage to the guard). 

Plashet, a moist place where a 
stream rises ; a quagmire. 

Plat -footed, Splat -footed, adj. 
splay-footed. 

Plethan, v. to braid; to plait. 

Polwhele. 
Ploffy, adj. fat; plump. "A 

pl/y young mabyer " (hen). 
Plosh, a puddle. 
Plosher, a half-grown bream. 

Plough, a wheel-carriage drawn 

by oxen. 
Fluff, fur. 

Fluffy, adj. soft ; out of con- 
dition, applied to feathers, &c., 
sometimes to a spongy turnip. 

Plum, adj. soft ; light ; stupid ; 
foolish. " This tye (feather-bed) 
is as plum as 'ool (wool)." 
" Pretty plum weather." " He's 
as plum as boften dough." To 
fall plum is to fall soft, as in 
mud. 

Plum, Plim, v. to swell. " 'Twill 
plum in boiling." 

Plum-cake, a light cake. 
Plum-dough, well risen dough. 

Plumming, yeast, raising dough 

with yeast. 
Plump, a pump; a well. v. to 

pump. 
Plumpy, v. to churn. Halliwell. 

Poam, v. to pummel; to knock 
with the fist. 

Foaming, a pummelling. 

Pocks, shoves or pushes. Uncle 
Jan Trenoodle. 

Peddling, adj. meddling ; inter- 
fered. " She goes poddling." 

Podging, part, as adj. poking 
about. "Podging about the 



44 



WEST CORNWALL GLOSSARY". 



house." "In this thing, and 
podging in that." 

Pod^y, short and stout. "A 

podgy man." 
Poldavy, coarse, hempen cloath. 

Pollet, Polleck, a stick, crooked 
or knobbed at one end. W. F. P. 
Pol-yn, a stick, B. V. 

Polrumptious, adj. restive; ob- 
streperous. 
Poltate, Tatie, a potatoe. 

Pomster, v. to cure a sick person 
by quackery. " For there's doc- 
tors as pomsters all sorts of dis- 
eases." Uncle Jan Trenoodle. 

Pooch-mouth, a protruding 

mouth. 

Poochy, v. to make mouths. 
Pook, hay-cock. 

Poor, bad. "It's gone poor" 

turned sour (as beer). 
Poor-money, bad money. 
Poor-tempered, ill-tempered. 
Poot, a push with the feet. 

Poot, v. to push. " To be pooted 
and flopt so, I wesh I was dead." 
" This young fellow caught him 
by the hair of his head and gauve 
him a bit of a shake, and gauve 
him a poot or two with his foot, 
but as to kicking him, he didn't." 
Towednack, T. 0. 

Pop-dock, Pop-glove, Poppy, the 
flower of the fox-glove. 

Pope, a puffin ; a sea-bird. 

Popple, Popple-stone, a pebble. 

Popple-stone pavement, a pebble- 
stone pavement. 

Popples, poplar trees. 

Por, a bustle or fuss. " What a 

por you're in." 
Porf, a pool of stagnant water. 

Portens, a butcher's term ; 
appurtenance. ' ' Sheepshead and 
portens" 



Porth, a cove. 

Portmantle, a portm anteau. " Did 
'ee see or hear tell of sich a thing 
as a portmantle ? " 

Porvan, a rush-wick for a lamp. 

Posh, a heaviness on the chest 
from mucus, occasioning a loose 
cough. Polwhele. 

Poss (plural posses), a gate-post. 
"Water will wear away stonen 



Possed up, p. p. posted up ; 
pushed up ; placed up. " With 
a make- wise faace, passed on top 
of his awn." Uncle Jan Tre- 
noodle. 

Pots, the entrails. 

Pots, wooden boxes without 
covers, and with moveable sides, 
formerly used to carry dung on 
horses' backs to the fields. 

Pot-water, water for common 
household use : not drinking 
water. 

Pound, a cider mill ; the place 

where cider is made. 
Powdered, slightly salted. "A 

powdered cod." 
Powers, a great number. " Maade 

of pasty-board, with powers of 

beads and looking-glass." Uncle 

Jan Trenoodle. 

Prall, v. to tie a tin pan to a dog's 

tail. 
Preedy, adj. forward ; conceited. 

" A preedy piece of goods." " I 

shall not make myself preedy" 

Eedruth, T. C. 

Preedy, adv. with ease. "She 

does it bra' and preedy." 
Preventive-man, a coastguard. 

Preventive-station, a coastguard 
station. 

Prid-prad, a tomtit. 

Priden-prall, a blue-tit. 

Pridy, handsome ; good-looking ; 



WEST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 



45 



smart. "All prinked up so ' 
pridy " (all dressed). Uncle Jan 
Trenoodle. 

Prill, a small stone, as " a prill 
of tin." Masons speaking of a 
stone which does not at once 
make mortar, but afterwards 
bursts out, call it " a hot prill." 

Prill, v. to mix. 
Prill, v. to turn sour (as beer). 
Prill, v. to get drunk. 
Prilled, p. p. drunk. 
Prink, v. to walk jauntily. 

Prinkt, p. p. dressed finely. 
" You're>mtAtf up for the nones." 

Prong, a silver fork ; also a hay- 
fork. 

Proper, adj. handsome ; well- 
formed. " He's a proper man." 

Proud-flesh, fungus flesh around 
wounds (exuberant granula - 
tions). 

Pru-it-Pru-it, a word used in 
calling cows. 

Psalmasuntiug-person, a hypo- 
crite ; a person who continually 
goes to church to the neglect of 
other duties. 

Pad, the fist. 

Pullan, a pool of salt water 
among the rocks. 

Pullcronack, a small fish found 
in pools left by the sea (bully- 
cods) ; the shanny ; small-fish. 

Pul-rose, the wheel-pit. Bottrell. 
The pit in which the wheel of a 
water-mill revolves. 

Pult, the pulse. T. Q. Couch. 

Punick, " a small person ; a 
dwarf." B. V. "Punick, a 
small eater." W. F. P. 

Punion, Punyon-end, the end of 
a house, not having any windows 
or doors ; the gable-end. 

Pure, Pewer, adj. good-looking ; 
adv. very many. " He's a pure- 



lookingboy." "Pure and stout." 
' ' A pure lot of people." 

Purgy, a short, thick, stout per- 
son. "She's a regular little 
purgy." 

Purgy, a fat little boy. 

Purl, a guard or watch. " One 
need be always upon one's purl," 
i. e. one's watch. Polwhele. 

Purvan, shreds of cloth. W. 
F. P. See Porvan. 

Purvans, " shreds of cotton used 
in wick-making for a 'chill.'" 
B. V. The purvana were rush 
wicks, the plaited rag wicks 
were called " boobas." H. E. C. 

Pussivanting, part, fussing; 
meddling. In the latter part 
of the seventeenth century the 
Poursuivants came into the county 
to search out all those entitled to 
bear arms : hence the term. 

Put-going, adj. murdered. 

Put-home, v. to shut. "Put 
home the door." To see a per- 
son safely home. ' ' Shall I put 
you home ? " 

Quab, v. sickly, infirm person. 

Garland. 
Quaff (pron. quaif), v. to puff up. 

Quaffed, p. p. used as adj. satis- 
fied ; full. "I'm quai/ed." 
Sometimes called quatted. 

Quail, v. to wither ; p. p. as adj. 
quailled. "These flowers soon 
quail" "Your flowers are 
quailled." 

Quail-a-way, a stye on the eye. 

Qualk, a heavy fall. 

Quarry, Quarrel, a square or 
diamond-shaped piece of glass : 
sometimes applied to a sheet of 
paper. 

Quarterer, Quaterman, a lodger. 

Quarters (pron. quaarters), lodg- 
ings. 



46 



WEST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 



Quat, ftuatty, v. to hide by stoop- 
ing down, as boys behind a hedge, 
or a hare when pursued. 

Queans, Q, weans, scallops. "Peri- 
winkles." Bottrell. 

ftueedy, adj. sharp ; shrewd ; 
cutting. 

Quignogs, foolish notions or 
fancies. " Get out with your 
quignoys. " " You're full of q u ig- 
nogs." 

Quilkin, a frog or a young toad. 
Wilky. Lostwithiel. J. W. "As 
cold as a quilkin" 

Quillet, three-leaved grass, clover. 

Bottrell. 
Quilter, v. to flutter. " I veeled 

sich a quiltering come over my 

heart." 
Quilting, a beating. " I'll give 

'ee sich a quilting as you never 

had in your life." 

Rab, decomposed granite used for 

mending roads. 
Rabbin, a robin. F. C. More 

generally rudbrist; occasionally 

ruddock. 

Race, a go-cart. 
Race, v. to place in a row. " Cups 

raced along a shelf." 

Radgell, an excavated tunnel. 
W. Briton, December 27th, 1877. 
Rafe, a tear or rent in a garment. 
Rafe, v. to rend or tear. 

Raff, Raffle-fish, unsaleable fish 
divided amongst the fishermen. 

Rames. " Looking like the rames 
of death : " said of a sickly per- 
son. M. A. 0. 

Rames of a goose, the bony frame- 
work of a goose after most of the 
meat has been cut off. J. W. 
Lostwithiel. 

Rams-cat, a male cat. " Every 
thing is a he in Cornwall but a 
ram s-cat, and that's a she. ' ' "As 



teasy as a rams-cat." Ramcat, 
J. W. 

Randigal, a string of nonsense ; 
rhodomontade. " It's a regular 
randigal of lies." 

Randivoose, a noise ; a bustle. 
"What's all the randivoose? I 
can't hear myself speak." 

Ranter-go-round, an old-fashion- 
ed game of cards played in divi- 
sions, marked with chalk upon a 
bellows or tea-tray. Now at a 
table, and called Miss Joan. 
" Here's a card, as you may see ! 
Here's another as good as he ! 
Here's the best of all the three ; 
And here's Miss Joan, come 
tickle me. 

Wee, wee." 

Rap and rind, plir. got together 
by hook or crook. F. 0. 

Rare, adj. early. " The broccolow 
(brocoli) are bra' and rare this 
year." "We go to bed pretty 
rare on Sundays." T. 0. Lelant. 

Rash, adj. crisp ; brittle. " This 
lettuce is very rash." " The 
wood is rash." 

Rauning, Raunish,a^'. ravenous; 
voracious. "This is a rauning 
pollock, a whiting pollock is 
better." 

Raw cream, the cream that rises 
naturally to the top ; not scalded 
or clotted, Raw-ream, J. W. 

Raw milk, milk that has not been 

scalded. 
Ream, v. to stretch. ' "Don't 

ream it out of shape." 
Reamer, a milk-skimmer (pron. 

ramer). 

Rechat, Eichard. 

Reed, unbruised straw used for 
bedding horses. 

Reen, prop, notm, a steep hill-side. 

Reese, Reeze, grain is said to 
reeze when from ripeness it falls 
out of the ear. 



WEST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 



47 



Reeve, v. to separate by means of 
a sieve, seeds, small corn, &c. 
from, the good grain. 

Remlet, a remnant. 
Resurrection- lay , Easter Sunday . 

Ribble-rash, Rabble-ra~,h, the 

rabble. 

Riffle, a break in a roof made by 
a strong wind carrying away 
the slates or thatch. 

Riffled, v. carried away by the 
wind. " The wind riffled lots of 
housen last night ; the hellings 
(slates) were flying about." 

Rig, fun ; frolic ; noise. 

Ringle, v. to ring ; to tinkle. 
"The bells are ringling all day 
long. ' ' I heard something rinyle 
on the floor." 

River (pron. revver), any small 
stream of water is called a river. 
Roach, a rash. 

Robin's alight, a game of forfeits 
played around the fire. A piece 
of stick is set on fire, and whirled 
around rapidly in the hand of 
the first player, who says, 
" Robin's alight, and if he go out 
I will saddle your back." It is 
then passed to the next who 
says the same thing, and so on. 
The person who lets the spark 
die out has to pay a forfeit. 
Scilly. " Jack's alive." 
' ' Jack's alive and likely to live ; 
If he die in my hand a pawn 
I'll give." 

J. W. Lostwithiel. 

Rode, sense or wit. " He hasn't 
the rode to do it." 

Rodeless, adj. without sense or 

wit. 
Rodeling, Rotling, part, talking 

deliriously. ' ' She's bin rodeling 

all the night." 

Roostcock, a domestic cock. " As 
red as a roostcock." 



Ropar's-news, anything told as 
news that is not news. "That's 
Roper's news hang the crier ! " 

Rory-tory, adj. very gay ; tawdry. 
"I wouldn't wear such a g'eat 
rory-tory pattern." 

Rosum, rosin. " Short ofrosum," 
short of cash. 

Roup, v. to gulp down ; to drink 

Rousabout, a bustling woman. 
" She's a regular rousabout." 

Rout-out, a Saturday-pie (spoken 
in jest). 

Roving, p. p. raving. "He's 

roving mad." 
Row, rough. 

Row, Rows, coarse, undressed tin 
ore ; refuse from the stamping 
mills. 

Row-cast, rough-cast (a compost 
of lime and pebbles plastered 
over the outside of houses). 

Rudded, v. made red. " Es feace 
all rudded and whited." Uncle 
Jan Trenoodle. 

Rudge, " a partridge." Polwhele. 
Rud locks, the rood loft. Bottrell. 

Rully, Rull, v. to wheel ; to roll 
along. 

Rulls, rolls of carded wool. 

Rumbelow. "AVith Halantow, 
Rumbelow" the burden of the 
Furry song. 

Rumbustious, adj. noisy ; trouble- 
some. " They strutted about so 
braave andrumbustious as lubber- 
cocks " (Turkey-cocks). Uncle 
Jan Trenoodle. 

Rummage, rubbish. "A good 

riddance to bad rummage." 
Rummet, dandriff. 

Rumpin, adj. small ; miserable. 
F. C. 

Rumpy, adj. coarse ; uneven. 
" This cotton is rumpy." 



48 



WEST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 



Runky, adj. wheezy; hoarse. 
Running, rennet. 

Rush, Bish, a list ; a number 
made at playing at ball, &c., for 
another to beat. "He's gone on 
another rush " (another course). 
To make a new rush, v. to turn 
over a new leaf. 

Rustring-comb, a dressing-comb. 

Rusty, adj. rancid. This bacon is 
rusty. 

Sabby, adj. soft; moist; rotten. 
"These taturs (potatoes) are 
brave and sabby." 

Sammy Dawkin, a stupid person. 
"You are a regular Sammy 
Dawkin, can't scull a boat" (a 
Padstow proverb). 

Sam-oven, Zam-oven, a luke- 
warm oven. 

Sampson, a drink made of brandy, 
cider, sugar, and a little water. 
"Sampson with his hair on." 
The same kind of drink with 
double the quantity of spirits. 

Sam-sodden, Zam-sodden, half- 
cooked, whether by boiling or 
baking ; also bread not properly 
risen, baked in a half -heated 
oven. 

Sape, Sapey, a stupid person. 

Save-all, a large pinafore with 
long sleeves to keep children's 
dresses clean. 

Savour, meat or fish eaten as a 
relish. "I allus like a savour 
for breakfast." 

Say, the sea. In Penzance, on 
Midsummer-day, a fair is held 
on the quay ; the boatman take 
the country people out for a 
short row (a great number at 
one time) for a penny each ; they 
call it, "A pennord of say." 

Say-fencibles, old coast-guards. 
Scabby-gullion, a stew meat 



and potatoes hashed. B. Y. 
Scably-gulyun, W. F. P. 

Seal, Scale, loose ground about 
a mine ; it sometimes does great 
injury by falling down and 
stopping the shaft of a mine. 

Scald-cream (pron. scaal'd cream), 
clotted cream. 

Scald-milk, skim-milk, milk from 
which the clotted cream has been 
taken. 

Scalpions, salt dried fish; salt 
whiting. 

Scaly, adj. miserly. " A regular 

scaly old fellow." 
Scam, v. to scam a shoe is to 

twist it out of shape by wearing 

it wrongly. 

Scat, a slap. "I'll scat your 
chacks" (face). 

Scat, a long season. " A scat of 

fine weather." 
Scat, diarrhoea. 

Scat, a game played by boys with 
a small flat board or paper knife. 
One player holds out his hand, 
which the other tries to strike 
before he can draw it away. 

Scat, v. to slap ; to break ; to 
become bankrupt. "He let fall 
the cup and scat un to pieces." 
" He's a scat merchant." " The 
bal is scat." " Scat up and go 
home ! " (break up your meeting). 
" Scat her face." 

Scat abroad, v. to enlarge ; to 
open. ' ' The rose has scat abroad." 

Seat-to, a fight. "They had a 
little seat-to." 

Scavel-an-gow, a pack of lies ; 
a great chatter ; a noise of scold- 
ing. "I heard such a scavel- 
an-gow." 

Scavernick, a hare. Polwhele. 

Halliwell. 

Scaw-COO, night shade. 
Scaw-dower, water elder. 



WEST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 



49 



Scawnse, Sconse, sense ; under- 
standing. ' ' He hasn't the sconse 

to do it." 
Scawsy-buds, elder flowers. "Eub 

the hive with scawsy buds." 
Scaw-tree, Scow-tree, Skew-tree, 

an elder tree. 
Scethen, a piece of fish cut out 

for bait. F. W. P. Shetlien, 

B. V. 
Sclow, Sclum, v. to scratch. " Ah, 

you old scZwm-cat." F. W. P., J., 

M. B. 
Scoad, Scud, v. to scatter manure 

over fields. 

Scoanse. See Coanse. 
Seool, School, a shoal of fishes. 
Scotch-dew (pron. Scott's-doo), 

a mist. 
Scouring - guard (pron. geard), 

decomposed granite used for 

whitening floors. 

Scovy, adj. spotted ; mottled. 
" Streaked, smeared, for example, 
a badly painted flat surface 
would, if the paint were uneven 
and smeared, be called scovy." 
F. W. P. J., M. B. 

Scoy, adj. thin silk or stuff; 
v. to make a thing thin or small. 
' ' For my fangings (wages) would 
look scoy." Uncle Jan Trenoodle. 

Scramblings, scraps of broken 

meat. 
S cranny, a scramble. 

Scrawl, Scroal, v. to broil fish 
over a fire. They are split open, 
slightly dried, and seasoned with 
pepper and salt. 

Screech, a short, sudden blaze. 
" Come to the fire ; I'll put on a 
fuz' (furze) and make a screech." 

Screed, a little piece. " Oi" me 
a screed o' mait." 

Screedle, v. to cower over the 
fire. 

Snrpw. a shrew mouse. 



Scrid, v. to descend partly by 
sliding, partly by climbing. 

Scrif-scraf, Scrof, Scruf, odds 
and ends, rubbish. 

Scriff, Scruf, v. to shrink to- 
gether; to crouch. " I'm scruff td 
with the cold." Scriff 'ed up in a 
corner. 

Scrimp, Scrimpy, scant. "She 
gov' me scrimpy meayer" (mea- 
sure). 

Scrink, Scrinkle, v. to screw up. 
"He scrinkt up his eyes." 

Scroach, v. to scorch. 
Scroaching, part, scorching. 

Scrolls, pieces of hard fat left 
after melting down lard. 

Scrome up, v. to arrange roughly. 
" I scromed up my hair." 

Scrow (pron. like how), v. to 
scratch; to graze. "The cat 
wilt scrow you." " I scrowed all 
the skin off my arm." 

Scruff, the skin. " Take the dog 
out by the scruff of the neck." 

Scruff, to fight ; to wrestle. 
' ' We pitched to scruff. " " Then 
we scruffed." 

Scrump, v. to shrink or draw 
together with cold. 

Scry, the report of the approach 
of a great body of fish ; formerly 
applied to wild fowl. 

Scud, the hardened crust on a 
sore. 

Scud, Skid, Upscud, TJpskid, v. 

to spill; to run over. "If you 
throw the petcher on the floor 
won't the water scud." "She 
broke the petcher and upscud 
the water." 

Scumbered, spoken of a bird 
discharging excrement. St. Just., 
T. 0. 

Scute, an iron with which the toe 
and heel of a shoe are protected 



50 



WEST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 



(see Cue) ; the iron point of a 
wooden plough. 

Scute, a small piece of leather 
put on the sole of a shoe; the 
outside piece sawed off a balk of 
timber. 

Scutter, v. to throw a flat stone 
so as to slide on the top of the 
water ; to make ducks and 
drakes. Skitter, F. C. 

Sea-adder, a pipe-fish. 

Sea-hedgehog, a kind of shell- 
fish. 
Sea-holm, sea holly (angelica). 

Seam, a measure; a cartload of 

clay. 

Sean, Seine, a pilchard net. A 
net not less than 160 fathoms in 
length. 
Seaner, Seiner, a man employed 

on the pilchard fishery. 
Seed, imp. saw. 

"I seed his picter on the slat 

(slate), 

Haf an anyull (angel), haf a 
cat. ' ' TregeUas. 

Seed- lip, a wooden basket to carry 
seed when sowing. 

Servy-day, the day after a feast 
when all the scraps are served 
up. See St. Aubyn-day. 

Set again, v. to reopen a business. 

Set, a mining licence to work a 
piece of ground. The piece of 
ground is also called a set. As 
a good set. 

Shab-off, v. to sneak off in a 
shabby way. "He wanted to 
shab-off without paying." 

Shaddocks, a slate axe. 

Shag, a cormorant. " As sick as 

a shag." 
Shaker, "two good ones and a 

shaker." 
Shakes. " No great shakes " (not 

worth much). "He's no great 

shakes of a character." 



Shale, a scale of a fish ; a flake. 

Shale, v. to come off in thin 
slices ; to peel ; shell peas. 

Shaly, adj. rich and flaky. " This 
cake is very shaly. " "As shall/ 
as a rusty iron hoop." 

Shale-stone, Shilstone, slate. 

Shallal, a serenade on tin kettles 
and pans, given to notorious 
persons on their wedding-night. 
"A great noise is said to be a 
regular shallot." 

Shank, the spoke of a wheel. 

Shape (pron. shaape), a great 
mess; a dirty state. "What a 
shape you've got here.' ' ' ' What 
a shapes you are." J. W. " To 
make a shape is to make a dirty 
mess." 

Sharps, the shafts of a carriage. 

Shear, a good shear of hay. 

Shed yonr hair out of your eyes, 

phr. put your hair, &c. 
Shee-vo, a disturbance ; a row. 

" There was such a grand 

shee-vo" 

Shenagrum, Shenachrum, a drink 
made with hot beer, rum, sugar, 
and lemon. 

Shig, v. to cheat. 

Shigged out, cheated out of every 
thing. " They shigged me of all 
my marbles." 

Shigged, cheated in a mean 
manner. ' ' I was shigged out of 
that money." T. 0. 

Shiner, a sweetheart. 

Shivereens, small pieces or shreds. 
" Torn or broken into shivereens" 

Shoad, loose stones of tin mixed 

with earth. 
Sheading - heaps, heaps from 

pits sunk in search of veins of 

metaL 
Shocky, a small fish (goby). 

F. 0. 



WEST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 



51 



Shoe-lift, a shoe-horn. 

Shong, a broken inesh. W. F. P., 

B. V. 
Shoot, water led to a point by a 

pipe or drain, and then bursting 

out. In Cornwall they often 

took the place of pumps. 

Shote, a small kind of trout. 
Showl, a shovel. 

Shrim, a cold shiver. Shrim, v. 
to shiver. Sh.rimm.ed, chilled. "I 
feeled sich a shrim." ' ' Shrimmed 
to death with the cold." 

Shuffer. " When I'm shuffer I'll 
pay." Mousehole. "A shuff 
old woman." St. Just. " A 
thuff-oldman" St.Levan. "Full, 
stout, well." T. 0. 

Sigger, Sigure, v. to leak. " It 
siggers through the wall." Zig-ar, 
H. E. C. 

Sim-mee, v. it seems to me. 
" Sim-mee it's bra' and nonsical " 
(seeming to me it's very non- 
sensical). 

Sis -sling, moving uneasily in 
sleep. Garland. 

Sives, a species of small onion 
(chives). 

Skal. calling out. "You great 
skal ; " term of abuse. Newlyn, 
T. 0. 

Skate, a rent or tear. 

Skate, v. to rend. 

Skatereens, small pieces. 

Skedgwith, privet. Sometimes 

Skerrish. 
Skeeny, sharp ; gusty. Couch. 

Skeer, v. to graze. "The stone 
skeered my head." 

Skeer, v. to skim a stone on the 
surface of the water. 

Skeese, Skeyze, v. to frisk about ; 
to walk quickly. " Skeesing 
about like a pisky (pixie)." 
Uncle Jan Trenoodle. Scouse, 
J. W. 



Skeet, Skeeter, a syringe. 

Skeet, to wash windows with a 
syringe. " Skeet the windows." 

Skeet, v. to eject saliva through 
the teeth. W. F. P. Skit, F. 
W. P. J. M. B. 

Skew, a sudden gusty shower of 
thick drizzling rain. 

Skewy, adj. gusty, showery. 

Sklbbet, a small covered com- 
partment in a large chest, always 
near the top. 

Skimper, a person who slurs his 
work. ' ' This bed is not weeded 
clean; John is a skimper" 
Skemper, H. E. 0. 

Skimping, the smallest fragment 
of stone thrown out of a mine. 
Sometimes, as an adjective, ap- 
plied to a miserly person. " He's 
a skimping ould fellow." 

Skip skop night. In Padstow, 
on one night in November, the 
boys go about with a stone in a 
sling, with which they strike 
the doors ; they then slily throw 
in winkle-shells, dirt, &c. Couch 
says, " They strike violently 
against the doors of the houses, 
and ask for money to make a 
feast." 

Skirt, adj. scanty ; short. " Her 
coats were very skirt.' 1 "Skirt 
measure." Also Skeerty. 

Skit, a jest or witticism. " A 
lectioneering skit " (or anything 
else aimed at one). J. W. 

Skitter, v. to slide ; to scatter. 
"The things go skittering about." 

Skittery, slippery, like ice or 
smooth stones. F. W. P. J., M. B. 

Skiver, a skewer. 

Skivered down, skewered down. 
"She walks about with her 
arms skivered down to her sides." 

Skuat, Skute, a legacy or wind- 
fall. "A skuat of money is a 
E 2 



52 



WEST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 



phrase I have heard." F. W. 
P. J., M. B. 

Skubmaw, pieces or fragments. 
A ship is said to have gone " all 
to skubmaw" when she is wrecked 
and broken in pieces. Another 
use of the word^is, "I'll knack 
thee to Skubmaio." "W. F. P. 

Slab, a kitchen range ; a cooking 

stove. 
Slack, impertinent talk, " Come, 

none of your slack." "Loose 

talk." v Garland. 

Slack, Slacket, adj. slight ; thin. 
" You're looking but slack." 

Slag, tin dross ; misty rain ; 
sleet. 

Slaggy, Shlaggy, adj. wet; 
drizzling; miry. "The weather 
is very slaggy to-day." " What 
a slaggy mess the streets are in." 

Slam, v. to trump. "I'll slam 

that card." 

Slamming, part, trumping. 
Slam, v. to beat. 

Slammed, beat. Slamming, a 
beating. "He slammed to un 
wi' a stick." 

Slams, Scrams, broken meat. 
Slatter-cum-drash, a great noise. 

Sleep, v. starched, but not ironed 
linen, put by wet, and allowed 
to mildew, is said "to go to 



Sligerin, Slaggering (g soft). 
" There was a aliyerin outside 
the door," i. e. a great row, and 
fighting and tumbling about. 
Penzance. T. C. 

Slight, adj. ill. "He's but 

slight." 
Slights, half clad. "He was 

walking about in his slights." 

Slim, v. to slim the teeth of pigs 
by giving them their meat too 
hot. Polwhele. 



Sling, a dram. Slingers, un- 
invited guests. Garland. 
Slintrim, an incline. 
Slip, a young pig. 

Slivar, a large slice ; v. to cut 
into slices. Slice (pron. slish). 

Slock, v. entice. "He slocked 
away my dog." Polwhele says, 
to pilfer ; to give privately. 

Slocking-stone, is a rich, enticing 
stone of ore, tempting one. 

Slocking-bone, spoken of the hip 
joint. 

Slone, a sloe. " Eyes as black as 

a slone." 
Slosh, to spill or splash about 

water. 

Slotter, v. to make a mess. 
Slotter, filth. 
Slotterer, a slovenly woman. 

Slottery, adj. dirty. " The roads 
are slottery." Sometimes applied 
to the weather. 

Slow cripple, a blind worm. 

Slummock, a dirty, sluttish 
woman. 

Slummockin, Slammakin, adj. 
careless; untidy. 

Slump, a careless work-woman. 

Slydom, subs, cunning. "They 
have too much of slydom to ven- 
ture on that." Uncle Jan Tre- 
noodle. 

Small deer, vermin. F. C. 
Small men, fairies. 

Smeech, Smitch, the smell or 
smoke arising from anything 
burnt in frying. 

Smellers, cat's whiskers. 
Smulk, a dirty, drinking woman. 

Snag-tooth, Snaggle, an irregular 
tooth. " "What snaggles the cheeld 
has." 



WEST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 



Sneivy, adj. low; mean; cunning. 
"He's a sneivy fellow." 

Snippet, a small piece. F. W. P., 

J., M. B. 
Snite, a snipe. 

Snuff, " to be snuff" i. e. to be 
affronted. Polwhele. 

Soace. Soas, friend ; companion ; 
love. "Ess, soas." "Houdyour 
tongue, soas." " Come along, 
soas." 

Soak. v. to bake thoroughly. 

" This bread is not soaked." 
Society, phr. a member of society 

(a Wesleyan). 

Sog, a sU ep. " She is in a sweet 

sog." Sogh, Polwhele. 
Sog, v. to sleep. 
Sogging, part, sleeping. 

Soile, a seal. "And coming 
nearer home, here was a sentence 
spoken last year by a person 
living at Crowan Churchtown, 
which to very many even in 
Cornwall, would be as unintel- 
ligible as a foreign tongue : ' Ef 
a soile es en a zawn he do troach 
about the paace that a man ken 
jaale.' This was spoken of seals 
at Hell's Mouth in Gwithian 
Cliff. ' Soile ' was ' seal,' as 
' moile ' was ' mule,' and ' zawn ' 
was a sandy cove in a cliff. 
Pedlars were called troachers, 
and hence the verb, to troach 
to go along as if with a load on 
one's back; and to 'jaale' was 
to walk at a fast pace, which 
one could keep up for some time. 
With this explanation, it would 
be seen that the sentence very 
well expressed the manner and 
speed of a seal's movements. 
T. C. 

Sollar, a temporary floor at the 
bottom of a mine level, through 
which the air passes for ventila- 
tion. 

Soons, amulets ; charms. Mystic 



words given by " white- witches " 
to their customers. See White- 
witch. 

Sound, a swoon. " She fell down 
in a sound." 

Sound-sleeper, a red and black 
moth, sometimes called " a seven 
sleeper." 

Sour-sops, sour-dock, or common 
sorrel. Soursabs, F. C. 

Souse, adj. heavily ; clumsily. 
' ' He sat down souse." Down 
souse, down right. Souse is 
sometimes used as a verb. ' ' She 
soused down in her chair." 

Sowdling, adj. burly ; ungainly. 

Sows, Grammar-sows, Old sows, 

woodlice; millipedes. 

Spadiards, the labourers or mine 
workers in the Stannaries of 
Cornwall are so called from their 
spades. Ken net, M. G. Halli- 
well. Polwhele calls them 
spalliers. 

Spal, v. to break stones. "He 
was set to spal stones." " I seed 
un spoiling stoanes on the road." 

Spale, a fine. v. to mulct or fine ; 
to make anything last a long 
time. To spare, J. W. 

Span, v. to tether. 
Spanjar, Span, a tether. 

Spanking, adj. large; big; a 
spanking woman. 

Spanyer, Spangar, a Spaniard. 
The Spaniards were formerly dis- 
liked for having landed in W. 
Cornwall and burnt a church. 

Sparables, small hobnails. 

Spare-work, Sparey-work, work 
that takes a long time doing. 
" Fine sewing is sparey-ivork." 

Spar - stone, quartz ; Cornish 
diamonds. 

" A man of penetration he, 
For through a spar-stone he 
could see." 



WEST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 



Spars, Sparrows, willow rods used 
for thatching. 

Spell, a turn of work. "I'll 
taake a spell at et." 

Spell, a long time ; often used 
with the adjectives bra', pure. 
" A bra' spell of fine weather." 
"You've bin a pure spell on 
your arrant." 

Spence, a pantry or larder, 
usually joining the kitchen; a 
cupboard for keeping provisions. 

Spend, v. to break ground. 

Halliwell. 
Spickaty, adj. speckled ; mottled. 

"A spickaly cow." 

Spiller, a fishing-line with several 
hooks attached (for salt water 
fishing) left for some hours and 
then drawn. 

Spinning-drone, a cockchafer. 
Spise, v. to exude. Couch. 

Spiteous, adj. spiteful. "She 
was looking so spitvous." 

Splat, a spot ; a piece. " A 
purty splat of taturs." "A 
garden splat." 

Splatty, adj. covered with spots 
or pimples." " A splatty face." 

Spooty, v. to dispute. "Not 

Soing to spooty with you." St. 
ust. T. C. ' 

Spraggling pattern, a large, gay 
straggling pattern. 

Sprawl, a disease incident to 
young ducks. They are said to 
have the sprawls when they have 
not strength to stand on their 



Sprawl, Sproil, energy. " I am 
so weak that I have no sprawl 
to move." 

Spray, Spre, v. to chap, or crack 

with the cold. 
Sprayed, Spreed, p. p. as adj- 

" My lips are sprayed" 



Spraying, Spreeing, adj. cold ; 
cutting. " A spraying east wind." 

Spriggan, a fairy ; a sprite. 
Springle, a springe ; a bird snare. 

Sprit, v. to split. "Sprit open 
the fish." 

Sproosen, an untidy, ungartered 
woman. " She's a regular sproo- 
sen about the heels." 

Spud, a garden tool for cutting 
out the roots of weeds. Also 
potatoes, H. E. C. 

Spud, a brat. "Be quiet you 
young spud." 

Spudder, a fuss, or bother. " I 
don't want to ha' no spudder 
about et." 

Spur, a short job. "I'll do a 
spur arter my day's work." A 
bra' spur, a long time. "She 
has been gone a Ira' spur." 

Spur, a glass of spirits. 

"A spur in the head is worth 

two in the heel. 
Gi' me a glass and I'll shew 
'ee my skeel." 

Squab, v. to push ; to squeeze. 

Squab-pie, a pie made of well 
seasoned fat mutton, with layers 
of apples and an onion or two. 

Squabbed, Squadged, p.p. 
squeezed. "I were squabbed 
agen the wall." 

Squard, a rent. 

Squard, v. to rend or tear. 

Squarded. "And thro' hes 
squarded hat hes heer appear'd." 

Squeer, a pane of glass. " I 
erased (cracked) a squeer." 

Squinge-grub, a small, shrivelled 
pippin. "She's a regular old 
squinge-grub." Newquay. 

Squinny, v. to look or peer about 
with the eyelids half closed. 



WEST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 



" Then Knuckey rubb'd his hat 

' all round.' 

And squinnied on the floor." 
Uncle Jan Trenoodle. 

Squinny-eyed, adj. short-sighted. 
Squitch, a sudden jerk ; a twitch. 

Squitch, v. to twitch ; to jerk out 
of one's hand. 

Squitchems, gas is said to have 
the squitchems when water has 
got into the pipes. 

St. Aubyn's day, the d y after a 
feast ; a second day's feast given 
to inferior guests to eat up what 
may be left from the first. 

Stacy-jar, a quart stone bottle. 

Stag, Stog, v. to stick in the 
mud ; to cover oneself with mud. 

Stagged, Stogged, p. p. stuck in 
the mud ; covered with mud. 

Stain, an earthen pot shaped like 
an urn. 

Standards, a term in wrestling 
for a man who has thrown two 
opponents, and thereby secured 
a chance of trying for a prize. 

Stand witness. "Considered a 
sure sign of being sweethearts, 
if a young man and woman 
stand witness together, i. e. be- 
come godfather and godmother 
of the same child. T. 0. Towed- 
nack, 1868." Not in all parts; 
for I remember once hearing in 
Penzance a couple refuse to do 
so, saying that it was unlucky, 
' ' first at the font, never at the 
altar." M. A. 0. 

Standings, stalls erected in the 
streets for the sale of fruit, 
small wares, &c. 

Stank, a fuss; a disagreeable 
situation. " I am in a stank.' 11 

Stank, v. to tread ; to step ; to 
walk fast. " Stank on that 
spider." " He's stanking along." 
Sometimes "tanking along." H. 
B. C. 



Stare, a starling. 

Starry-gazy-pie, a pie made of 
pilchards and leeks; the heads 
Drought up through a hole in 
the crust. Halliwell. 

Stave, v. to move quickly and 
noisily. Staver, a fussy, noisy 
person. ' ' She's a regular stover ; 
she staves about from morning to 
night." 

Stave, v. to knock down. " And 
snatched up a showl for to stave 
ma owt rite." Uncle Jan Tre- 
noodle. 

Steaded, p. p. supplied. "Are 
you steaded, ? " 

Steeve, v. to stave in. "Shall I 
steeve in the head o' the cask, 
Missus ? " 

Steeve, v. to stow away; p. p. 
steeved. 

"Yet I've some little cobshans 
(savings), 

I've steeved at Oak-farm." 
Uncle Jan Trenoodle. 

Steeved, p.p. frozen. "I'm 
steeved to death with the could." 

Stem of a fork, the handle. 
Stem, a jol>; work not paid by 

time. 
Stemming, a turn ; in rotation. 

Formerly when people were 

obliged to fetch their water from 

a common pump (or "shute") 

they were obliged to take their 

stemming. 
Stent, the limits of a bargain in 

tutwork. Garland. See Tut- 

work. 
Stickings, the last of a cow's 

milk. 
Stickler, an umpire in a wrestling 

match. 
Stiddle, Stoodle, the upright pole 

to which an ox is tied in a stall. 
Stile, a flat iron. 
Stinkard, a disagreeable person. 



56 



WEST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 



Stinks -aloud, plir. to smell 
strongly. "This book stinks 
aloud of tobacco." 

Stir-a-coose, a bustling woman; 
a busy-body. 

Stirrage, a stir. "What a 
stirrage (sometimes sturrage) 
there was in a few minutes." 

Stodge, porridge. "As thick as 
stodge." A fog is sometimes said 
to be "as thick as stodge." 

Stoiting, the leaping of fish ; or 
the colour they impart to the 
surface. 

Stompses, Stamps (always plural), 
perpendicular wood or iron bars 
for crushing tin. ore to powder. 
They beat alternately, and are 
worked either by water or 
steam. "Working away like 
a stompses." 

Stope-a-back, a mining operation. 
A stepform in a rock. Tregellas. 

Stound, a fit, v. (p. p.) stunned 
by a blow or fall. 

Strake, Straky, v. to steal 
marbles. 

Strain, v. to slam. " Don't strain 
the doors so." To run violently 
against a person ; to strike. " I 
ran stram up agen un." ' ' Told 
T im if he didn't let go, I would 
stram to un with a horse- whip, 
and I strammed to him." Illogan, 
T. C. 

Stram -bang, Slam -bang, ado. 

quickly. 

Stramming, adj. big ; monstrous. 
"A strumming big He." A 
notorious falsehood is some- 
times called a strammer. "Thafs 
a strammer if ever there was 
one." 

Straw -mot, a straw. 

Stream works (pron. strame), tin 
works in valleys. The tin pebbles 
being placed in heaps, a stream 
of water is turned on to carry off 



the refuse. " A ttrame o' rain," 
heavy rain. 

Stream, v. to dip clothes in blue- 
ing water. 

Streaming pot, a watering pot. 

Strike, a "Winchester bushel ; the 
third of a Cornish one, which 
contained 24 gallons. 

Strike, v. to anoint as with 

ointment. 
Stroil, long roots of weeds ; 

couch grass; twitch grass. H. 

RC. 

Stroil, strength ; ability. " He 
has no more stroil than a child." 
Polwhele. 

Strop, a piece of twine or rope. 
Stroth (like both), a hurry or 

fuss. "What's all the stroth 

about P " 

Strother, a person always in a 
fuss or hurry. 

Strothing, part, hurrying. " She 
went strothing down the street." 
Stroping, said he did it all, and 
he was stroping about ; but, in 
fact, he did very little. St. Just. 
T. C. 

Strove. " He strove me down to 
a He." 

Strow, Strawl, a confusion; a 
litter. " The ketch en war in 
such a strow." " Terribly strow 
over there," meaning a row or 
disturbance. Ludgvan. " There 
was a bit of a strow (row, noise, 
fight) outside the door." Sennen. 
T. C. (Strow pron. like how.) 

Strub, v. to rob birds' nests ; to 
strip. " The boys quite strublxd 
the trees." 

Strnnty, adj. misty; foggy. 
" Warm strunty weather." 

St. Tibb's-Eve, a day neither 
before nor after Christmas. " 111 
do et next St. Tibb's eve" 

Stubberd, Stubbet, an apple 
peculiar to Cornwall. 



WEST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 



57 



Stuff, ore. " Tin stuff" (tin ore). 

Stug along, v. to walk with short, 
quick steps. 

Stuggy, Sturgy, adj. short; 
thickset. 

Stull, timber placed at the back 
of levels (mine galleries) to pre- 
vent the falling of rubbish. 

Sturt, a run of luck ; more than 
the usual gain ; a mining term. 
"He had a bra' sturt last 
month." 

Su, v. to go dry : as a cow that 
has stopped giving milk. " The 
cow has gone to su, the milk has 
gone into her horn." 

Suant, adv. smoothly. "My 
cotton doesn't work suant." 

Subsist, Sist, an advance on 
account of wages. 

Sugary -quartz, friable quartz 
resembling loaf sugar. 

Sump, the bottom of a shaft. 

Sumpmen, men employed in sink- 
ing mine shafts. 

Sunbeams, the long, light cobwebs 

which float in the air. 
Survey, a public auction. 
Survey-day, the day on which 

the under-ground workings of a 

mine are let. 

Suss, a great fat woman. " I 
never seed such a suss in my 
born-days." 

Swabbers, certain cards at whist, 
by which the holder was en- 
titled to part of the stakes. " I 
never cared for whisk since 
swabs went out of fashion." Said 
by an old lady at Penzance 
about ten years since. Still 
played in some parts of Corn- 
wall. The swabs are ace and 
deuce of trumps, ace of hearts, 
knave of clubs. Each player 
before beginning to play puts in 
the pool a fixed sum for swabs. 



The four cards are of equal 
value, but should hearts be 
trumps the ace would count 
double. 

Swab-stick, a mining tool. 

Swail, Sweel, to scorch ; to 
singe. ' ' A sweeled cat, ' ' a singed 
cat. 

Swaising, part, swinging. " He 
went down street swaising his 
arms." Sometimes whaziny. 

Swap, a gadfly. 

Swellack, a red-wing. A person 
whose self-esteem has been 
snuffed out, is called "a poor 
sivellack." H. E. 0. See Whin- 
ard. 

Swike, a twig of heath. "A 
swike broom," a broom made of 
heath twigs. 

Sy, a scythe. 

Tab, dried roots and grass raked 
up and burnt ; a cow-dung dried 
for burning. Sometimes a turf. 
J. W. 

Table-board, a table. 

Tabn, food. Garland. 

Tack, a slap. v. to slap with the 
open hand. Tackhands is to 
slap hands by way of approval. 

Tacking, a thrashing or flogging. 

Tadago-pie, a pie made from 

abortive pigs. 
Taer, a rage. " She got into a 

pretty taer." " He's in a pretty 

temper" would mean a bad 

temper. 

Tag, the tail end of a rump of 

beef. 
Tail-corn, refuse corn. 

Tailings, the poorest tin; the 
sweepings ; the refuse. 

Tail-on-end, adj. full of expecta- 
tion. 

Take a heave, v. to lose the 



58 



WEST CORNWALL GLOSSARY, 



trace of a vein of metal by the 
shifting of the earth. 

Take-horse, plir, when a vein of 
metal is split into two by a wedge 
of a different earth, it is said 
"to take horse.'" The wedge is 
called the horse. 

Taking, a sad condition. "I 
never saw a woman in such a 
taking" 

Talfat, a raised alcove to contain 

a bed. 
Tallet, a loft over a stable. 

Tally-ho, a wide covered passage 
between two houses. 

Tamlyn, a miner's tool. 

Tammy, a sieve; a cloth for 
straining. 

Tamping, material used in blast- 
ing. 

Tamping-iron, a tool to beat 
down the earthy matter in a 
charge used for tamping. 

'T 'Andrew's dance, St. Yitus' 
dance. 

Tantrum-bohus, Tantra-bobus, 

applied to a noisily playful 
child, often used thus "Oh, 
you tantera-bobus." F. W. P. J. 
There's a proverb, " Like tantra- 
lobus, lived till he died." Some- 
times, like Tantra-bobus 1 cat. M. 
A. C. 

Tap, the sole of a shoe. " The tap 
of your shoe is wearing ; it wants 
tapping." 

Tap, v. to sole a shoe. 
" Tap a tap shoe, that would I do, 
If I had but a little more 
leather," &c. 

Old Nursery Rhyme. 

Tarve, Tarvy, v. to struggle ; to 

rage. 
Tarving, struggling ; raging. 

Tarvied, p. p. struggled ; raged ; 
convulsed. " And when he had 



tarvied about." Uncle Jan Tre- 
noodle. 
Tates, potatoes. 

Taunt, adj. pert. "A taunt 

piece of goods." 
Teat, a draught of wind. 
Teating, a whistling of the wind. 
Teel, v. to till or set. 

Teeled, p. p. buried. " The owld 
mon was teeled to-day." 

Teem-out, to pour. " Teem out 
the liquor." 

Teen, v. to close. " I haven't 
teened my eye." 

Teen, v. to light. " Teen the 

fire." 
Teening-time, the time to light 

the candles ; twilight. 
Teeth-haler, a dentist. 

Tell, v. to say. " Can you tell 

your lessons ? " 
Tell-tale-tit, a tell tale. 

" Tell-tale, pick a nail; hang to 
the bull's tail." 

Temper. " There's no temper in 

the ground " (no moist heat). 
Tend, v. to wait. 

Tendar, a waiter at an inn ; the 

guard of a train. 
Term of a time, phr. a long time. 

" She's bin a term of a time over 

her work." 

Tern, a bittern. " Crying like a 

tern." 
Tetty rattle, Cornish stew. F. W. 

P. J., M. B. 
Thicky, Thacky (pron. this; 

that. 
Thirl, adj. lank; thin. "Our 

horse is very thirl." 
Thirt-eyed, squint-eyed. "I 

never seed sich a thirt - eyed 

fellow." 
Thoft, v. imp. thought. "I 

thoft it was you." 



WEST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 



59 



Throy-ting, v. part, cutting chips 

from sticks. 
Thumb-beans, straw ropes twisted 

around labourer's legs to keep 

off the wet. 

Thumper, a large person. " That's 
a thumper I " a great falsehood. 

Thumping, adj. very large. " A 
thumping woman." 

Tic-tac-mollard, a game; ducks 

an'l drakes. 
Tiching, v. part, setting up turves 

to dry, to prepare for fuel." 

Grose. 

Tidden, adj. tender ; painful. 
' ' It came somewhat tidden to 
him, that had helped to maintain 
his mother all along," i. e. hard ; 
he felt it a hardship. Gulval. 
T. 0. 

Tiddly, v. to do the better or 
lighter household work. These 
three words, used long ago to 
the mother of an old friend, 
thus: "What can you do?" 
said the mistress. " I can louster 
and fouster, but I caan't tiddly," 
said the Cornish servant. See 
Louster. F. W. P. J., M. B. 

Tiddy, a teat ; mother's milk. 
Titty, H. E. C. 

Tiddy bit, a tiny bit. 

Tidy, adj. decent; clever. "A 

tidy little fellow," well-made; 

plump. " A tidy little pig." 

Tie, a large wooden trough, 
through which a stream of 
water runs for the purpose of 
separating the ore from the 
dross. 

Tifle, Tiffle, or Tifling, a ravel- 
ling ; an unwoven thread from a 
piece of cloth. 

Tine-out, Tiffle-out, to unravel 
cloth; to unweave. " This cloth 
does not wear well; it tifles out" 

Tight slap, a sharp, sudden slap. 
" I gov' her a nice tight slap on 
the chacks." 



Timbal, a mining tool. 

Timbering (pron. temberin), made 
of timber. " To go up the tem- 
berin hill " is to go upstairs. 

Tember-man, a mine carpenter. 
Timdo )d e, a stupid. 

Timersome, adj. nervous ; timor- 
ous. 

Tin-dresser, a man who prepares 
tin ore for the smelting furnace. 
Ting, v. to tie together. 

Tinged up, imp. tied up. " She's 
allus going about with that man 
tinged up to her aipernt string." 

Tink, a chaffinch. J. W. 

Tinker arter, v. to go courting. 

Tinner, a tin miner. " A water 
wagtail. ' ' Bottrell. 

Toad-in-the-hole, a piece of meat 
with batter pudding baked round 
it. 

Toat, the whole lot. " The toat 
of them were there." 

Toatlish, adj. foolish ; weak. 
"He's getting owld and toat- 
lith." Totling, J. W. 

Toit, Toitish, adj. curt ; saucy. 
" She's bra' and toit." 

Token, v. to betroth; to point 
out. " He tokened me the way." 

Toller, a man who collects the 
tolls or revenues of the mine. 

Tom-holla, a noisy, bragging man. 

Tom-horry, a sea-bird. "The 
common name of two or three 
species of Skua." Couch. 

Tom-toddy, a young frog ; a tad- 
pole. " Tom-toddy, all head and 
no body." 

Tom-toddy, a game in which each 
person in succession has to drink 
a glass of beer or spirits, on the 
top of which a piece of lighted 
candle has been put, whilst the 
others sing, 



60 



WEST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 



" Tom-toddy ea coom hoam, coom 

hoam; 

Tom-toddy ea coom hoam ; 
With his eyes burnt, and his 

nawse burnt, 

And his eyelids burnt also. 
Tom-toddy es," &c. 

Uncle Jan Trenoodle. 

Tom-trot, hard-bake; toffee. 
Tom Twist and Harry Dingle ! 

inter/. 
Tongue Tavas, Tongue Tab, a 

chatterbox. 
Tootle dum pattick, a foolish 

person. 

Top-dress, v. to manure land. 
Top-dressing, manure, 

Tor, prop, noun, a rugged hill, as 
Rough-tor (pron. Row-tor). 

Tose, v. to pull wool. 

Tosing, part, cleaning wool by 

pulling. 
Tosh, a large bunch. " She'd a 

tosh of yellow ribbon in her hat." 

" A tosh of flowers." 

Touch-pipe (pron. tich-pipe), a 
rest from work to smoke a pipe. 
" A change of work is as good as 
a touch-pipe." 

Tousse, a fuss or hurry. " "What's 
all the tousse ? " 

Toussing, part, hurrying ; fuss- 
ing. " What are you toussing 
about now ? " 

Tousser, a large, coarse, round 
apron, worn by servants to keep 
their dresses clean when doing 
dirty work ; it often has a 
" mocket" (bib). 

Towans, pi-op, noun, sand-hills 

(Dunes). 

Town-place, a farm-yard. 
Towze, v. to pull about roughly. 

Towzing, part, pulling about 
roughly ; whirling round. ' ' I 
want something to stand rowsing 
and towzing." 



Toze, v. to walk quickly. 
Tozing, part, walking quickly. 
" I saw him tozing down street." 

Trade (pron. tra-ade), a mean 
thing. Doctor's trade, medi- 
cine. Sweet trade, sweetmeats. 
Spoken of with contempt. " I 
wouldn't take sich traade." 

Train-oil, expressed fish-oil, most 
commonly pilchard. 

Trapes, v. to walk ; to saunter. 

Trapesing, part, walking. " I've 
been trapesing the streets all day 
to try and find my man " (hus- 
band). 

Trawy, a trough. T. C. 

Treesing, part, idling. " Treesing 

away your time." 
Trestrem, bait cut up to put on 

hooks. Mousehole fishermen, F. 

W. P. 
Tribut (pron. trib-ut), tribute ; 

a percentage paid on ores raised. 

Trib - ut - ers, tributers ; miners 
who work for a percentage. 

Trickster, Tricker, an adept. 
" He's a trickster for dancing." 

"Triddling, part, trifling; talk- 
ing nonsense." Garland. 

Trig, v. to support ; to set up ; 
to put a stone under a wheel to 
stop it. 

Trig-meat, any kind of shell-fish 
picked up at low water. Large 
quantities of limpets and peri- 
winkles are gathered in Penzance 
on Shrove Tuesday ; this is called 
going a trigging. It was formerly 
the custom for boys and women 
to stand at the corners of the 
streets on that day, with black- 
ened hands, which they rubbed 
over people's faces. After dusk 
the men and boys went about, 
throwing handfuls of shells, bot- 
tles of filth, &c., in at open doors, 
taking down signs, and unhang- 
ing gates. 



WEST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 



61 



Troach, v. to hawk smuggled 
goods ; now sometimes applied 
to hawking vegetables, &c. 

Troach, v. to trample. " The 
pigs are troaching on the flower- 
beds." J. W. 

Troacher, a hawker of smuggled 
goods. 

Troil, a short row on the sea, 
when paid for called a "pennord 
o' say." Troil is old Cornish for 
feast. 

Troll-foot, a crooked foot; a 

club-foot. 
Troll-footed, adj. club-footed. 

Trone, the depression between 

furrows. 
Trool, v. to turn round like a 

wheel. To roll a ball is to 

trool it. 

Troy town, a maze ; a labyrinth 
of streets. " I lost my way ; 
'twas a regular Troy toivn." 

Troy town, a litter. " She had 
quite a Troy town round her." 
A hard-working man is said ' ' to 
work like a Trojan." 

Truff, a trout. "As fat as a 

trvff" 
Trug (g hard), used for trudge. 

Towednack, T. C. 

Trunk, a mining tool. 

Trunking, one of the processes 

of tin-dressing. 
Tub, a red gurnard. 
Tubbal, a miner's tool. 

Tubban, Tab, a turf. "She 
thrawed a tubban at me." " He 
was cutting tubbans." 

Tuck, v. to chuck under the chin. 

Tucker, a fuller. 

Tucking mill, a fulling meal. 

Tucking, a term used in seine 
pilchard fishing. 

Tuck-net, a net used in tucking. 



Tulky, Tulgy, a slovenly woman. 

" As black as a tulky." 
Tummals, a heap ; a quantity. 

" Tummals of letters." 
Tuntree, Tuntry, the pole by 

which oxen draw a wain. 
Turf-tye, Tye. See Bed-tye. 
Turmuts, turnips. 
Turpentine-soap, yellow soap. 
Tut, a footstool ; a stupid person. 
Tut- work, job-work in mining. 
Twingle, v. to wriggle ; to writhe. 

Ugly, adj. cross. " She's fine 
(very) and ugly to-day." " I 
never knawed sich an ugly-iem- 
pered wretch." 

Unbeknown, not known. " 'Twas 
quite unbeknown to me." 

Uncle, a term of respect applied 
to old men. 

" Uncle Jan Duff, had money 
enough," &c. 

Old Nursery Rhyme. 

Unfrooze, v., p. p., thawed. 
Unkid, adj. solitary, dull. 
Unlusty, adj. unwieldy. Couch. 
Unopen, v. to open. 

Unream, v. to take the cream off 
milk. 

Unreamed, p. p. " Have you 

unr earned the milk ? " 

Unrip, v. to rip. 

Unripped, p. p. " My dress is 
unripped in the seams." 

Upping - stock. See Hepping- 
stock. 

Uprise, Upraise, v. to church 

women. 
Uprose, p. p. " She was uprose 

last Sunday." 

Upscud, Upskid. See Scud. 
Urge, v. to retch. 



62 



WEST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 



TJzzle (pron. oozle), the throat. 
Uzzle-pipe, the wind-pipe. 



Vady, adj. damp ; musty. 

Van, a kind of omnibus entered 
from the front part. 

Van, a rude process of trying tin 
ores by crushing and washing on 
a shovel. 

Vargood, a spar about 23ft. long 
used as a bowline to the foresail 
of our fishing boats. W. F. P. 

Veak, Veach, an inflammation 
near a finger-nail ; a whitlow. 

Vean (Old Cornish), adj. little. 
Still occasionally used, but more 
as a term of endearment. 
" Cheeld-vean." 

Veor (Old Cornish), great. Used 
in proper nouns, as Vounder- 
veor, great lane. 

Veer, a sucking pig. 

Venom, a gathering in the finger, 
not near the top ; a whitlow. 

Veskin, a protection for a sore 
finger ; a glove. 

Vestry, the smiling of infants in 
their sleep. 

Victor - nuts, hazel - nuts. See 
Cock-haw. 

Vinnied, adj. mouldy. Blue ripe 
cheese is called vinnied cheese. 

Visgie, an agricultural imple- 
ment, in shape between a mat- 
tock and a hammer, for beating 
down hedges. 

Visnan, Vidnan, a sand lance or 
sand eel. 

" Vizzery, vazzery, vozery, vem, 
Tizzery, tazzery, tozery, tern, 
Hiram, jiram, cockrem, spirem, 

Poplar, rollin, gem. 
There stands a pretty maid in a 
black cap. 



If you want a pretty maid in a 
black cap, 

Please to take she." 
Salf, The Queen, Aug. 23, 1879. 
Said by children in E. Cornwall 
when they want to know who 
shall hide, &c. See Ene, Mene, 
&c. 

Via, Flaw, the colic in cattle 
produced by their eating too 
much green food. 

Voach, v. to tread on heavily. 
Volyer. See Folyer. 
Vore, a furrow. 

Voryer, a horse-way; a border 
round a field. 

Voyder, a clothes basket ; a large 
basket for holding unmended 
linen sold by gipsy women. 

Vug, Vugh, Hugo. See Fogo. 

Wagel, a grey gull. 
Waiter, a tea-tray. 
Walk (pron. waalk), v. to make a 
journey or visit, not a walk. 

Walk, a journey. " Have you 
had a nice waalk ? " asked on a 
return from France. 

Waive, v. to wallow. "I'm 

waiving in riches." 
Wambling, a rumbling. " I have 

a wambling in my innerds." 

Want, a mole. " What's that 1 " 
" What you rich people never 
have in your house, a want." 

Want-hill, a mole-hill. 

Wanting, phr. " How long have 
you been wanting ? " = how long 
have you been away from home ? 

Warsail, a corruption of wassail. 
About New Year's Day four or 
six men join together; after 
dark, carrying with them a little 
bowl, they go from house to 
house, opening the doors, and 
calling out " Warsail.' 1 They 



WEST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 



G3 



then sing some doggrel rhymes, 
asking people to give something 
to 

" These poor jolly Warsail boys, 
Come travelling through the 

mire." 

This custom has long been con- 
fined to the villages (pron. 
wars-ail). 

Watty, a name for the hare in 
use amongst poachers. Couch. 

Way, reason. " The way I said 
so." " The way I did it." 

Wayst, Wust, ways. " Go thee 
wust home," go thy way. A 
woman taking a pig home, not 
being able to get it along, at last 
let it go, saying, " Go thee 
wayst ; I waan't have anything 
moore to do wi' 'ee." 

Wee's nest, a mare's nest. 
" They have found a wee's nest, 
and are laughing over the eggs." 

Weelys, wicker pots or traps for 
catching crabs. Also Cunner- 
pots. 

Weered, imp. of wear. " She 
weered her blue gownd." 

Weet, Weel, v. to pull. "I'll 

weet thy loggers (ears) for thee." 
Weeting, a flogging. 
Weeth, prop, noun, a field. 

Weethans, prop, noun, small 
fields. 

Wee- wow, adj. bent ; crooked. 
" My needle is all wee-wow." 

Well -near, adv. well nigh. 
" There were well-near a hun- 
dred people in the field." 

Werret, v. to worry ; to tease by 
over-talking. " She werrits me 
out of my life." 

Whap, a knock. " O.C. wliaf, a 
blow." Uncle Jan Trenoodle. 

Wheal, a mine. "O.C. huel." 
" Wheal Mary." 



Whelk, Whilk, a stye on the eye. 

Whem, Whim, a part of the 
machinery of a mine worked by 
horse-power. " I druv' a whem." 

Whimseys, whims. "She's full 

of her whimseys." 
Whinard, a redwing. " As cold 

and starved as a whinard." See 

Swellack. 

Whip-up, v. to raise; to hoist. 

Whip and while, adv. now and 
then. "Every whip and while 
he goes away." 

Whipsidery, a machine for raising 

ore. 
Whistercuff, a box on the ear. 

Whit' - neck, a white-throated 
weasel. " Screeching like a 
tvhit' -neck." 

Wh.it'- pot, a dish made of cream 
or milk, flour, sugar, and nut- 
meg ; a kind of custard. 

White -rent, a duty formerly 
annually paid by tinners 
(miners). 

White-witch, a person (either 
male or female) supposed to be 
able to charm toothache, stop 
bleeding at the nose, &c. ; also 
to be able to give assistance in 
recovering lost or stolen pro- 
perty, to cure ill-wished (be- 
witched) persons : often con- 
sulted by the ignorant. See 
Pellar. 

Whiz, a fussy, troublesome per- 
son. " A dreadful old whiz." 

Whiz, v. to bustle about fussily. 

Whizzing, part, bustling. " He's 
always whizzing about the 
house." 

Whiz-agig, a whirligig. 

Whizzy, adj. confused. " My 
head feels but whizzy." 

Widdershins, from H. to S., 
through E. 



64 



WEST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 



Widdle, Whiddle, a whim ; non- 
sensical idea. " Nothing more 
than an old woman's whiddle." 
" Pshaw ! go widdle." 

Widdy, widdy, way, a boys' 

game. 
" Widdy, widdy, way, is a very 

pretty play ; 
Once, twice, three times, and all 

run away." 

Widow-man, a widower. " He 
was left a widow." Towednack 
and Sennen Cove. T. C. . 

Wiff, a small pelerine. 
Wildfire, erysipelas. 

Wilver, a baker or pot under 
which bread is baked. Couch. 

Wimmick, v. to cheat ; to beggar. 

Wince-along, v. to swagger; to 

walk with a swing. 
Windan - sheet, a winnowing- 

sheet. 
Windmow, a rick of corn put up 

in a field where it has been cut. 

Wingerly, adj. thin ; miserable. 
"A poor, white winyerly fellow.'' 

Wingery, adj. oozing ; shiny, as 
tainted meat. " The mait is 
wingery." 

Windspur - broach, a crooked 
stick thrust into each end of a 
thatch to secure the windspur 
rope. H. E. C. , 

Windspur-rope, a rope fastened 
over a hay-stack to prevent its 
being blown about by the wind. 

Winky-eye, a game. An egg is 
put on the ground some distance 
off, the number of paces being 
previously decided on. Each 
player in turn is blindfolded, and 
with a stick tries to hit and 
break it. 

Winze, a small shaft with a 
windlass. 



Wisht, adj. sick ; ill ; white ; 
melancholy. "You're looking 
pure (very) and wisht." " Funny, 
but wisht." " It's wisht, but it's 
quiet." J.W. 

Wonders. See Gwenders. 

Worms (pron. warms), poor old 
people. " Poor auld worms," 
spoken of an old man and his 
wife, both near ninety and dis- 
abled. Morvah, T. C. 

Wranny, a wren. F. C. 

Wriggle out the ashes, phr. 
clear the bars of the grate. 
Sometimes Riddle out. 

Wrinkles, periwinkles. 

Wroxle, v. to walk unsteadily ; 

to stagger. 
Wustn't, v. wilt not. "Thou 

wustnt do et." 

Yaffer, a heifer. 
Yaffle. See Jaffle. 
Yap, v. to yelp. 
Yowl, v. to howL 

Zacky. See Cousin Jacky. 

Zang, Sang, a small sheaf of 
corn such as leasers (gleaners) 
make. Couch. 

Zeer, adj. " worn-out : generally 
used in regard to clothing, but 
applied also metaphorically to 
persons. 'She's very zeer.'" 
Stackhouse. 

Zew, v. " to work alongside of a 
lode before breaking it down." 
Garland. 

Zukky, v. " to smart. ' I wish I 
had un here, I'd make un 
zukky.' " Camborne, Cornish 
Telegraph. 

Zwele, v. to singe. " A zweled 
cat," a singed cat. 



65 



ADDENDA. 



Crum, cramped with the cold. 
See Crum. 

Flap, a flash of lightning. 
Huscen, scolded. T. W. S. 

Parrick, a little jug. T. W. S., 
Gwinear, Cornishman, Feb. 16, 
1880. 

Peasen (pron. paisen) Monday, 



the Monday before Shrove Tues- 
day. So called in E. Cornwall 
from the custom of eating pea- 
soup on that day. 

Sharp Tuesday, Shrove Tuesday. 
Ilhistrated News, Feb. 14, 1880. 

Udjiack, a small moveable block 
of wood used by builders in 
fitting the planks of a boat. 



Words kindly contributed by Mr. W. Copeland Borlase, Laregan, Penzance, 
too late for insertion in the Glossary. The two last are from an old 
Tithe-book for the parish of St. Just, now in his possession. 



Coot, a beating. 

Graow, gravel. See Growan. 

Kenack, a term applied to a 
weakly child. 

Kenack, a worm. 

Kip, a small net used to hang 
vegetables. 

Morgye, an ill-looking wench ; 
a dog-fish. See Murgy. 

Pezac, a pilchard with a broken 
back. Pezzac is a Cornish sur- 
name. 

Tigga, Tiggy, a game played by 



boys in which they touch and 
run. See Stig. 

Willen, a beetle. 

Obsolete. 

Vannte, Vann-stone, of doubt- 
ful interpretation, possibly the 
stoup. 

Whitesoolde, cheese. Carew says 
of the Cornishmen, " their meat 
was ' Whitsul,' 1 as they call it, 
namely milke, sowre milke, 
cheese and butter." 



EAST CORNWALL WORDS. 

BY THOMAS Q. COUCH. 



69 



INTRODUCTION. 



DURING a long and intimate acquaintance with the folk of East 
Cornwall, it has been my habit to make note of such words as are 
in common use among them, but which have now dropped, or are 
dropping, out of the talk of cultured society. Many of these good 
words, obsolete or obsolescent in polite English, hardly deserve their 
fate, but should be retained as brief, apt, and vivid expressions of 
thought, only to be represented otherwise by verbose and often 
clumsy periphrase. Our greatest authors were glad to use them, and 
their persistent survival, both in sound and sense, in the rustic talk, 
should be a plea for their restoration to modern English speech. 

In the" presence of the English Dialect Society, I have shrunk 
from giving many etymological remarks, and those I have ventured 
on may be taken as mere surplusage, to be accepted or rejected. I 
have given such instances of their use by our Middle English and 
earlier Modern English writers as my memory and scant shelves 
supply me with. 

A few of the peculiarities of our speech, common in many parti- 
culars to the south-western dialects generally, but differing from the 
spoken English of to-day, are here given : 

A. The past participle of verbs has often the affix a (the Anglo- 
Saxon ge), as a-zeed, aheerd. There are many, but ill-defined, 
irregularities in the accentuation of this vowel, as slat for slate, 
talde for tackle. 

D is commonly elided from the termination of words, as bans, 
bands ; groun, ground ; e. g. " I owed '11 vorty pouns." 

E. en. This old English mode of ending the adjective is retained 



70 EAST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 

by us to a larger extent than in our common tongue : elinen tree, 
cloamen dish, &c. 

F is sounded as v before vowels and liquids. 

G. This letter is elided in the present participle, as doin for 
doing. 

I has often the sound of e, as cheld, child ; Tterily, kindly, &c. 

Of loses its / before a consonant : " the nap o' the hill." 

R is often transposed, as girts, groats; afeard, afraid; apern, 
apron. 

S, at the beginning of words and when followed by a vowel or 
liquid, is replaced by its softer kin-letter, z. 

Th is pronounced d : dresh for thresh, datch for thatch. 

V and u are interchangeable in a most erratic way. We have 
belve for bellow, waive for wallow, liauen for haven, eual for eval (see 
glossary, sub voce). The ancient and knightly family of Beville 
bore a passant bull in their canting arms. 

T is occasionally substituted for h, but not so frequently as in the 
other south-western dialects. We have yaffel for armful, yeffer for 
heifer ; and the semi-consonantal e in ewe is with us yawe. 

In most instances the past tense of verbs is weak, as " I knowed 
it " for " I knew it ; " and in a few cases where it is weak in national 
English it is strong with us, as " I gove," for " I gave." 

The infinitive mood has y often added in termination, as to 
mowy, to reapy, to milky. 

Words ending in a mute consonant undergo metathesis, as Jiaps 
for hasp, crips for crisp. 

There is a marked difference between the speech of East and 
West Cornwall, not only in structure and vocabulary, but in the 
intonation of sentences. We have none of that indescribable 
cadence, a sort of sing-song, which marks the patois of the West, 
and which I judge to be as truly Keltic as the Cornu-British words 
which remain to it. At the beginning of the present century mining 
adventure, especially in the search fgr copper, became a furor in 
East Cornwall, and a passionate enthusiasm brought hither the 
skilled miners of the West, who flocked to the banks of Tyward- 
reath Bay, and further east to the central granite ridge about the tors 



INTRODUCTION. 71 

of Caradon. These immigrants brought with them and have left an 
infusion of their language, especially its technical portion, but I 
remember when it was a great mimetic feat, and_ productive of much 
mirth amongst us, to be able to imitate the talk of Cousin Jacky 
from Eedruth or St. Just. This intermixture of tribes, increased 
still later by facilities of travel, traffic, telegraphy, &c., has rendered 
it almost impossible to draw any but a very broad and blurred line 
between the dialects. The comparison can only be made by such 
glossaries as that furnished by Miss Courtney from the extreme 
west, and mine from the easternmost parts of the shire. If asked to 
define roughly a boundary, I know none better than the Partta^ 
mentary line from Crantock Bay, on St. George's Channel, to Yeryan 
Bay, on the English Channel, which bisects the county. The late 
John T. Tregellas, who more than any other had the faculty of 
seizing and vocally representing with minute accuracy the subtlest 
distinctions of word and tone, even between neighbouring parishes, 
thought he could plainly trace the limits of the two dialects. The 
opinion of so well-known an expert may be here given : 

" To any one who may be disposed to jeer at the idea as falla- 
cious or ridiculous, I should be desirous of placing such a one at 
Mousehole or any village in the neighbourhood of Penzance, and for 
an hour to enter into easy conversation with its rustic inhabitants, 
and having well rivetted their sing-song (chant) on his ear, to per- 
ceive the lessening and altering of the intonation of the inhabitants 
as he proceeds eastward, through Towednack, St. Ives, Hayle, and 
Camborne. Eastward of Camborne, even at Eedruth, the natural 
chant has died away ; nor is it again heard from the more guttural 
speakers of Eedruth, Gwennap, and St. Agnes. But be it known to 
the curious in these matters, the miner of Perranzabuloe expresses 
himself uniformly in a full note higher than his adjoining parish- 
ioners of St. Agnes, and no sooner have you passed Crantock and 
Gubert and entered the St. Columb's, than you find the people's con- 
versation partake, in a very small on to a very large degree, of the 
peculiar zalt" for salt, "yeffer" for heifer, &c., of St. Gennys and 
the whole neighbourhood of Camelford and Boscastle, until you hear 
in its fullest form the ' I zim' for I think, 'spewn' for spoon, &c., of 



72 EAST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 

Bideford, wliere the peculiarity of Devon is so manifest." 1 The 
popular tongue of East Cornwall, indeed, resembles that of Devon- 
shire and of those counties generally which formed the ancient 
kingdom of Wessex. 

Carew (temp. Elizabeth), whose loved dwelling-place Anthony, 
the home of many ancestors, was where the River Lyner " winneth 
fellowship with the Tamer," gives us in his Survey some account of 
the language of his time. In those days of difficult travel and 
intercourse, his knowledge of the tongue generally spoken over the 
county was probably slight, and chiefly drawn from East Cornwall. 
In his book, admirable for its keenness of observation and felicity of 
description, often in vernacular phrase, we learn that " most of the 
inhabitants can speak no word of Cornish, but very few are ignorant 
of the English." A few did yet so still " affect their own " that to 
an inquiring stranger they would answer, "Meea nauidua "cowzasa- 
wzneck," = I can speak no Saxonage. However, he says of the old 
Keltic speech, " The English doth still encroache upon it, and hath 
driven the same into the uttermost skirts of the shire ; " the fate also 
of the old Kymric on the opposite shores of "Wales and Brittany. 
The English which the East Cornish speak " is good and pure, as 
receyuing it from the best hands of their owne gentry, and the 
Easterne Merchants." There was still, our historian says, " a broad 
and rude accent, eclipsing" after the manner of the Somersetshire 
men. 

Considering that the Cornish branch of the Keltic was in use 
down to a late date, it is remarkable how few and unimportant are 
its remains. Those grand and almost changeless objects of nature, 
mountains, valleys, headlands, bays, rivers, submarine hills, and dells, 
with the more mutable territorial divisions into towns, villages, 
hamlets, farms, and even fields, still keep their old and very descrip- 
tive names untouched by changeful time. Here and there we meet 
.with a few of the old designations of animals, trees, and herbs. 
These are the last to part with the old language. " Mountains and 
rivers," remarks Sir Francis Palgrave, "still murmur the voice of 

1 Homes and Haunts of the Eural Population of Cornwall, p. 2, by J. T. 
Tregellas. 



INTRODUCTION. 73 

nations long denationalized or extirpated ; " and, says Canon Farrar, 
" though the glossaries of Gael and Cymry should utterly pass away, 
the names they gave to the grandest features of many a landscape 
will still stand upon the map." 

Many of our ancient names are most happily descriptive of the 
natural peculiarities of the scenes as they still exist : others lead us 
back in fancy to the pre-historic condition of the spots, so changed, 
but still keeping their old designations. Lostwithiel, a town on the 
banks of the Eiver Fowey, long connected with the earls and dukes 
of Cornwall, by its name alone takes us" far into the past, when it 
was the place or residence of woodmen, the simple and sylvan 
habitation of a people leading a wild and venatic life. The Cymro- 
Keltic tongue, to which, the Cornish being dead, we are fain to 
appeal, tells us that the word is derived from Lios, Llys, or Les, a 
place, and Gwddel, of the woods. In the near neighbourhood we 
have a large parish called Withiel, and Cuddle and other variations 
or corruptions are to be traced to the same root. Maen, a stone, is 
nearly as common a prefix as the Tre, Pol, and Pen, " by which you 
shall know the Cornishmen." Mennear, maen-hir, is still a common 
patronymic, the first bearers of it being dwellers by the long stone. 
As names of places we have our Menadu, Menacuddle, Menabilly, 
Menhenniot, and a host of others. In our topographical nomencla- 
ture here and there occur designations which mark the steps of the 
intruder, as Tresawsen, the residence of the Saxon. The only traces 
of the Roman domination remaining to us are on a few sepulchral 
stones by moor or wayside, where the old name is disguised by a 
Latin termination. A typical instance is found on the road to 
Fowey, near the ancient camp at Castle-dore, and not far from 
Polkerris, where a monolith bears an inscription which is read thus : 

CIRVSIVS HIC JACIT CVNOMORI FILIVS. 

The similarity between Cirusius and Kerris is fairly evident. 

Later on, our Teutonic invaders made deeper changes in our 
language, driving the Keltic into the extreme west, and leaving the 
speech of East Cornwall essentially English, with just a sparse 
sprinkling of Norman words. This neo-Latin influence is chiefly 
noticeable on the scutcheons of our ancient gentry, armigers. The 



74 EAST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 

Tremaynes, dwellers by the rock, when French was fashionable took 
for arms the three hands ; the Trewinnards, their three wiunards or 
redwings ; and the Trefusises, their three fusils. The Carminows 
held to their Cornish motto, Gala Rag Whethlow ; and the Polwheles 
to their Karenza ichelas Karenza. 

In the compilation of my list I have gleaned from the collection 
of Jonathan Couch, who, as "Video," contributed it to Notes and 
Queries (voL x., First Series, 1854). The glossary in the History of 
Polperro, commonly attributed to my father, is, with the chapter on 
folk-lore, entirely my own. I have also had assistance from the 
Verbal Provincialisms of South-Western Devonshire, by W. Pengelly, 
F.R.S. In this pamphlet, reprinted from the Transactions of the 
Devonshire Association for the Advancement of Science and Art, are 
many words contributed by Mr. Pengelly from Looe in East Corn- 
wall, and they are so identical in sound and meaning with those in 
use at Polperro, that I much doubt the accuracy of Mr. Bond's 
informant when he says : 

" I have been informed that about a century ago the people of 
Polperro had such a dialect among them, that even the inhabitants 
of Looe could scarce understand what they said. Of late years, 
however, from associating more with strangers, they have nothing 
particularly striking in their mode of speech, except a few of the old 
people." * 

Many words have been taken from the comic and burlesque verse 
of Henry Daniel, a native of Lostwithiel, who has with exquisite 
humour and true poetic faculty made free use of our vernacular ; and 
also I am indebted to an interesting series of articles contributed by 
Dr. F. "W. P. Jago, of Plymouth, to the pages of The Cornishman, 
a Penzance weekly paper. 

I have been much guided in the proper rendering of the \yords 
by Mr. Ellis's Pronunciation of English Dialects, and have striven 
to give them as phonetically as I could in ordinary spelling. 

1 Topographical and Historical Sketches of E. and W. Looe. 



75 



A GLOSSARY OF WORDS 



IN USE IN 



EAST CORNWALL. 



Abroad, Abrawd, open. " The door is all abraird." 

Adder. The Eev. J. L. Stackhouse, Curate of St. Mellion, says, that 
in his neighbourhood this name which generally means the viper, 
Pelius Berus, is applied to the newt, Lissotriton punctatus. 

Afeard, afraid. 

Agate, " all agate" descriptive of earnest attention. 

Agen, against ; until. 

Agg, v. to incite; set on; provoke. A.S. eggian. 

All, used frequently as an augmentative, as " all abroad." 

Alley, the Allis shad, Alosa vulgaris. From its bony nature some- 
times locally called chuck-childern. 

Allsanders, the herb, Smymium olusatrum. 

Ampassy, the &c. (et cetera) at the end of the alphabet. 

Allan. This interjection, used within remembrance, is now nearly 
extinct. It seemed to imply a wish to have the question repeated, and 
to mean, " what did you say ? " 

Anend, on end ; straight. " Tail anend." 

Angelmaine, the Monk fish, Squatina angelus (Mevagissey). 

Angle-twitch, Angle-touch, the earth-worm. 

Tagwormes which the Cornish English terme angle-touches. CAREW. 
Your bayte shall be a grete angyll-twytch or a menow. Treatise of 
Fysshynge by Juliana Berners. 

Anist, Anest, near to ; nigh. " I wan't go anist en." 

Anker, a keg or small cask of handy size for carrying by hand, or 
slung on horse-back. Used by smugglers. 

Apple-drane, the wasp. 

Apsentree, the aspen, Populus tremula. 



76 EAST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 

Arg, to argue. 

Arrant, errand. 

Go soul the body's guest 
Upon a thankless arrant. 

The Lie, by Sir W. Ealeigh, (a Devonshire man). 

Arrish. See Erish. 

Ary mouse, hairy mouse ; the bat. A.S. hrere mus. 

To war with rere-mice for their leathern wings. 

Mids. N. Dream, II. ii. 4. 

The village boys at Polperro address the bat as it flits above them in 
this song : 

Ary -mouse, ary-mouse ! fly over my head, 
And you shall ha' a crust o' bread, 
And when I brew and when I bake, 
You shall ha' a piece o' my wedding cake. 

Ascrode, astride. 

Attle, rubbish ; refuse. The Cornish tinner, in Carew's time, called 
the heaps of abandoned tin works, Attal Sarazin, which he translates, 
"The Jewes offcast" (Survey of Cornwall, ed. 1769, p. 8). The 
word is spelt by Pryce (Mineralogia Comubiensis), attal, attle, adall, 
addle, and said to mean corrupt, impure, off-casts, deads. A.S. 
aidlian. Whatever the root, there are many branches, as addle, 
idle, &c. 

Avore, before. 
Ax, to ask. 

Azew. A cow is said to be azeio when drained of milk before 
calving. In some parts, when milking is discontinued, the cow is 
"gone to zew." 

Bal, a mine. 
Ball, (1) to beat. 

(2) to ball, or as noun, a bawl. " Hold thy ball," hold your noise. 
Balch, a stout cord used for the head-line of a fishing net. 

Balk, in some places bull: To balk pilchards is to pile them toall- 
like, in layers of pilchards and salt. Balk seems to mean a hedge, 
ridge, and metaphorically, an obstacle. Shakspere used this word 
as we do. Sir Walter Blount brings news of the discomfiture of 
Douglas, and describing the field, speaks of 

Ten thousand bold Scots, two and twenty knights, 
Balk'd in their own blood. Henry IV., Pt. 1, I. i. 

That like a balk with his cross builded wall. 

PHETEAS FLETCHER'S Purple Island, Canto iv. Stanza 11. 

Ballywrag, to scold or abuse. Barnes, in the Glossary appended to 
his Poems of Rural Life in the Dorset dialect, suggests a derivation 
from A.S. bealu, evil, and wregan, to accuse. 



EAST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 77 

Bankrout, bankrupt. In the first folio edition of Shakspere, 1623, 
the form bankrout is generally used. See Mer. of Venice, III. i. 47 ; 
IV. i. 122. In Love's Labour Lost, I. i. 27, the form is " bankerout." 
Marston in Antonio's Revenge, II. ii. has 

Bich hope : think not thy face a bankrout though. 

Bannel, the broom (Cytisus scoparius). From the Cornish banal. 
Williams (Lexicon (Jornu Brit.) says, ' ' this is a late form. In the 
Cornish vocabulary it is written banathel, genista. It enters into the 
name of many places in Cornwall, as Bannel, Banathlek, Bennathlick, 
Bennalack." He gives instances from cognate dialects. 

Barm, yeast. There is in some p'arts a trill on the r, as barrum. 

Bassom, Bassomy, blush red, with inclination to purple, as in con- 
gestion of the cutaneous circulation. 

Bean, a withy band. 
Beat, burnt turf. 

Beat-burrows, a heap of burnt turves. In Carew's time, as now, 
farmers "a little before ploughing time scatter abroad their beat- 
boroughs" (Survey of Cornwall, ed. 1769, p. 20). 

Becker, a species of bream, Sparus pagrus. 
Bedman, sexton. A word going out of use. 
Bee-but, bee-hive. 

Belk, v. to belch. 

Till I might belk revenge. 

MARSTON, Antonio's Revenge, I. i. Hid, I. iii. 

Belong. A curious employment of this word is observed here, e. g. 
"I belong working to Wheal Jane." 

Belve, to bellow. 

Bettermost, much the best. 

Bever, to shiver. 

Biddicks, a mattock : perhaps from beat, burnt earth, and axe. 

Bilder, the herb Heracleum spliondylium. In some parts called 
cowflop. The bilder in many districts is that hurtful herb the hem- 
lock water-drop wort, CEnantlie crocata. 

Bishop, the fish, Coitus scorpius. 

Black-head, a boil or furuncle. 

Blacky-month, November. The mis diu of the old Cornish. 

Black- worm, the cock-roach. 

Blame, a word of objurgation. " I'm blamed if I don't." 

Blinch, to catch a glimpse of. E. g. " I just blinched en gain round 
the caunder." 

Blindbuck-a-Davy, the game of blind-man's buff. 



78 EAST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 

Bloody warrior, the wall-flower, Cheiranthus cheiri, 
Blooth, Blowth, blossom. 

No fruit I promise from the tree 
Which for this blooth hath brought. 

CABEW'S Survey of C. Prosopopeia. 

Blue-poll, a species, or more probably a variety of salmon remarkable 
for the steel blue colour of its head, and for ascending our rivers 
(e. g. the Camel), about Candlemas ; hence, when occurring in numbers 
they are called "the Candlemas schull." The great majority are 
observed to be males or kippers. 

Bobble, a pebble. 

Boldacious, audacious; bold; impudent. 

Bon-crab, tbe female of the edible crab, Platycarcinus pagurus. 

Boostis, fat ; well conditioned. 

Boots and Shoes, the columbine, Aquilegia vulgaris. 

Bowerly, stately and comely. " A boicerly woman." 

Boy's love, southernwood. 

Brage, to scold violently. 

Braggaty, spotted ; mottled. In an old manuscript account book 
which belonged to a white witch or charmer of East Cornwall, I 
find a charm in which this adjective is applied to the adder. 

"A charam for the bit of an ader. 'Bradgty, bradgty, bradgty, 
under the ashing leaf,' to be repeated three times, and strike your 
hand with the growing of the hare. 'Bradgty, bradgty, bradgty,' to 
be repeated three times, nine before eight, eight before seven, seven 
before six, six before five, five before four, four before three, three 
before two, two before one, and one before every one. Three times 
for the bit of an ader." 

Brandys, a tripod or trivet used in cooking. 

Brath., broth. Here chiefly noticed for a curious idiom we have, 
" a few brath," a dish of broth with a few cubes of bread soaked 
in it. 

Brave, fairly good ; tolerably well. It is sometimes used without 
any well-defined meaning to qualify a noun, implying that the thing 
is moderately good of its sort. E.g. " 'Tis brave weather." " How be 
you?" "Bravish." Pepys writes (September 19, 1662), "that he 
walked to Eedriffe by brave moonshine." 

Breek, a rent or hole in a garment. Qy. break. E. g. " There isn't 
a breek in it." 

Briming. The name given to those scintillations of light in the sea 
waves at night, produced by several species of entomostraca, medusae, 
&c., when excited. Carew calls it briny. 

Bronse, thicket. 



EAST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 79 

Brown- wort, the fig wort, Scropfiularia nodosa. The leaves are 
much used as an application to ulcers. 

Browthy. Light and spongy bread is browthy. 

Buck. The buck in the dairy is a change in the milk and cream, 
produced by some unknown influence, perhaps electrical, or more 
probably some fungoid or other growth by which they acquire a 
disagreeable taste and smell. It is very difficult to eradicate from the 
dairy when once in. 

Buckhorn, whiting, salted and dried. Once a considerable article 
of export from Polperro and other fishing towns ; but in these days 
when we cannot wait for fish to be salted the trade is discontinued. 

Buffle-head, thick-head ; dunder-head. 

But my Lord Mayor, a talking, bragging, truffle-headed fellow. 
Pepys, March 17, 1663. 

Bullard, bullward ? In the cow, maris appetens. 
Bullum, the fruit of the Prunus interstitia, or bullace tree. 

Bultys, Boulter, a term applied by fishermen to an apparatus for 
catching conger, pollack, &c. It consists of a long line, having at 
intervals hanging from it snoods of a fathom length armed with 
tinned hooks. The snoods have many separate cords to prevent the 
fish liberating themselves by gnawing. The whole is moored, and its 
position marked by a buoy. Carew calls it a botilter. 

Bumfire, bonfire. 

Bunt, the concavity or bellying of a net or sail. 

Burrow, a mound or heap; a sepulchral tumulus. See Beat- 
burrows. 

Buss, a yearling calf still sucking. 
Bussy-milk, the first milk after calving. 

Buts, bots, a disease of the horse. Shakspere uses the word. Tusser 
bids the farmer beware of giving his cattle " green peason for breed- 
ing of 6ois." Five Hund. Points : December Husb., V. 17. 

Butt, (1) a heavy two-wheeled cart. 

(2) a hive; "a bee-hut." 
Butter and Eggs, the flower Narcissus poeticus. 

Butterdock, the herb burdock, Arctium majus. The fruit are called 
cockle-bells. 



Cab, a dirty mess ; a slovenly, untidy thing. 
Cabby, adj. dirty. 

Caff, refuse ; especially refuse or unsaleable fish. 
Cannis, to toss about carelessly. 



80 EAST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 

Caper-longer, the shell-fish, Pinna ingens* 

Caprouse, a tumult, or row. " He keck'd up zich a caprouse." 

Care, the mountain ash, Pyrus aucuparia. 

Cats and dogs, the catkins of the willow. 

Catty-ball, a ball used in play. 

Canch, a mess. 

Cauchy, sloppy ; miry. " The roads be caucliy." 

Caudle, entanglement; mess. 

Cawed, a disease in sheep, &c., produced by the liver fluke, Distoma 
hepaticum. A sheep affected by that disease, elsewhere known as rot, 
is cawed. In Dorset it is a-cothed. Barnes (op. cit.} quotes the Anglo- 
Saxon Chronicle: " swile coth com on mannum : " such a disease 
came on men. 

Chacking, half famished. "I'm chacking with hunger." See 
N. & Q. 

Chak, cheek. " I'll scat the' cliaks." 

Chakky cheese, the fruit of the common mallow, much liked by 
children. 

Chall, the building where kine are housed. 
Chap, a young fellow. 
Cheeld, child. 
Cheens, the loins. 

Cheese, the cake of alternate pounded apple and straw from which 
the cider is pressed. 

Chien or Cheen, to germinate. Potatoes in a dark cellar cheen, in 
some parts cheem. 

Chitterlings, the small guts and mesentery. Clutter means thin ; a 
furrowed-faced person is called " chitter-faced." 

Chop, to barter. 

As for the chopping of bargains. BACON, Essay of Riches. 
Chopping and changing. GOSSON, School of Abuse. 

Chow, to chew. 
Chuck, choke. 

Chuck-children, the Allis Shad, Alosa vulgaris. So called from the 
bony nature of the fish, and its inelegibility as an article of infant diet. 
Chuff, sulky ; sullen. 

Church-hay, churchyard. Hoez, an inclosure. This word is dropping 
out of use, but is often heard in the adage, 
A hot May 
Makes a fat Church-hay. 

Church-town, the church village. 



EAST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 81 

Churer, a char-woman. 

Clam, the starfish, Asterias glacialis. 

Clan, a rude wooden foot-bridge over a stream. 

Clib, to stick or adhere. 

Clibby, sticky ; adhesive. 

Click-handed, Click-pawed, left-handed. Cornish, dorn-gliken : 
dorn, hand; gliken, left. 

Gliders, the herb, rough bed-straw, Galium aparine. 

Clidgey, adj. descriptive of a gelatinous, sticky consistence in bread 

confectionery, &c. 

Clome, earthenware, distinct from the more pellucid china-ware. 
Clop, to limp. Cornish clof, lame ; Idoppik, a cripple. 

Clout, a napkin for infants. 

When clothes are taken from a chest of sweets 
To swaddle infants, whose young breath 

Scarce knows the way ; 
Those clouts are little winding-sheets 
Which do consign and send them unto death. 

HERBERT, Church Mortification. 

Cluck, to crouch ; stoop. E. g. " Clucky down." 

Cluck, the sitting oestrum in hens. 

Clum, benumbed. "My hands are clum with the cold." 

Clunk, to swallow. That action by which food passes from the 
tongue into the pharynx. 

Clunker, the uvula. 

Clush, to lie close on the ground. 

Clusty, a close, heavy consistence in bread, potatoes, &c. 

Cockabell, Cocklebell, icicle. 

Collybrand, smut in corn. 

Composants, the meteor Castor and Pollux, known to sailors as 
ominous of storm. Qy. Spanish cuerpo santo. 

Condiddle, to take away clandestinely ; to filch. 

Conger doust or Conger douce, ? sweet conger. The fish, Conger 
vulgaris, was within the memory of our oldest, and for reasons which 
might well be inquired into, immensely more abundant than now. 
Up to the beginning of the present century, a large trade existed 
between Cornwall and Catholic countries in Conger-douce. For further 
information as to the mode of its preparation, see Couch's Fishes, 
vol. iv. p. 345. 

Coomb, a narrow valley. 

o 



82 EAST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 

Corrat, pert; impudent; saucy; sharp in rejoinder. "As corral 
as Crocker's mare." E. C. proverb. 

Corwich, the crab, Maia squinado. 

Cow-flop, the herb, cow parsnip, Heradeum Splwndylium. 

Cowshern, cow-dung. 

Cowsherny, adj. applied to the sea -when it assumes an olive green, 
turbid appearance, as if coloured with cow-dung. This appearance 
is probably owing to the presence of animalcules, such as entomos- 
tracae, medusae, &c. 

Crabbit, crabbed ; sharp and contradictory. 

Creem, to squeeze. It is metaphorically used to describe that sensa- 
tion of rigor or creeping of the flesh, known as goose flesh, cutis 
anserina. " I felt a creem go over me." " Creemed wi' the cold." 

Creen, to wail, or moan. "The cheeld hest been creem' ng all day." 

Crib, a crust of bread. 

Cribbage-faced, small and pinched in face. 

Cricket, or Crecket, a low stool. Qy. A.S. eric, a crutch, or prop. 

Crickle, to break down through feebleness. 

Crim, a morsel ; a small quantity of anything. Allied to the word 
crumb. Often applied to time. E. g. " After a crim" in a very short 
time. 

Crowdy, to fiddle. Crowd, a fiddle. Crowder,, a fiddler. " So 
long as you'll crowdy they'll dance." E. 0. proverb. Crowdero had 
his name from this word, said to be Keltic. Crwth is Welsh for a 
fiddle. 

sweet consent between a crowd and a Jew's harp. 

JOHN LILLY, Campaspe, II. i. 

Crow-sheaf, the terminal sheaf on the gable of a mow. 
Cruddle, v. to curdle. 

See how thy blood cruddles at this. 

BEAUMONT AND FLETCHER, A King and no King, I. i. 

Cruel, in common use to qualify almost any noun, and has nothing 
of the meaning usually conveyed. Cruel slow, very slow ; cruel hard, 
very hard (Qy. slang). 

Crumpling, a stunted apple. 

Cry out, travail ; parturition. Shakspere makes King Henry VIII. 
(V. i.) say to Lovell concerning his discarded Quee'n Catherine : 

What say'st thou ? ha ! 
To pray for her ? What is she crying out ? 

Lovell. So said her woman ; and that her sufferance made 
Almost each pang a death. 

Cuckle-dock, the herb burdock, Arctium ma jus. 



EAST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 83 

Cuckoo-spit, the froth of the insect, Cicadia spumaria. In that 
exquisitely dainty feast which Herrick spreads for Oberon is 

A little 
Of that we call the cuckoo spittle. Hesperides. 

Cue, an ox shoe. There are two on each division of the hoof, some- 
what resembling a Q, from which the name may be derived. 

Culch, oyster spat. 

Cullers, the same as Hollibubber (Delabole). 

Culver-hound, the lesser spotted dogfish, Squalus catidus. 

Custis, a smart blow on the open palm. A common school punish- 
ment ; also the name of the instrument inflicting it. 

Cuttit, sharp in reply ; pert ; impudent. 



Dafter, sometimes Darter, daughter. 

Daps, likeness ; image. " He's the very daps o' es vather." 

Batch, thatch. 

Daver, to fade or soil. 

Davered, faded; soiled. 

Dayberry, the wild gooseberry. 

Deave, or Deeve, barren ; empty. A nut without a kernel is deeve. 

Delbord, the fish, nurse hound, Squalus canicula, N.E. C. 

Dems, the wooden frame in which a door swings. The dead and 
dry stock of an apple-tree is apple-dern. 

Dew-snail, the slug, Limax agrestis. 

Dish, (1) a toll of tin; a gallon, according to Carew. Vide Pryce, 
Mineralogia Cornub. 

(2) to be suddenly downcast or dismayed. 
Dishwasher, the bird, water wagtail. 
Disle, the thistle. Milky disle, Sonclius oleraceus. 
Dogga, the picked dog-fish, Acanthius vulgaris. 
Dole, confusedly stupid. 

Doll, Qy. Toll, a tribute by the Lord of a tin-sett, tollere. 
Dory-mouse, the dormouse. 
Dossity, spirit ; activity. 
Doust, chaff; dust. 
Down-danted, cast down ; depressed in spirits ; daunted. 

Dowse, to throw on the ground. 

G 2 



84 EAST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 

Drang, a narrow passage or alley. A.S. thrang, thringcn, to press, 
squeeze, or thrust. 

Drash, to thrash. 

Drashel, a flail. 

Draxel, the threshold. 

Dredge-corn, a mixed crop of barley, oats, and wheat. 

Driff, a small quantity. A word now not commonly used. 

Dringed, or Dringed up, crowded. 

Drlth, Dryth, dryness. 

Drover, a fishing boat employed in driving or fishing with drift or 
floating nets. 

Drug, to drag. " Drug the wheel." Chaucer says : 

And at the gate he profred his servyse 

To drugge and drawe what so men wold devyse. 

Knightfs Tale. 
Drule, to drivel. 

Drumble-drane, the humble bee. 

Dubbut, short ; dumpy. 

Duggle, to walk about with effort and care, like a very young child. 

Dumbledory, the cockchafer. 

Dummet, the dusk. 

Dwalder, to speak tediously and confusedly. 



Ear-bussums, the tonsils. 
Easy, idiotic. 

Eaver, in some parts pronounced Hayver. The grass, Lolium 
perenne. 

Eglet, or Aglet, the fruit of the white thorn, haw. 

Elleck, a species of gurnard, Trigla cuculus. Carew in his enumera- 
tion of Cornish fishes mentions the " Illek." 

Elvan, probably a purely Cornish term applied to intrusive dykes of 
porphyritic felsite, but sometimes locally and ignorantly to coarse 
sandy beds of killas. 

Emmers, embers. 

En. The old plural termination still kept by some English nouns, 
as ox, oxen ; chick, chicken, is retained by us in pea, peasen ; house, 
housen, &c. 

Pppingstock, the step from which a horse is mounted, by women. 
A common convenience in most farm-yards. Qy. upping-stock. 



EAST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 85 

Errish, sometimes Arrish, stubble. 

Errish.-, or Arrish-mow, field stacklets of wheat or barley. 

Eval, a dung fork. In the Easternmost parts of Cornwall it is, ' yule,* 
eual. 

Eve, to become moist. A stone floor is said to eve before wet weather. 
A good hygrometric mark among country folk. 

Evett, sometimes Ebbet, the newt. 

May never evet nor the toad 
Within thy hanks make their abode. 

BROWNE'S Britannia Pastorals, Book I. Song 2. 

Eyle, the eel. 



Faggot, a feminine term of reproach. Also used to designate a 
secret and unworthy compromise. A man who, in the wrestling ring, 
sells his back, is said to faggot. I presume it has some relationship 
to the word in use among electioneering people, faggot vote. 

Fairy, a weasel. 

Fang, more commonly pronounced Vang, to take ; collect ; handle, 
or receive. A.S. fengan. 

And Christendon of priests handes fonge. 

CHAUCER,- Man of Lawes Tale. 

Fare-nut, Vare-nut, the earth-nut or tuberous root of the Bunium 
flexuosum. 

Feather bow, fever few, Matricaria parthenium. 

Fellon, inflammation. Culpepper says that the berries of tbe bitter- 
sweet (Solanum dulcamara) are applied with benefit to felons, Vide 
Amara dulcis. 

Fellon-herb, the mouse-ear hawk- weed, Hiemceum pilosella. 

Fern-web, a coleopterous insect, Melorontha horticola. 

Fetterlock, fetlock. 

Fit, to prepare or arrange. " Shall I fit a cup o' tay for 'ee 1 " 

Fitchett, a polecat. 

Fitty, fitting ; proper. 

Flaygerry, a frolic ; spree. 

Fleet, v. to float. 

Ere my sweet Gaveston shall part from mo 

This isle shall fleet upon the ocean. 

MARLOWE, Troublesome Reign of King Ediv. 21. 

Flikkets, flashes ; sudden or rapid change of colour. 

Flox, to agitate water in a closed vessel. 

Flying-mare, a peculiar and dangerous hitch or grip in wrestling. 



86 EAST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 

For, during. " Once for the day." 
Forthy, officious; forward. 
Fouse, to soil or crumple. 
Frape, to bind. 
Freath, or Vreath, a wattle. 

Fumade, a pilchard prepared by the process of balking, perhaps 
formerly smoked. 

Furnigg, to deceive ; desert, or fail in a promise. Qy. From the 
Cornish, "fadic," a runaway. "Fenigy," Video. 

Gad, a chisel for splitting laminated rocks. A.S. ga, gaad, goad. 
Gaddle, to drink greedily. 
Gale, an impotent bull. 
Gambrel, the hock of an animal. 

Gange. To gange a hook is to arm it and the snood with a fine 
brass or copper wire twisted round them to prevent their being bitten 
off by the fish. 

Gawky, stupid; foolish. C. gog, a cuckoo. A.S. gaec, geac, g&c, a 
cuckoo. 

Geese, a girth of a saddle. 

Gerrick, the garfish, Belone vulgarls. 

Giglet, an over merry, romping girl. 

Away with those giylets too. Measure for Measure, V. 352. 
Ging, the whip employed to spin a top. 
Gladdy, the yellow hammer. 
Glawer, the fish, power, Morrhua minuta, N.E. C. 
Glaze, to stare. 
Glint, to catch a glimpse of. 

Goad. Land in small quantities is measured by the goad or staff 
with which oxen are driven. It represents nine feet, and two goads 
square is called a yard of ground. 

Go-a-gooding. On the day before Christmas day poor women go 
round to their richer neighbours asking alms. This is called goiny-a- 
yooding. 

Goody. To goody is to thrive or fatten. 
Goog, or Gug, a seaside cavern. N.E. C. 

Goosey-dance. Burlesque sport on Christmas Eve. Vide Hist, of 
Polperro, p. 161. 

Gore. "A gore of blood." 



EAST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 87 

Gorry, a wicker flasket with two long handles, carried in the modo 
of a sedan chair. 

Goss, the reed, Arundo pliragmites. 

Grab, to grasp ; seize. 

Grainy, proud ; haughty. 

Grange, to grind the teeth. 

Green-sauce, the herb, Rumex acetosa. 

Greet, earth ; soil. 

Greet-board, the earth-board of a plough. 

Grey-bird, the thrush, Turdus musicus. 

Gribble, the young stock of a tree on which a graft is to be inserted. 

Gripe, a ditch. Hedgy-gripe, the ditch by the hedge of a field. 

Griste, grist. Corn sent to the mill to be ground. 

Grizzle, to grin ; to laugh. 

Guff, stuff; refuse. 

Gulge, to drink gluttonously. 

Gumption, sense ; shrewdness ; aptitude of understanding. 

Gur, the fish, shanny, Blennius pliolis, S.E. C. 



Hack, to dig lightly. " To hack tetties " (potatoes). 
Hallihoe, the skipper fish, Scomberesox saurits. 

Hall-Monday, Collop, or Shrove Monday, probably Hallow-monday. 
Vide Nicky-nan night. 

Hall nut, the hazel. 

Hame, a circle of straw rope; a horse-collar. A hame is used to 
fasten the fore leg of a sheep to his neck to prevent straying, or 
breaking fence. 

Handsel, to use or handle for the first time. 

Hange, the heart, lungs, and liver of an animal on a butcher's stall. 
" Head and hange" 

Hapse, a hasp. 

Hardah, elvan. rock. 

Hard-head, the herb, black knapweed, Centaur ea nigra 

Hares-meat, the wood-sorrel, Oxalis acetosella. 

Harve, a harrow. 

Hastis, hasty ; sudden. " Hastis news." 

Hauen, haven ; harbour. 



88 EAST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 

Havage, lineage ; extraction. The children of a family of ill repute 
are said to be " o' bad havage." 

Hayne, v. to withdraw cattle from a field with a view to a crop 
of hay. 

Hayrish. See Errish. 

Haysing, poaching. 

Heal, or Hail, to hide or conceal. A.S. helan.. "The hailer's 

as bad's the stailer." Local proverb. 
Hedgyboar, the hedgehog. 
Hedgygripe, a ditch at the foot of a hedge. 

Heel-tap, n. the heel-piece of a shoe. Metaphorically, the remainder 
of an ill-drained glass of liquor. 

Hekkymal, the blue tit (Parus cceruleus). 

Helling, in some parts Hailing, roofing stone ; flat slate. 

His howses were unhilid 

And full i yvel dight. Cokes Tale of Gametyn. 

Herringbairn, the fish, sprat, Clupea sprattus. 
Hile, the beard of barley. 
Hoaze, hoarse. 

Hobbin, a countryman's pasty which he takes to his work for a mid- 
day meal. 

Hog, Hogget, a sheep after six months of age. 

Hollick, an alliaceous plant, common in cottage gardens. 

Holm-bush, the holly. 

Holmscritch, the missel-thrush, Turdus viscivorus. 

Holt, hold ; place of retreat. ? From helan. 

Home, pronounced horn, near to ; nigh ; close. " Make horn the door." 

Homer, homeward. 

Homey-wink, the lapwing plover. 

Horse, a fault in a rock. A portion of dead ground splitting a lode, 
named a rider or rither in Yorkshire. Pryce. 

House-warming, a wedding gift, or present on first keeping house. 
Howsomever, however. 
Hudd, the husk of hard fruit. 

Huer, a man on shore who directs by signs the movements of the 
seine fishermen. 

Hull, the empty and rejected shell of nuts, peas, &c. 



EAST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 89 

Hulster, a hold ; place of retreat, er concealment, like Holt. E. g. 
" This rubbish es only a hulster for snails." 

Hurrisome, hasty ; passionate. 
Hurry-skurry, confusion ; intemperate haste. 
Hurts, whortleberry. 



lie, the liver fluke, dtstoma hepatica, productive of rot in sheep. 
Ill-wished, bewitched. 

Inkle, tape ; narrow webbing. " As thick as ?Vt;?e-weavers." 
Inwards, intestines. 

Jack o' Lantern, Ignis fatuw, the pisky Puck. 

Jack o' Lent, a figure made up of straw and cast-off clothes, carried 
round and burnt ^fc the beginning of Lent, supposed to represent 
Judas Iscariot. Hist, of Polperro, p. 125. 

Jakes, a state of dirty untidiness. 

Jam, to squeeze forcibly ; to crush. 

Janders, jaundice. 

Jenny-quick, an Italian iron. 

Jew's ears, some species of fungi. 

Joan the Wad, the name of an elf or pisky. 

Joice, juice. 

Jowter, a travelling fishmonger. Carew says of Polperro, that there 
" plenty of fish is vented to the fishdrivers, whom we call jowters." 



Keenly, deftly, as, "he does it keenly." Also kindly; favourable. 
" Brave keenly gossan." 

Keeve, a large tub. 

Kenning, an ulcer on the eye. 

" What is called a kenning, kerning, or a horny white speck on the 
eye, we have several old women who profess to cure by a charm. 
Possibly kenning may imply a defect in the ken or sight. The old 
word ken is used for sight in Cornwall as well as in Scotland. I should 
not omit to state that the application of some plant to the part affected 
accompanies the muttered incantation. In the present case it is the 
plant or herb here yclept the kenning harb." POLWHELE'S Traditions 
and Recollections, vol. ii. p. 607. 

The plant I have seen most commonly used for clearing opacities of 
the cornea is the celandine, chelidonium majua. 

Kerls, swollen and hard glands. Same root as kernels. 



90 EAST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 

Kern, to harden, as corn does after blossoming. A word with large 
relationships. 

Kib. To kib a gap, is to mend a hedge with thorns, and put tabs or 
turves to keep them' down. 

Kibble, a mine bucket. 

Kiddylwink, a beer-house. Vide Tiddlywink. 

Killas, Kellas, a local name in Cornwall and Devon for every kind 
of clay slate. It includes, in different districts, soft clay slate, roofing 
slate, fine-grained cleavable sandstone, &c. It may be said to include 
all fine-grained sedimentary rocks of silicious nature and schistose in 
structure. 

Killick, a stone set in a frame of wood, used by fishermen to anchor 
a boat in rough ground, instead of a grapnel. " The word kellick, as 
I am informed, signifies a circle in Welsh ; and it is probable that the 
circle of wood which holds the stone is the foundation of the name." 
Video. 

Kimbly. " The name of a thing, commonly a piece of bread, which 
is given under peculiar circumstances at weddings and christenings. 
It refers to a curious custom which probably at some time was 
general, but now exists only at Polperro, as far as I know. When 
the parties set out from the house to go to the Church, or on their 
business, one person is sent before them with this selected piece of 
bread in his or her hand (a woman is commonly preferred for this 
office), and the piece is given to the first individual that is met, whose 
attention has been drawn to the principal parties. I interpret it to 
have some reference to the idea of the evil eye, and its influence from 
envy which might fall on the married persons or on the child, and 
which is sought to be averted by this unexpected gift. It is also 
observed at births in order that by this gift envy may be turned away 
from the infant or happy parents. This kimbly is commonly given to 
persons bringing the first news to persons interested in the birth." 
JONATHAN COUCH, Polperro. 

Kink, a twist in a rope ; entanglement. 
Kipper, a male salmon. 
Kit, (1) kith. 

(2) the buzzard, Buteo vulgaris. Perhaps applied to the kite, 
Milvus regalis, before the bird became so exceedingly rare. 

Klip, to strike or cuff. " I Hipped 'en under the ear." 
Knagging, inclined to be contentious, and ill-tempered. 
Knap, the top or brow of a hill. 

Hark ! on the knap of yonder hill 
Some sweet shepherd tunes his quill. BROWNE. 
As you shall see many fine seats set upon a knap of ground. 
BACON'S Essays. 

Knap-kneed, knock-kneed. 

Ko ! an exclamation of entreaty. Video says Coh is an exclamation 



EAST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 91 

of no very decided meaning ; but it signifies to put off, as much as 
to say, "You don't mean what you say," "Go along with you." 
Generally in E. 0. it is used as supplementary to any earnest request, 
and is very expressive of eager entreaty. 



Lairy, Leery, adj. descriptive of emptiness or sinking at the stomach. 

Lake, a small stream of running water. Sometimes a space in the 
open sea where a particular current runs, as the lake off Polperro. 
Gwavas lake. 

Lamper, the lamprey. 

Lampered, mottled. " Lampered all over," like the sea lamprey. 

Lank, the flank, or groin. 

Lapstone, the stone on which a shoemaker beats his leather. 

Lask, a slice taken off 1 the tail of a mackerel ; a favourite bait in 
whiffing for mackerel or pollack. 

Latten, tin. 

Launder, a shute running under the eaves of a house. 

Lawrence, Larrence, the rural god of idleness. " He's as lazy as 
Larence." " One wad think that Larence had got hold o'n." A most 
humorous illustration of the dialect of Somersetshire, by Mr. James 
Jennings, printed in Brayley's Graphic and Historical Illustrator, p. 
42, shows that Larence is there held in the same repute. 

Leasing, gleaning. 

Leat, a mill stream. 

Lent-lily, the daffodil, Narcissus pseudo-Narcissus. 

Lerriping, expressive of unusual size. A slang term like " whopping." 

Let, to hinder or stop. Still in common use among boys at play : 
" as you let my marble." 

Levers, the plant, Iris pseudacorus. From lyfren, leaves; thin laminae, 
very descriptive of the flag or marsh iris. 

Lew, sheltered. A common word in the Wessex dialect, signifying 
a sunny aspect, but protected from the wind, eminently descriptive of 
our towns, the Looes. 

Lewth, shelter. 

Lidden, a monotonous song or tale. Carew says it means a " by- 
word." 

Lide, the month of March. 

Liggan, or Lig. The manure composed of autumnal leaves washed 
down by a stream, and deposited by side eddies (Fowey). A species 
of sea-weed. See Worgan's General View of Agriculture in Cornwall, 
p. 126. 



92 EAST CORNWALL GLOSSARY, 

Liggy, sloppy ; drizzly, applied to weather. 

Lights, the lungs. The rising of the lights is the name given to the 
globua hystericus, a prominent symptom in the disease hysteria. 

Linhay, a shed consisting of a roof resting on a wall at the back, and 
supported by pillars in front. 

Lintern, a lintel. 
Loader, a double apple. 

Lob, a stone tied to the end of a fishing-line to keep it fast when 
thrown from the rock. 

Locus, toffy; sugar-stick. 
Loitch, refuse. 

Longcripple, the lizard. In some parts of E. C. it is the name of 
the snake and viper. 

Long-nose, the fish Belone vulgaris. 
Loon, the bird, the northern diver, Colymbus glacialis. 
Lords and Ladies, the wake-robin, Arum maculatum. 
Louning, lank; thin; meagre. 

Louster, to work hard. " He that can't schemy must lousier" Local 
proverb. 

Lugg, (1) the beach-worm, Armicola. 

(2) the undergrowth of weed in a field of corn. 

Maa, the maw or stomach. The a pronounced as in the next word, 

male. 
Male, the fish shanny, Blennius pholis. 

Malkin, a mop of rags fastened to a long pole, and used to sweep 
out an oven. Metaphorically, a dirty slut. 

Manchent, a small loaf. 

No mancTiet can so well the courtly palate please 

As that made of the meal fetch'd from my fertil leaze. 

DBAYTON, Polyolbion. 

Mare crab, the harbour crab, Carcinus Maenas. Also applied to the 
velvet crab, Portunus puber, and other harbour crabs. 

Mash, marsh. 

Maur, Moor, a root, or fastening. Hence, perhaps, " to moor a vessel." 
" Maur and mule," is a common expression, meaning, root and mould. 

Mawnge, to chew ; masticate ; munch. 

May, the flowering whitethorn. 

Mazed, bewildered. Expressive of confused madness. 



EAST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 93 

Mazegerry, a wild, thoughtless, giddy fellow. Very possibly the 
clown of a rustic play. Guare, Huare, are old Cornish for play or 
sport. "The Cornish people," says Carew, "have their Guary 
miracles," or miracle plays. Vide Flaygerry. 

Mazzard, a black cherry. 

Header, a mower. This word appears in the following verse of an 
old, and I suppose, an unpublished song : 

Summer now comes, which makes all things holder ; 

The fields are all deck'd with hay and with corn ; 
The meader walks forth with his scythe on his shoulder, 
His firkin in hand, so early in the morn. 

Mermaids Purses, the egg-cases of some Chondroptergious fishes, 
often drifted to the beach with oreweed. 

Merry dancers, the flickering Aurora borealis. 

Miche, to play truant. 

To miche, to lurk, with a slight deviation from Fr. muser. 
EICHAEDSON. 

In our older writers the word used to mean an idle pilferer. 
Shall the blessed sun of heaven prove a micher. 

SHAKSPERE, First Henry IV., II. iv. 450. 

The moon in the wane, gather fruit for to last, 
But winter fruit gather when Michel is past ; 
Though michers that love not to buy or to crave 
Make some gather sooner, else few for to have. 

TTJSSER, September Husbandrie. 

Miching, idling; skulking. 

I never look'd for better of that rascal 
Since he came miching first into our house. 

HEYWOOD, A Woman killed with kindness. 

Milcy, adj. descriptive of bread or flour made from corn which has 
germinated. The loaf has a sweet taste and close consistency. 

Mimsey, the minnow, Leuciscus phoxinus. 
Mismaze, bewilderment. 

Mock, Mot, a log of wood. The Christmas mock or mot is the yule 
log. 

Moil, the mule, hybrid between stallion and female ass. Vide Mute. 
Mole, the fish, rock goby, Gobius niger, N.E. C. 

Molly-candle, a man who intrudes into women's household affairs. 
Such a character was down to late date known as a cotquean. Addison 
uses this latter word. 

Mood, the vegetable sap. 
Moody-hearted, easily disposed to tears. 
Moor-stone, granite. 



94 EAST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 

Mor, the guillemot. 

Mord, lard ; pig's grease. 

Mother Carey's chicken, stormy petrels, Procellaria pelagica. 

Mowhay, the inclosure where stacks and mows are made. 

Muffles, freckles in the skin. 

Muggets, the small entrails, chitterlings. In a MS. cookery-book 
of the time of Queen Elizabeth, in my possession, and probably Cornish, 
there are directions how " to boyle calves muggetts." 

Mule, to beplaster with mud. " He was muled in mud." The same 
as moiled or bemoiled. 

Mule, to knead or make dough. In Riley's Munimenta Gildhallm 
Londinensis, vol. iii., a story is given in Latin of a roguish baker who 
used to cheat his customers by having a hole in his table, " quce 
vocatur molding borde," A.D. 1327. 

Mur, the sea bird Guillemot ( Uria). 

Mute, the hybrid between male ass and mare. 



Nacker, the wheatear, Saxicola cenanthe. 

Naert, night. 

Nail, a needle. 

Natey, adj. applied to fat when fairly composed of fat and lean. 

Nattlings, the small guts. Qy. from C. enederen, 

Neat, adj. simple; undiluted. This word has wide distribution 
with many variations among the North-western branches of the 
Aryan languages. With us its use is fast dying out, and is 
chiefly applied to spirituous drinks. E.g. "I'll ha' it neat" i.e. 
without water. Christopher Marlowe in his Hero and Leander 
uses it in our sense. 

"Wild savages that drink of running springs 
Think water far excells all earthly things ; 
But they that drink neat wine despise it. 

Neck, a miniature sheaf of wheat with four plaited arms, intertwined 
with everlastings, and the more durable of flowers. The stalks of 
wheat brought down by the last sweep of the scythe are brought home 
in thankful triumph, and woven as described. In the evening the 
sheaf or zang is taken into the mowhay, where are assembled all the 
harvest party. A stout-lunged reaper proclaims 

" I hav'en ! I hav'en ! I hav'en ! " 
Another loud voice questions : 

' ' What hav'ee ? What hav'ee ? What hav'ee ? " 
" A neck ! A necJe I A neck ! " 

is the reply ; and the crowd take up, in their lustiest tones, a chorus 
of " Wurrah." General merriment follows, and the draughts of ale or 



EAST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 95 

cider are often deep. The neck may be seen hanging to the beam of 
many of our farm-houses between harvest and Christmas eve, on 
which night it is given to the master bullock in the chall. " Hollaing 
the neck " is still heard in East Cornwall, and is one of the cheerfullest 
of rural sounds. 

Neggnr, the ass. 

Nessel, a snood of twisted twine, home-made, to which the hook is 
fastened in fishing for smaller fish, whiting, pollack, &c. 

Nessel-bird, the smallest of a brood. 

Nessel-taker, the little engine for making nessels, fixed to the beams 
of the fishermen's dwelling. 

New-fang, New-vang, something newly got; new fangled. Vide 
Fang. 

Nibby-gibby, narrowly escaped or missed. 

Nicky-nan-night, the night of Shrove Monday. For an account of 
the curious customs which distinguish this day, vide Hep. R. Inst. of 
Corn., 1842, and Couch's Hist. ofPolperro, p. 151. 

Niddick, occiput, or nape of the neck. 
Miff, a slight offence ; a tiff. 
Nimpingale, a whitlow. 
Nut-hall, the hazel, Coryhis aveUana. 



Oak-web, the cockchaffer, Melolontha vulgaris. 
Oile, the awn or liile of barley. 
Ood, wood. 

Oost, a disease of cattle, a symptom or cause of which is the presence 
of worms in the windpipe and bronchial tubes. 

Open-asses, the medlar, Mespilm germanica. A vulgar and ill- 
savoured story is told here as well as in Chaucer's Prologue of the 
Reeve, where it is said of the open-era, " Till we be roten, can we not be 
rype." 

Orestone, the name of some large single rocks in the sea, not far from 
land. Some fish are said to taste ory, some things to smell ory, that 
is, like oreweed or seaweed. 

Oreweed, seaweed. 

Orrel, a porch or balcony. The ground-floor of a fisherman's house 
is often a fish-cellar, and the first floor serves him for kitchen and 
parlour, which is reached by a flight of stone steps ending in an orrel 
or porch (Polperro). 

Orts, scraps or leavings, especially of food. J. 
Ovees, eaves of a house. 



96 EAST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 

Overlook, to bewitch ; to have under spell ; to cast an evil eye on. 

Beshrew your eyes 
They have o'erlook'd me. SHAKSPERE, Merchant of Venice. 

Ozel, the windpipe. 



Faddick, a small pitcher. 

Palace, a cellar for the bulking and storing of pilchards. This cellar 
is usually a square building with a pent-house roof, enclosing an open 
area or court. Has our word any connection with that applied to a 
regal mansion which had a court (area circa cedes), for giving audience ? 

Palched, patched. A confirmed invalid is said to be a palched, or 
patched up man. 

Panger, a pannier. 

Pank, to pant. 

Pay, to lay on a coat of pitch or tar. 

Peendy, tainted (applied to flesh). The peculiar taste or smell just 
short of decomposition. 

Peize, to weigh ; to poise. 

I speak too long, but tis to peize the time 

To eke it, and to draw it out in length. SHAKSPERE. 

Tho' soft, yet lasting, with just balance paised. FLETCHER'S Purple 
Island. 
Norden also uses it, 1584. 

Pend, to shut in. In English we retain the participle past, pent. 

Penny-cake, the herb navel-wort, Cotyledon umbilicus. 

Penny-liggy, penniless. 

Pilch, a warm, flannel outer garment for children. 

Pill, a pool in a creek. 

Even as a sturgeon or a pike doth scour 
The creeks and pills in rivers where they lie. 

SILVESTER'S Du Bartas. 

Pillus, the oat grass, Avena (Worgan op. cit.). 

Pilm, Pillem, dust. " The dust which riseth." Carew, who says 
that this was one of the rude terms with which Devon or Cornishmen 
were often twitted. 

Pimpey, the after-cider made by throwing water on the nearly 
exhausted cheese or alternate layer of apple and straw. It is some- 
tunes called leverage, and is only fit for immediate use. 

Pinnikin, puny. 

Pisky, an elf or fairy. 

Pittis, pale and wan. Qy. piteous. 



EAST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 97 

Planehin, a wooden or planked floor. 

And to that vineyard was a planched gate. 

SHAKSPEKE, Measure for Measure. 

Plashet, a moist place where a brook begins. Carew says of wood- 
cocks, that they arrive in Cornwall "on the north coast, where almost 
every hedge serveth for a road, and every plashshoot for springles to 
take them." 

Fluff, soft ; light and spongy ; out of condition. An old turnip is 
said to be pluff. "How are 'e to-day?" is often answered, "rather 
pluff." The fur of a hare or rabbit is also called its pluff. 

Plum, soft ; light and spongy ; soft and yielding. Plumming is 
raising dough with yeast or larm. 

Pook, Puke, a small heap of hay or turves. 

Foot, to strike about with the feet, as children do when uneasy. 

Popdock, the fox-glove. 

Porr, Purr, hurry ; fluster ; pother. 

Portens, a butcher's term : probably appurtenances. 

Power, the fish, Gadits minutus. 

Prease, Prize, to force a lock by means of a lever. 

Preedy, evenly balanced. The beam of a scale nicely adjusted is 
preedy. 

Progue, to probe. 

Proud-flesh, exuberant granulations of a healing wound. 

Pult, the pulse. 

Punkin-end, Punion-end, the gable-end of a house. 

Purgy, thickset; stout. 

Purt, a sharp displeasure or resentment. " He has taken a purt." 



Quailaway, a stye on the eyelid. 

Quarrel, a pane of glass : probably at first a small square of glass. 
Some ask'd how pearls did grow, and where ; 

Then spoke I to my girl 
To part her lips and show me there 
The quarrelets of pearl. 

HERRICK, Amatory Odes, I. i. 

Quat, so squat, or stoop down, as a hare sometimes does when 
pursued. 

Quilter, to flutter. "I veel'd sich a quilterin' com over my heart." 
Quinted, over filled ; stuffed to repletion, applied to animals. 



98 KAST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 

Rabble-fish, unsaleable fish, shared by the fishermen. Video, A", fy U., 
vol. x. No. 265. Vide Raffle. 

Race, a string. E. g. Of onions. 

Raffle, refuse. The less saleable fish which aiv not sold, but divided 
among the boat's crew, are called raffle fish. 

Rag, a large roofing stone. 

Rany, a ridge of low rocks in the sea covered and uncovered by 
the tide. 

Rare, raw. 

Rauning, ravening; voracious. That voracious fish, Merlangut 
Corbonarius, is called the running pollack. 

Ream, (1) v. to stretch. A.S. ryman, to extend. 

(2) n. the rim or surface. Cold cream is called " raw ream." 

Reese, c. Corn is said to reese when from ripeness it falls out of 
the ear. 

Rheem, to stretch or extend, as india-rubber will do. 

Riding, Ram-riding. A rude method, once common in our villages, 
but now suppressed, of marking disapproval of, or holding up to 
infamy, any breach of connubial fidelity. A cart, in which were seated 
burlesque representatives of the erring pair, was drawn through the 
village, attended by a procession of men and boys, on donkeys, blowing 
horns. This custom was often the occasion of much riotous behaviour. 

Rig, fun ; frolic. 

He little thought when he set out 
Of running such a rig. 

COWPER, John (Jilpin. 

Rish, the rush ; a list. Our people, instead of " turning over a new 
leaf," begin "a new risk." I have thought that this may have been 
derived from a primitive way of keeping a tally by stringing some 
sort of counters on a rush. 

Rode, skill ; aptitude. " He hasn't the rode to do et." 
Not rode in mad-brain's hand is that can help, 

But gentle skill doth make the proper whelp. TTJSSER. 

Rodeless, without rode or skill. 

Rodeling, helpless; tottering; wandering in mind. 

Roper's news, news told as new, but heard before. " That's Roptra 
news." E. C. adage. 

Rouch, Roche, rough. 

Round-robin, the angler fish, Lophitu pueatoriug. 

Roving, severe pain. 

Row, rough, as in row-hound, the fish Rqncilns canicvla, and in the 
Cornish hill, Roivior. 



EAST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 99 

Eud, red. 

Rummet, dandriif. 

Buttling, a gurgling or rattling noise in the windpipe. 

Sabby, soft, moist, pasty. 

Sam, Zam, half or imperfectly done. "A zam oven," is one half 
heated. "Zown-zodden," means half sodden or parboiled. To leave 
the door " a zam " is to half close it. 

Sample, soft and flexible. 

Sang, or Zang, a small sheaf such as leasers (gleaners) make. 

Scam. To scam a shoe is to twist it out of shape by wearing it 
wrongly. 

Scantle, small irregular slate, too small to make "size slate" 
(Delabole). 

Scat, to split or burst ; to bankrupt. 

School, Schule, a body of fish. Carew spells it schoek. Variously 
spelt. 

My silver scaled skulls about my streams do sweep. 

DRAYTON, Polyolbion, Song xxvi. 

In sculls that oft 
Bank the mid-sea. MILTOX. 

Sclow, to scratch. 

Sclum, to scratch violently. 

Scoad, to scatter ; to spill. " To scoad dressing " (manure). 

Scoce, to exchange or barter. 

Scollops, the dry residuum after lard is melted out ; an article of food. 

Scollucks, blocks of refuse or indifferent slate (Delabole). 

Sconce, brains ; wit. 

Scovey, spotted; mottled. 

Scranny, a scramble. 

Scrawed, scorched in the sun, as fish are frequently prepared. " A 
scrawed pilchard." Scrowled, at St. Ives. Tregellat. 

Screw, the shrew or field-mouse, Sorex araneus. 
Scritch, a crutch. 

Scry, a report of the appearance of a body of fish, such as pilchards 
on the coasts of East Cornwall. Dame Juliana Berners, in her 
Treatise of Fysshynge with an Angle, says, "the noyse of houndys, 
the blastes of hornys, and the scry of foules." 

" They hering the scry cam and out of eche of the spere yn hym."- 
LELAND. 

TI 2 



100 EAST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 

Scry is probably connected with the old practice of crying out, or 
vociferating on the approach of a schule of fish. 

Scud, the hardened crust on a sore. 
Scudder, Skitter, to slide ; skate. 

Scute, an iron plate with which the toe or heel of a shoe is armed. 
Fr. e#cus$on. Lat. scutum. 

Sea-adders, the vulgar generic name for pipe-fish. 

Seam, or Zeam a load of hay ; manure, &c. It means with us no 
definite quantity, but a cart-load, waggon-load, &c. Tusser in 
speaking of the good crops of barley which he raised at Brentham, 
says (October's Husbandrie), 

Five seam of an acre I truly was paid. 
Again, in November's Httsbandrie, he says 

Th' encrease of a seam is a bushel for store. 
Sea-vern, sea fern ; the coral, Gorgonia verrucosa. 

Seech.. The rash of sea waves inundating the streets at high tides. 
BOND'S Hist . of Looes. 

Seedlip, the wooden basket in which the sower carries his seed. 

Sense, stop. An exclamation used by boys at marbles, when they 
want to stop for a moment. (Polperro.) 

Shammick, a contemptuous epithet applied to a man. 
Shanny, the fish, Blennius pholis. 

Shenakrum. a drink composed of boiled beer, a little rum, moist 
sugar, and slices of lemon. (Qy. Snack o' rum.) 

Shive, to shy, as a horse does. 
Shiver, a bar of a gate. 
Shoal, adj. shallow. 

Shortahs, masses of loose rubbish in slate quarries which have fallen 
in, and filled up cracks and rents. 

Shot, the trout. Carew makes a distinction between the trout and 
shot. "The latter," he says, "is in a maner peculiar to Devon and 
Cornwall. In shape and colour he resemble th the Trowts : howbeit 
in biggnesse commeth farre behind him." 

The shodtes with which is Tavy fraught. BROWNE'S Brit. Past. 

Shouell, shovell. 

Shute, a conduit, or fountain of falling water. 

Siff, to sigh. 

Sives, a small pot-herb of the alliaceous kind. 

Skease, to run along very swiftly. 

Skeeny, sharp and gusty. " A sheeny wind." 



EAST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 101 

Skerret, a safe drawer in a box. In some places it is shivet, or 
skibbet. 

Skerrish, the privet, Ligmtrum vulgare. 

Skew, a driving mist. 

Skit, a lampoon. 

Skitter, to slide. 

Skiver, a skewer. 

Skiver-wood, dogwood, Cornus samjuinea. 

Sladdocks, a short clearer used by masons for splitting and shaping 
slate. Probably a corruption of slate axe. 

Slat, slate. 

Slew, to twist or bend aslant. 

Slip, a young weaned pig. 

Sloan, the sloe, Primus spinosa. 

The meagre sloan, BROWNE'S Brit. Pastorals. 

Slock, to entice ; allure. Sloe-kin;/ stones are tempting/selected stones 
shown, to induce strangers to adventure in a mine. 

Blotter, to draggle in the dirt. 
Snead, the handle of a scythe. 
Sneg, a small snail. 
Snite, the snipe, 

Soce, an interjection of doubtful meaning. Qy. C., tiuat, alas ! 
Arm., 'Sioas, alas. 

Sogg, or Zogg, to dose or sleep interruptedly or lightly. 

Sound, or Zound, to swoon, or go into a fainting fit. 

"Did your brother tell you," says Rosalind, "how I counterfeited 
to sound when he showed me your handkerchief ? " SHAKSPERE, 
As You Like It, 

Sound-sleeper, a moth. 

Sowl, or Zowl, to serve roughly ; to soil. 

Sow-pig, the wood-louse. 

Spale, Spal, to deduct an amerciement or forfeiture from wages when 

not at work in good time ; a fine. 

Sparrow, Sparra, a double wooden skewer used in thatching. 
Spell, a turn of work. 

Spence, a cupboard or pantry under the stairs. 
Spiccaty, speckled. 
Spiller, a ground-line for fish. 
Spise, exude. 



102 EAST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 

Splat, a spot. 

Splatty, spotty. 

I've lost my splatty cow. Old Song. 

Sprayed, chapped by the wind. 
Springle, a snare for birds. 

Sproil, strength ; energy. Most commonly used negatively, as, " He's 

no sproil." 

Spudder, bother. " I don't want to ha' no spudder about et." 
Squab-pie, a pie made of meat, apples, and onions. 
Squinty, to squint. 
Stag, a cock. 

Standards, a term used in wrestling for a man who has thrown two 
opponents, and thereby secured a chance of trying for a prize. 

Stare, the starling. 

Stean, an earthenware pot such as meat or fish is cured in. 

Stemming, a turn in succession, as when in dry seasons people have 
to take their regular turn for water at the common schute or pump. 

Stingdum, the fish Coitus scor}nus. 

Stint, to impregnate. 

Stogg, to stick in anything tenacious. " Stogged in the mud." 

Stoiting, the leaping of fish in schull. At a distance this imparts 
colour to the sea, and is a valuable guide in seine-fishing. 

Stomach, v. generally used negatively. To feed against inclination. 
"I cud'nt stomach it." In some of our Elizabethan dramatists it is 
used not as expressive of appetite, but rather of loathing, as with us: 
Elder Morton. Doth no man take exception at the slave. 
Lancaster. All stomach him, but none dare speak a word. 

MARLOWE, Edward the Second. 

Stool-crab, the male of the edible crab, Platycarcinus pagurus. 

Strat, to drop. A mare aborting is said "to strat voal." 

Straw-mot, a straw stalk. 

Strike, to anoint, or rub gently. 

Stroil, weed, especially the couch-grass, Triiicum repens. 

Strnb, to rob, or despoil. " To strub a bird's nest." 

Stub, to grub. " Stubbing vuz." 

Stub roots so tough 

For breaking of plough. TUSSER. 

Stubbard, the name of an early variety of apple. 
Stuffle, to stifle. 



EAST CORNWALL liLOSSAUY. Io:> 

Stuggy, stout; thickset. 

Style, steel. 

Suent, smooth ; equable ; even. 

Summering, store cattle turned wild in summer for pasturage on the 
wild, unenclosed moors, are sent summering under the care of the 
moorland herdsmen. 

Survey, an auction. 

Swail, or Zwail, to scorch ; singe. 

Swarr, a swathe, or row of mown corn or hay. 

Swop, to barter. 

Sych, the edge or foaming border of a wave as it runs up a harbour 
or on the land. Vide Seech. 



Tab, a turf. 

Tack, to clap; to slap sharply. " He tacked his hands." 

Tail, Teel, to till or set. "To tail corn," or "to tail a trap." 

With us it is usual for a pers m who has gone through mud or 
water to say that it teeled him up so high as he was immersed or 
covered. Video, N. & Q., voL x. No. 266. 

Tailders, or Tailor's Needles, the herb Scandiz pecten Veneris. 

Tale, measure. A tale lobster is one eleven inches from snout to 
tail ; all that fall short of this the master of a lobster smack will only 
give half-price for. 

Tallet, a loft. " Hay toilet." 

Tain, short; dwarf. The dwarf furze, Ulex nanus, is here called 
" tarn vuz." 
Furze of which the shrubby sort is called tame. CABEW. 

Tang, an abiding taste. 

Tap, the sole of a shoe. Used also as a verb, " tap a shoe." 

Teary, soft, like; dough. 

Teen, to close. " I haven't teen'd my eye." 

Tell, to count or enumerate. 

Why should he think I tell my apricots. 

Every man in his humour, I. i. 

Tend, to kindle ; to set a light to. (Tinder, here pronounced temlrr. ) 
Wash your hands, or else the fire 
Will not tend to your desire. 

HERKICK, Hesperules, Ixxii. 

Thekky, Thekka, thiit one ; that person, or thing. 

Syn thilke day. CHAUCEK, Knfyhtes Talc. 



104 EAST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 

Thirl, thin ; lean. 

Tho, then ; at that time. In common use among the older poets. 
E. g. . 

And to the ladies he restored ageyn 
The bodies of hir housbondes that were slain, 
To don the obsequies as was tho the guise. 

CHAUCER, Knightes Tale. 

Thumb beend, thumb band. The band for a bundle of hay. 

Tiddlywink, sometimes Kiddlywink, a small inn only licensed to 
sell beer and cider. 

Tiddy, the breast or teat ; sometimes the milk. 

Tifling, the frayed-out threads of a woven fabric. 

Tig, a child's game ; a game of touch. 

Timberin, made of wood. 

Tine, the tooth of a harrow. Qy. from dyns, teeth, C. L. dens. 

Tink, the chaffinch. Onomatopceitic from its call-note. 

Tittivate, to make neat ; dress up. 

Tom-horry, a sea-bird. The common name of two or three species 
of skua. 

Tor, Tarr, the rocky top of a hill. The word is chiefly used in the 
central granite ridges of Cornwall and Devon. 

Toteling, silly; demented. 

Town, To \vn-place, applied to the smallest hamlet, and even to a 
farm-yard. Here is an instance of the retention of the primitive use 
of a word. "The town or town-place, farm or homestead inclosure, 
is derived from tynan, to inclose, denoting its primary sense," says 
Sir F. Palgrave, "the inclosure which surrounded the mere dwelling 
or homestead of the lord." English Commonwealth, p. 65. 

Trade, stuff ; material. Medecine is " doctor's trade." 
Train-oil, expressed fish oil. 
Trapse, to walk slovenly ; to slouch. 

Tribute. A consideration or share of the produce of a mine, either 
in money or kind, the latter being first made merchantable, and 
then paid by the takers or tributors to the adventurers or owners for 
the liberty granted of enjoying the mine or a part thereof called a 
pitch, for a limited time. PRYCE. 

Trig, to set up ; to support. " To trig the wheel," " To put a triy " 
on the sole of a shoe worn on one side. 

Troll-foot, club-foot. 

Trone, a groove or furrow; a trench. Qy. a line. In describing 
heavy rain a countryman said the streams were ' ' like trones from the 
tids of a cow." 



EAST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 1(X> 

Truckle, to trundle. 

Truff, the sea-trout or bull-trout. 

Tub, the sappharine gurnet fish, Trigla hirundo. 

Tubbut, short and thick. The tub-fish is the shortest and thickest 
of its kind. 

Tuck, an operation in seine fishing described in Couch's Fishes of 
Brit, Islands, iv. 91. 

Turf-tie, the bed on which the turf-rick is piled (bed-tie). 
Tush, a tooth. 

Tut work. " By the lump : as when they undertake to perform a 
certain work at a fixed price, prove how it may." PKYCE. 



Un, aunt. An address of familiar respect to an old woman, not im- 
plying relationship : " Un Jinny." 

Uncle, an address of familiar respect to an old man, not implying 
relationship : " Uncle Jan." 

TTnlusty, unwieldy. 

Unvamped, not added to or embellished. It is used in this sense in 
Ford's play, The Lady's Trial, I. i. " The newest news unvamped" 

Uprose, a woman churched Is uprosed. 



Vady, damp. " Bishop Berkely, in his Farther Thoughts on Tar 
Water, p. 9, uses what appears to be the same word, fade, in the 
same sense." Video, N. & Q., Vol. x. No. 266. 

Vamp, a short stocking ; the foot of a stocking. 
Vang. Vide Fang. 
Vare, Veer, a suckling pig. 

Veak, a whitlow. 

Carew says, in his account of John Size, the uncouth creature in 
the household of Sir William Seville : "In this sort he continued for 
diuers yeeres, untill, (upon I know not what veake or unkindnesse), 
away he gets and abroad lie rogues." Survey of C. 

Vencock, fencock, the bird, water-rail. 

Vester, a feather stripped of its vane, all except the point, and used 
by children at a dame's school, to point out the letter or word they 
are studying. A corruption of fescue. 

Vinnied, mouldy (Ft/nig). Qy. past participle of Fynigean, to spoil ; 
corrupt ; decay. 

Visgy, a mattock. 
Vist, fist. 



106 EAST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 

Vitty, fitting ; proper ; appropriate. 
Voach, to tread heavily. 
Vogget, to hop on one leg. 

Voider, a small wicker basket of the finer sort. In the stage 
directions to Heywood's Woman Killed with Kindness is this : " Enter 
three or four serving men, one with a voider, and a wooden knife." 

Voks, folk; people. 

Volyer. the second boat in a pilchard seine. Qy. a corruption of 
folloiuer. 

Vore, a furrow of a plough. 



Wad, a bundle. "A wad o' straw." "Joan the wad" is the folk- 
name of a pisky. 

Jack the lantern, Joan the wad, 

That tickled the maid and made her mad, 

Light me home, the weather's bad. POLPERRO. 

Wadge, to bet or lay a wager. 

Waive, to wallow. 

Wang, to hang about in a tiresome manner. 

Want, the mole, Talpa Europoea. 

Waps, wasp. 

Warn, warrant. "I'll warn 'ee." 

Watercase, the herb Helosdadum nodiflorum, often made into pies 
in the neighbourhood of Polperro. 

Watty, the hare. A name in common use among poachers. Shak- 
spere, in a beautiful description of the hare and its many shifts to 
elude pursuit, uses the abbreviation, Wat. 

By this poor Wat, far off upon a hill 
Stands on his hinder legs with listening ear. 

Venus and Adonis. 

Well-a-fyne, a common interjection, meaning " it's all very well." 
Wei a fyn. CHAUCER, Bom. of the Rose, also Coke's Tale of Oamelyn. 

Wettel, a child's clout. Can this be a corruption of swaddle ? 
Whelve, Whilve, to turn any hollow vessel upside down (Polperro). 
Whiff, to fish Avith a towing-line under a breeze. 

Whip-tree, the spreader by which the chains of iron traces are kept 
asunder (Whippletree). 

Whitneck, the weasel. 
Whole, to heal. A.S. halian. 
Widdow-man, widower. 



EAST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 107 

Widow- woman, a widow. 

Wilk, Welk, sometimes Welt, a ridgy hump or tumour. 

Little low hedges round like welts. BACON'S Essay of Gardening. 

Wilky, a toad or frog. C. quilken, or quilkin. In some parts the 
immature reptile. 

Wilver, a baker or pot under which bread is baked by being buried 
in burning embers. N.E. 0. 

Winnard, the red-wing, Merula Eiaca. 
Winder, window. 

Wink, the wheel by which straw rope is made. 
Winnick, to circumvent ; to cheat. 

Wisht, melancholy ; forlorn. This word is so expressive that we 
have no English synonym fully descriptive of its meaning. Browne, 
a Devonshire man, uses it in his Brittania -Pastorals, Bk. I. Song 2 : 

His late wisht had-I-wists, remorseful bitings. 
In Latimer's Sermons it is apparently used as a noun : 

And when they perceived that Solomon, by the advice of his father, 
was anointed king, by and by there was all whisht, all their good 
cheer was done. Parker's Edit., p. 115. 

Far from the town where all is wisht and still. MAKLOWE, Hero 
and Leander. 

Woodwall, the green woodpecker, Picas viridis. Some doubt exists 
as to the bird originally designated the woodwall. With us it is 
undoubtedly the green woodpecker. In the glossaries commonly 
appended to Chaucer's works it is said to mean the golden oriole. 
The green finch has also be,en set down as the bird intended. 
The woodwele sung and would not cease 

Sitting upon the spraye, 
So loud he waken'd Robin Hood 
In the greenwood where he lay. 

Robin Hood (Ritson). 

In many places Nightingales, 

And Alpes, and Finches and Woodwales. 

Bom. of the Rose. 

The note of the green woodpecker is very unmelodious, far from a 
song. The extreme rarity of the golden oriole is conclusive against 
its being the bird intended. The greenfinch has been suggested, but 
its song is hardly loud enough to have stirred the slumbers of tho 
freebooter. Although the voice of the green woodpecker can scarcely 
by any poetic licence be called a song, I incline to think it the bird 
meant. Yarrel (vol. ii. p. 137) gives some interesting information on 
the etymology of this word. Brockett, in his glossary of North- 
Country words, considers it derived from the Saxon ' ivhytel,' a knife. 
In Yorkshire and in North America a whittle is a clasp-knife, and to 
whettle is to cut or hack wood. The origin and meaning of the wood- 
pecker's name are therefore sufficiently obvious, whytel, whittle, 
why tele, &c. 



108 EAST CORNWALL GLOSSARY. 

Wornal, the lump produced by the larva of the gadily in the skin of 
cattle. 

Wrath, the generic name of the fishes, Labri. 
Wrinkle, the periwinkle shell, Twbo littoreus, 
Wurraw ! hoorah ! 



Yaffer, heifer. 

Yaffol, arms full. 

Yap, to yelp. 

Yaw, ewe. 

Yewl, a three-pronged agricultural tool for turning manure. 

Yock, Yerk, Yolk, filth, especially the greasy and yellow impurity of 
fleece. 

Zacky, imbecile. 
Zam. Vide Sam. 
Zang. Vide Sang. 

Zeer, adj. worn out ; generally used with regard to clothing, &c., but 
applied also metaphorically to persons. E.g. " She is very zeer." 

Zog, (1) a doze ; nap. 

(2) v. to doze. 
Zwail. Vide Swail. 
Zye, scythe. 



109 



ADDENDA. 



Barker, a whetstone. 

Barton, the demesne land or home farm, often the residence of tin- 
lord of the manor. 



Clavel, the impost on a square-headed window, door, or chimney. 
Goil, the cuttle-fish, Sepia officinalis. 

Skirtings, the diaphragm of an animal. 

Spuke, a roller put in a pig's snout to prevent gruhhing. 

Ugly, applied not so much to faults of visage as of temper. " My 
husband's terrible vgly." He is a well-favoured man, but cross- 
tempered. 



CLAY AM) TAYLOK. THE CHAVCEIt PRESS. 



A GLOSSARY OF WORDS 



IN USE IN 



THE COUNTIES OF 



ANTRIM AND DOWN. 



BY 



WILLIAM HUGH PATTEKSON, M.RI.A, 

MEMBER OF THE ROYAL HISTORICAL AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION OF IRELAND; 
MEMBER OF THE BELFAST NATURAL HISTORY AND PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY. 



LONDON: 

PUBLISHED FOE THE ENGLISH DIALECT SOCIETY 
BY TRUBNER & CO., 57 & 59, LUDGATE HILL. 

1880. 



CLAT AND TAYLOR, PRINTERS. 



INTRODUCTION. 



IN the earlier part of the reign of Elizabeth the Irish language was 
generally spoken by the people in the North-east of Ireland, the 
exceptions being in some few centres of English occupation, such as 
Carrickfergus, Belfast, the shores of Strangford Lough, the neighbour- 
hood of Ardglass, and that of Carlingford. * 

During Elizabeth's reign considerable numbers of English, and of 
Lowland Scots, came over and settled in the thinly-populated terri- 
tories of Antrim and Down ; their leaders got grants of lands, and 
the native inhabitants moved away to less accessible districts of the 
country, or, to some extent, took service with the new-comers. This 
influx of English and Scotch settlers marks the introduction of 
English as a generally-spoken language into Antrim and Down. In 
the succeeding reign the number of English-speaking settlers was 
largely augmented, for as the forests were cut down the space 
available for colonization increased, and after the flight of the Earls 
of Tyrone and Tyrconnell in 1607, many Scotch settlers came into 
the district, along with Welsh and English. Still later, after the 
quelling of the rebellion of 1641, by the Parliamentary armies the 
number of English-speaking settlers was further increased, and for a 
considerable time afterwards a slow and gradual immigration went 
on, chiefly of Scots. 

Eichard Dobbs, Esq., writes thus in May, 1683, while speaking of 
the traffic between Scotland and the North of Ireland : " Only 
people (with all their goods upon their backs) land here from 

Scotland. Take in from Glenarrn to Donaghadee and the ports 

o2 



IV ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 

between : [/. e. Belfast Lough, and a short distance to the north 
and south of it] there are more than 1000 of this sort that land 
every summer without returning." Centuries before this time, large 
numbers of Scots had passed over into the county of Antrim, but 
they were Gaelic-speaking Highlanders ; they spread themselves 
over the district known as the ' Glens of Antrim,' and kept up for a 
long time a close connection with their mother country, passing to 
and fro continually, and causing great trouble to the English rulers 
in Ireland. Their descendants, having amalgamated with the native 
Irish, still occupy the Glens, and Gaelic is spoken among them to 
this day. 

The spread of these turbulent Scots in Ulster is thus noticed by 
Mr. Hill in his Macdonnells of Antrim: "In the year 1533 the 
council in Dublin forwarded this gloomy announcement on the 
subject to the council in London. ' The Scottes also inhabithe now 
buyselly a greate parte of Ulster which is the kingis inheritance ; 
and it is greatly to be feared, oonless that in short tyme they be 
dryven from the same, that they bringinge in more nombre daily, 
woll by lyttle and lyttle soe far encroche in accquyring and wynning 
the possessions there, with the aide of the kingis disobeysant Irishe 
rebelles, who doo no\ve ayde them therein, after siche manner, that 
at lengthe they will put and expel the king from his hole seignory 
there.' " 

Canon Hume, in an interesting paper on the Irish Dialects of the 
English language, reprinted from the Transactions of the Historic 
Society of Lancashire and Cheshire, thus speaks of the tide of 
immigration from Great Britain into the north of Ireland : " About 
the year 1607, when much of Ulster required to be planted or 
resettled, immigration, instead of being, as previously, a mere rivulet 
or largely dependent on the condition of the regiments serving in the 
country became a flood, and strangers settled not by tens, but by 
thousands. A large number of these were from the apple districts of 
Warwickshire, "Worcester, and Gloucester ; several were from Chester, 
through which the adventurers passed to take shipping at the mouth 
of the Dee ; a few were from the adjoining county of Lancaster ; and 
some from London. The great English settlement commenced on 



INTRODUCTION. V 

the two sides of Belfast Lough. It included the town of Belfast, 
which was at first English, but, like Londonderry, became Scotti- 
cised, owing to the preponderance of North Britons in the rural 
districts on both sides. Pressing on by Lisburn and to the east 
bank of Lough Neagh, the English settlers cover eleven parishes 
in Antrim alone, all of which preserve to this hour their English 
characteristics; and crossing still further, over Down to Armagh, 
they stopped only at the base of the Pomeroy mountains in 
Tyrone. Thus, from the tides of the channel to beyond the 
centre of Ulster, there was an unbroken line of English settlers, 
as distinct from Scotch; and the district which they inhabit is 
still that of the apple, the elm, and the sycamore of large farms 
and two-storied slated houses. The Scotch settlers entered at the 
two points which lie opposite to their own country namely, at the 
Giant's Causeway, which is opposed to the Mull of Cantyre on one 
side, and at Donaghadee which is opposed to the Mull of Galloway 
on the other. Two centuries and a half ago Ireland was to them 
what Canada, Australia, and the United States have been to the 
redundant population of our own times." In another paper Canon 
Hume particularizes still further the lines of Scottish immigration : 
" The Scotch entered Down by Bangor and Donaghadee, and pushed 
inland by Comber, Saintfield, and Ballynahinch, to Dromara and 
Dromore ; while in Antrim they proceeded by Islandmagee, Bally- 
clare, Antrim, and Ballymena, surrounding the highlands and 
reaching the sea again by Bushmills and the Causeway. In 1633 and 
1634 the emigrants from Scotland by way of Ayrshire, walked in 
companies of a hundred or more from Aberdeen or Inverness-shires, 
and were about 500 per annum, mostly males, and many of them 
discontented farm-servants." 

Canon Hume thus describes how the native inhabitants of the 
forfeited lands met this tide of immigration : " The Irish or natives, 
broken and conquered, reduced also in number by war, famine, and 
disease, occupied when possible strong positions. They still regarded 
as specially their own the land which was least accessible, or least 
desirable, and fled to the hills and morasses. It is curious to see 
how popular language has embodied these facts in such expressions 



VI ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 

as ' Mountainy people,' 'Back of the .hill folk,' 'Bog-trotters/ etc. 
There they still remain, though many of the humbler classes have 
found permanent homes in the towns." In Down, the extensive 
Baronies of Mourne and Lecale, and the Lordship of Newry, changed 
the lords of the soil, but retained the population. As bearing upon 
the dialect of the district it is interesting to enquire as to the 
numbers and the proportions in which these various nationalities of 
English, Scotch, and Irish now occupy the district. 

A valuable series^ of articles from the pen of the Eev. Canon 
Hume on these subjects was published in the Ulster Journal of 
Archaeology. The following papers were some of those which 
appeared : 

Origin and Characteristics of the People of Down and Antrim, in 
nine chapters, Ulster Journal, i. 9; i. 120; i. 246. Topo- 
graphical Map, Physical Map, and Speed's Map of 1610. 

Ethnology of the Two Counties, iv. 154. Ethnological Map. 

The Elements of Population, Illustrated by the Statistics of Eeligious 
Belief, in six chapters, vii. 116. Ecclesiastical Map, constructed 
from the Creed Census of 1834. 

Surnames in the County of Antrim, in five sections, v. 323. Unique 
Coloured Map. 

Surnames in the County of Down, in five sections, vi. T7. Unique 
Coloured Map. 

The Irish Dialect of the English Language, vi. 47. 

A Dialogue in the Ulster Dialect, vi. 40. 

The county electoral rolls afford a convenient way of ascertaining 
the leading names, and hence, pretty closely, the nationalities of the 
inhabitants. With this view the roll of the Co. of Antrim has been 
examined by the Eev. Edmund McClure, A.M., and the results made 
known in a paper read before the Belfast Naturalists' Field Club in 
January, 1874. The title of the paper is, 'The Surnames of the 
Inhabitants of the Co. of Antrim and their Indications.' The 
following extract sums up one branch of the subject : 

"In the 1357 names of the Eoll I find that 565 are Lowland 
Scotch, 18 of which are Norman names. There are 234 Highland 



INTRODUCTION. vii 

names. There are in all 181 Irish names, and 16 Anglo-Norman of 
the time of the Conquest. The English names amount to 251, the 
"Welsh to seven, the Huguenots to six. The remaining names, about 
100, are those of a few foreigners, and those which I have left as 
undetermined. This shows simply the relative position of the names 
on the Eoll. The number of Lowland Scotch I find represented by 
the 565 names amounts to 5682, or about 55'80 per cent, of the 
entire Eoll. Of Scotch of foreign origin there is a per-centage of 
1-48. 

" The Scottish Celts represented by the 234 names exhibit a pro- 
portion of 23'68 per cent, of the Eoll. The number of Irish names 
(181) represents only 824 of a native population, or about 8*09 per 
cent. Here the results, from an examination of the Electoral Eoll, 
seem to vary from those obtained from other sources. To represent 
the proportion of the native Irish in the county we should have to 
add 3 per cent., or even a little more, to this per-centage of 8'09. 
For I find that the native population, as a rule, are much poorer than 
their neighbours, so that a far less proportion of them have the 
qualifications of county voters, that is, holdings valued at 12 per 
annum. 

" By private enquiry in the districts in which the native popula- 
tion is large I find this to be the case, and that many of their names 
do not figure on the Eoll at all. I think, however, that the per- 
centage over the entire county is not over 1 2 per cent. The English 
represented by the 251 names amount to 783. Those of long settle- 
ment in the county i. e. who came centuries before the Plantation 
number 40 in addition. The Welsh names represent 28. All these 
tat en together make 851, or show a per-centage of 8 '3 5 of the entire 
Eoll. Foreigners, Huguenots, and Germans are represented by 21 
people on the list. The undetermined names represent 243 on the 
list, or about 2 '38 per cent, of the Eoll. The native population is 
descended in the main from well-known Irish tribes who dwelt in 
this part of the country before the wars of Essex (Queen Elizabeth's 
time)." 

The words and phrases in the accompanying Glossary will be 
found in the main to be of Scottish origin, and many of them have 



Vlll ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 

already found a place in Jamieson's dictionary, and in the various 
glossaries already printed by the English Dialect Society. The forms 
of the words may vary somewhat, because they naturally underwent 
changes consequent upon the lapse of time since their introduction to 
an alien soil. In many cases it was a difficulty how to spell the words, 
because I only had them as sounded, and the difficulty was increased 
when I frequently found that the same word was pronounced in two 
or mote ways by different persons, either natives of different districts, 
or persons whose mode of speaking had been influenced by different 
surroundings or by more or less of education. In some districts in 
the east of the two counties the people still talk a Scotch dialect, but 
with a modified Scotch accent ; the old people talk more ' broadly ' 
than the young. Owing to the spread of well-managed schools the 
Scotch accent and the dialect words are passing away. Some of the 
words in the accompanying Glossary are now obsolete, and doubtless 
in. a few years a much greater number will have become so. I have 
not attempted to collect the proverbs that are in use here, but so far 
as I know they are 'much the same as those used in other parts of 
these countries. There are in use many phrases of comparison, of 
which the following are examples : 

' As big as I don't know what,' a vague comparison. 

' As black as Toal's cloak.' 

' As black as Toby.' 

' As blunt as a beetle ' (t. e. a wooden pounder). 

' As broad as a griddle.' 

1 As busy as a nailor.' 

' As clean as a new pin.' 

' As close as a wilk ' (t. e. a periwinkle) : applied to a very reticent 

person. 

' As coarse as bean-straw.' 
' As coarse as praity-oaten. ' 
' As common as dish water,' very common : applied to a person of 

very low extraction. 
' As common as potatoes.' 
' As could as charity.' 
' As crooked as a ram's horn.' 
' As crooked as the hind leg of a dog.' 
'As cross as two sticks.' 
' As dry as a bone.' 



INTRODUCTION. IX 

' As easy as kiss.' 

' As frush as a bennel ' (the withered stalk of fennel). 

' As frush (brittle) as a pipe stapple ' (stem). 

' As grave as a mustard pot.' 

' As great (intimate) as inkle weavers.' 

' As hungry as a grew ' (greyhound). 

' As ill to herd as a stockin' full o' fleas,' very difficult to mind. 

1 As many times as I've fingers and toes,' a comparison for having 
done something often. 

' As mean as get out.' 

' As plain as a pike-staff,' quite evident. 

' As sick as a dog,' sick in the stomach. 

' As stiff as a proker ' (poker), very stiff : applied to a person. 

'As sure as a gun.' 

' As sure as the hearth money.' 

' As tall as a May-pole.' 

'As thick as bog butter.' Wooden vessels filled with butter, the 
manufacture of long ago, are occasionally dug out of the peat- 
bogs ; the butter has been converted into a hard, waxy substance. 

' As thick as three in a bed,' much crowded. 

' As thin as a lat ' (lath). 

' As true as truth has been this long time,' of doubtful truth. 

'As yellow as a duck's foot' (applied to the complexion). 

As well as the publications by Canon Hume already enumerated, 
I should mention one which gives many most characteristic examples 
of the Belfast dialect. It is an almanac for the years 1861, 1862, 
and 1863, published anonymously, but written entirely by the learned 
Canon, whose authority I have for making this statement. The full 
title of the work is Poor JRabbin's Ollminick for the town o' Bilfaiost, 
containing varrious different things 'at ivvery body ought fbe acquentit 
with, wrote down, prentet, an' put out, jist the way the people spaketf, 
by Billy Me Cart of the County Down side that uset to be : but now 
of the Entherim road, toarst the Cave hill. Canon Hume has also 
collected the materials for a most comprehensive dictionary or glossary 
of Hibernicisms. It would be most desirable that this should be 
published. For a description of the scope and aim of this work I 
would refer to his pamphlet, Remarks on the Irish Dialect of the 
English Language. Liverpool : 1878. 

In connection with our local dialect, I should also refer to a little 



X ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 

work by Mr. David Patterson, The Provincialisms of Belfast pointed 
out and corrected. Belfast : 1860. In this work the writer calls 
attention to the various classes of words that are wrongly pronounced, 
and gives long lists of these words. He also gives a list of " words 
not to be met with in our ordinary English dictionaries." In my 
Glossary I have got some words from Mr. D. Patterson's lists, some 
from the Ollminick, and a few, principally obsolete, from local his- 
tories, such as Harris's History of Down (1744), Dubourdieu's Survey 
of Down (1802), and McSkimin's History of CarricTtfergus (1823). 
But most of the words and phrases have been collected orally either 
by myself or by friends in different country districts, who have kindly 
sent me in lists, and whom I would now thank for the help they 
have given. 

Although not necessarily a part of this work, I have thought it 
well to add a word on the subject of the Irish language as still spoken 
in Antrim and Down. It has lately been said that there is no county 
in Ireland in which some Irish is not still spoken, not revived Irish, 
but in continuity from the ancient inhabitants of the country. In 
1802 the Rev. John Dubourdieu, in his Survey of Down, thus writes: 
" The English language is so general that every person speaks it ; 
but, notwithstanding, the Irish language is much used in the moun- 
tainous parts, which in this, as in most other countries, seem to have 
been the retreat of the ancient inhabitants." 

I have made enquiry this year (1880), and a correspondent sends 
me the following note from the mountainous district in the south of 
Down : " There are a good many Irish-speaking people in the neigh- 
bourhood of Hilltown, but I think nearly all of them can speak 
English ; when, however, they frequent fairs in the upper parts of 
the Co. Armagh, for instance at Xewtownhamilton or Crossmaglen, 
they meet numbers of people who speak English very imperfectly, 
and with these people the Down men converse altogether in Irish." 
In the Co. of Antrim the district known as ' the Glens,' in the N.E. 
of the county, with the adjacent-lying island of Rathlin, has remained 
to some extent an Irish or Gaelic-speaking district. In the course of 
some years, about 1850, Mr. Robert Mac Adam, the accomplished 
editor of Tlie Ulster Journal of Archceology, made a collection chiefly 



INTRODUCTION. XI 

in Antrim of 500 Gaelic proverbs, which were printed, with English 
translations, in his Journal. These were picked up from the 
peasantry among their homes and at markets. A short note from 
the pen of Mr. MacAdam in Dr. J. A. H. Murray's work on The 
Dialect of the Southern Counties of Scotland (London: 1873), is so 
much to the point that I must quote it : 

" The people are evidently the same as those of Argyll, as indi- 
cated by their names, and for centuries a constant intercourse has 
been kept up between them. Even yet the Glensmen of Antrim go 
regularly to the Highland fairs, and communicate, without the 
slightest difficulty, with the Highlanders. Having myself conversed 
with both Glensmen and Arran men I can testify to the absolute 
identity of their speech." Dr. Murray adds : "But there is not the 
slightest reason to deduce the Glensmen from Scotland ; they are a 
relic of the ancient continuity of the population of Ulster and 
Western Scotland." 

I wrote this year to a friend whose home is in the Glens for 
information as to the present use of Gaelic there. He writes : " I 
have ascertained from one of our medical men, who is long resident 
here, that in one of the principal glens there are about sixty persons 
who speak Irish, and who prefer its use to that of English, among 
themselves, but who all know and speak English. Some of the 
children also understand Irish, but will not speak it, or let you know 
that they understand you if you speak to them in it." 



W. H. PATTERSON. 



Strandtown, Belfast, 
June, 1880. 



A GLOSSARY OF WORDS AND PHRASES 



USED IN 



ANTRIM AND DOWN. 



A, pro. I. ' A will.' ' A'm sayin'.' 
Aan, sb. the hair or beard in barley. 
Aas, sb. ashes. 

A-back. 'Light-a-6ae&.' 'Heavy-a-&aeA-.' Whc^ A cart is 
loaded, the load can be arranged so as to press very lightly on the 
horse, this is having it ' light-a-6ac& ; ' when the chief weight is towards 
the front of the cart, and therefore presses on the horse, the cart is 



Abin, or Aboon, adv. above. 

Able. ' Can you spell ableV = are you sure you can do what 
you are bragging about ? 

Abreard, adj. the condition of a field when the crop appears. 

Acquant, or Acquent, v. acquainted. 'I'm well acquant with all 
his people.' 

Afeard, adv. afraid. 

Affront. 'He didn't affront her,' i. e. it was not a shabby 
present he made her. 

Afleet, adj. afloat. 
Afore, prep, before. 
Again, Agin, adv. against. 
Agee, adj. crooked ; to one side. 
Ahin, prep, behind. 
Aiblins, adv. perhaps. 
Ailsa-cock, sb. the puffin. 



2 ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 

Ain, adj. own. 

Airle, Erie, v. to give earnest money. 

Airles, 07'^Arles, sb. earnest money given on engaging a servant. 

Airn, sb. iron. 

Aims, or Plough Airns, sb. the coulter, sock, &c. of a plough. 

Aiwal. When an animal falls on its back, and cannot recover 
itself, it is said to have fallen ' aiwal.' 

Aizins, sb. the eaves of the thatch of a house or stack. Same as 
Easing. 

Aizle-tree, sb. an axle-tree. 

Allan -hawk, sb. the great northern diver, and the red-throated 
diver. The skua was also so called in Mourne, co. of Down (Harris, 
1744). See Holland-hawk. 

All gab and guts like a young crow, a comparison. 

All my born days, all my life. ' A niver seen sich a sight in all 
ma born days.' 

All my lone, A' my lane, or All his lone, v. alone. 

Allow, to advise. ' Doctor ! A wouldn't allow you to be takin' off 
that blister yet,' means ' I wouldn't advise it.' 

Allowance, sb. permission. 'There's no allmcance for people in 
here.' 

All sorts, (1) a great scolding. 'She gave me all sorts for not 
doin' it.' 

(2) very much. ' She was cryin' all sorts.' ' It was raining all 
sorts.' 

All the one, the only one. ' Is this all the one you have.' 
All there, adj. wise ; sane. ' Not all there ' = not quite wise. 

All together like Brown's cows, or Like Brown's cows all in a 
lump, a comparison. 

All to one side like the handle of a jug, saying. 
Alo we, v. lit ; kindled ; on fire. 

Amang hans. ' He'll daet amang hans,' i. e. he will get it done 
somehow, by dividing the labour, and finding spare time for it. 

Among ye be it, blind harpers, i. e. settle it among yourselves : 
said to persons quarrelling. 

Amos. ' A blirton amos,' a big soft fellow who weeps for a slight 
cause. 

Angle-berries, sb. large hanging warts on a horse, sometimes about 
its mouth. 



ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 3 

Anklet, sb. the ankle. 

Anncient, Encient, adj. cunning; knowing. 'A sea gull's a very 
anncient bird.' 

Annundher, adv. underneath. Same as Innundher. 

Antic, adj. funny ; droll ' He's very antic.' Antickest = most 
funny. 

Anything, used as a comparison. ' He was running away as hard 
as anything.' ' I'm as mad as anything with, him.' 

Apern, sb. an apron. 

Appear, v. to haunt places after death. 

Argay, to argue. 'You would argay the black crow white,' 
saying. 

Arm. To arm a person, is to lead or support a person along by 
the arms. 

Arr, sb. a scar, such a pock-mark, or the scar left by a wound. 
Arran, Ern, sb. an errand. 
. Arred, adj. scarred ; pock-marked. 

Arris, sb. the sharp edge of a freshly-planed piece of wood, or of 
cement, or stone work. 

Arr-nut, sb. the pig nut, Bunium flexuosum. 

Art, Airt, sb. point of the compass. ' What art is the win in the 
day ? ' A particular part of the country, as ' It's a bare art o' the 
country.' 

Art or part, participation. 'I had neither art nor part in the 
affair.' 

As, than. ' I'd rather sell as buy.' 

Ass. ' He would steal the cross off an ass : ' said of a very mean 
and greedy fellow. 

At himself. ' He's no at himsel,' i. e. he's not well. 
Athout, without. 

Attercap, sb. a cross-grained, ill-natured person. ' Ya cross after- 
cap, ya.' 

Atween, prep, between. 

Auld-farrand, or Aul-farran, 'adj. knowing ; cunning. 

Aumlach, sb. a small quantity. 

Ava, at all. ' A dinna ken ava.' ' All hae nane o' that ava.' 

Avis, Aves, adv. perhaps ; may be ; but. ' Avis a'll gang there on 
the Sabbath.' 

Avout, unless ; without. ' I could not tell avout I saw it.' 

B 2 



4 ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 

Away and divart the hunger aff ye : said to children who are 
troubling and crying for a meal before it is ready. 

Away and throw mouT on yourself: said in scolding matches, 

probably means ' go and bury yourself.' 
Away in the mind, adj. mad. 
Away to the hills, gone mad. 
Ax, v. to ask. 

Ay ? Eh ? what ? what do you say ? 
Ayont, prep, beyond. 

Back. ' I'm, never off his back,' i. e. I'm always watching and 
correcting him. 

Back door work, sb. underhand work. 

Back spang, sb. a trick; something underhand. 'He's a decent 
man, there's no back spangs about him.' 

Back-stone, sb. a stone not less than two feet high, a foot and a 
half broad, and one foot thick, placed at the back of a turf fire, 
between the fire and the gable. 

Back talk, saucy replies from a child or an inferior. 

Bacon. 'Could you eat bacon that fat 1 ?' is the remark that 
accompanies the gesture known as ' taking a sight.' * He made bacon 
at me,' i. e. he took a sight at me. 

Bad, adj. sick. ' He has been bad this month and more.' 
Bad cess to you, bad luck to you. 

Bad conscience, sb. It is said of people who go out to walk in 
the rain that they have a ' bad conscience,' and therefore cannot 
abide at home. 

Bad man, the, sb. the devil. 

Bad place, the, sb. helL 

Bad scran, sb. bad luck. ' Sad scran to you.' 

Baghel, Boghel, sb. a clumsy performer. 

Bailer, sb. a vessel used for ' bailing out ' a boat. 

Bairn, sb. a child. 

Baiverage, beverage. When a young woman appears wearing 
something new for the first time, she gives her acquaintances the 
' baiverage of it,' this is a kiss. 

Bake, v. to knead bread, as well as to bake it in an oven. 

Ball, sb. a large and compact shoal of herrings is called by fisher- 
men ' a ball.' 

Balling, v. Sea birds pouncing on a ball of fry are said to be 
balling. 



ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 5 

Balloar, Billour, or Billyor, v. to holloa ; to shout out. 

Bankrope, sb. a bankrupt. 

Bannock, Bonnock, sb. a cake baked on a griddle. 

Banter, v. to taunt a person to fight. 'He bantered me to fight 
him.' 

Banty, sb. a bantam fowl. 

Banyan, sb. a flannel jacket worn by Carlingford oystermen and 
fishermen. 

Bap, sb. a lozenge-shaped bun, whitened with flour. 
Bar-drake, Bar-duck, sb. the red-breasted merganser. 
Bardugh, sb. a donkey's pannier with falling bottom. 

Bare pelt, sb. the bare skin. 'He ran out on the street in his 
bare pelt.' 

Barge, (1) sb. some kind of bird (HARRIS, Hist. co. Down, 1744). 

(2) sb. a scolding woman. 

(3) v. to scold iri a loud abusive way. 

Barked, v. encrusted. ' Your skin is barked with dirt.' 

Barley-buggle, sb. a scarecrow. 

Barley-play, sb. a call for truce in boy's games. 

Barn-brack, sb. a large sweetened bun containing currants, in 
season at all times, but especially so at Hallow-eve, when it contains 
a ring ; the person who gets the ring will of course be first married 
(Irish breac, speckled). 

Barney bridge, sb. a children's game. In playing it the following 
rhyming dialogue is used : 

' How many miles to Barney bridge ? ' 

' Three score and ten.' 

' Will I be there by candle light ? ' 

' Yes, if your legs be long.' 

' A curtsy to you.' 

'Another to you.' 

' If you please will you let the king's horses go through ? ' 

' Yes, but take care of your hindmost man.' 

Barroughed, Borroughed, adj. a cow with her hind legs tied to keep 
her still while being milked is barroughed. 

Barrow-coat, sb. a long flannel petticoat, open in front, worn by 
infants. 

Baste, sb. any animal except a human being. A zealous individual 
asked a servant-girl, ' Are you a Christian ? ' She replied, ' Do you 
think I'm a baste ? ' See s. v. Christen. 

Baste the bear, sb. a boy's game. 

Basty, adj. tough and hard, applied to stiff heavy clay or earth. 



6 ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 

Bat, (1) sb. a blow. ' He geed me a bat on the heed.' 
(2) sb. a moth. A bat is called ' a leather-winged bat.' 

Bats and bands, a description of rude hinges, consisting of a hook 
which, is driven into the door-frame, and a strap with an eye which is 
nailed to the door, so that the door can at any time he lifted off its 
hinges. 

Battery, sb. a sloping sea wall. 

Battle, bottle, sb. a small bundle of hay or straw. 

Bavin, sb. a sea fish, the ballan wrasse, family Labrus. Fishermen 
esteem it of very little account, and generally use it to bait their 
lobster-pots with. It is also called ' Morrian,' ' Murran-roe,' and 
' Gregah.' 

Bay, sb. one of the divisions or apartments in a cottage. 

Beal, v. to suppurate. 

Bealdin, Bealin, sb. matter from a sore. 

Bealin, sb. a suppurating sore. 

Beat all, v. to surpass all. ' Well, now, that beat all that ever I 
heard.' 

" The day beat att for beauty." W. CAELETON. 

Beauty sleep, sb. the sleep had before twelve o'clock. 
Becker-dog, sb. the grampus. 

Becomes, v. ' She becomes her bonnet,' means the bonnet becomes 
her. ' Shure the creathur becomes his new shuit.' 

Beddy, adj. interfering; meddling. 'You're very beddy,' saucy at 
one's food, also greedy, covetous. 

Bedrill, sb. a bed-ridden person ; same as Betherel. 
Beece, sb. cattle ; beasts. 

Beeslings, sb. beestings the milk got from a cow at the three first 
milkings after she has calved. 

Beet, sb. a small sheaf, or bunch of flax. 
Beets, sb. pi. the medullary rays in wood. 

Beetle, sb. a round wooden mallet or pounder for kitchen use ; a 
wooden block as used in a ' beetling mill.' 

Beetling-mill, sb. a mill fitted with large wooden 'beetles,' raised 
perpendicularly by machinery and falling with their own weight, for 
finishing linen. 

Beggar's stab, sb. a coarse sewing-needle. 
Begoud, Begood, v. begun. 
Begunked, adj. disappointed. Same as Gnnked. 
Behang, an exclamation. ' behang t' ye for a fool.' 



ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 7 

Behind God speed, an out-of-the-way place ; quite out of the world. 
Same as At the back of God speed. 

Behopes, sb. hope ; expectation. ' I saw him to-day, and he has no 
behopes of bein' any better.' 'I had great behopea the day would 
be fine.' 

Bein', sb. (being), any wretched or unfortunate person. 

Belly-band, sb. the girth, in cart or car harness ; the piece of cord 
attached to the front of a boy's kite to which the string is fastened. 

Bendard, sb. the bent stick or bow in the frame of a boy's kite ; the 
upright stick is called the ' standard.' 

Ben-weed, Bend-weed, sb. the rag-weed, Senecio Jacobcea. 

Berries, sb. pi. gooseberries. 

Betherel, sb. a bed-ridden person ; a helpless cripple. 

Be to be, must be. ' There be to be another man got to help.' 

Be to do, must do. ' He be to do it,' i. e. he must do it. 

Better, (1) adv. more. 'He gave me better nor a dozen.' 

(2) adj. well. ' He's not better, but he's not so bad as he was yester- 
day.' The moment a child is born, the mother is said to be better. 

Better again, still better. 

Beyond the beyonds, adj. something very wonderful or unexpected. 

Beyont the beyons, some very out of the way place. 

Bide, v. to wait. 

Bid the time o' day, v. to say good-morning, or any similar salutation. 

Big, v. to build. * Come and see Billy biggin.' 

Biggin, sb. a building. 

Bike (a bee's bike), sb. a wild bee's nest. 

Bill, sb. a bull. 

Biller, sb. water-cress (in Irish biorar [birrer]). 

Bindherer, Binntherer, sb. anything very large and good of its kind. 

Bing, sb. a heap ; a heap of potatoes in a field covered with earth ; 
a heap of grain in a barn. 

Binged up, v. heaped up. 

Binner, v. to go very quickly. 

Birl, v. to twirl round ; to go rapidly, as a vehicle ; to run fast. 

Birse, sb. bristles. 

Birsy, adv. bristly. 

Birthy, adj. numerous, or thick in the ground, applied to potatoes ; 
prolific, or productive. ' Them beans is very birthy.' 



8 ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 

Biscake, sb. a biscuit. 

Biscuit, sb. the root of Potentilla tormentilla, called also ' tormenting 
root.' 

Bisna, v. is not. ' If it bisna the right thing, we canny work wf it.' 
Bissent, is not. ' I can carry it, if it bissent too weighty.' 

Bit, (1) sb. The bit of a key is the part that is cut to pass the wards 
of the lock. 

(2) sb. to ' come to the bit,' is to come to the point ; to arrive at the 
last stage of a bargain. 

Biting Billy, sb. a very hot description of sugar-stick. 
Bits of things, sb. pi. household furniture. 

Biz, bees, v. is or are. ' If you biz goin' I'll go too." ' When that 
work bees finished ye may go.' 

Bizz, v. to buzz. 

" And sweetly you bizzed wee happy bee." FLECHEB. 

Blab, sb. (1) a raised blister; (2) a tell-tale; (3) a bee's blab, the 
little bag of honey within the body of a bee. 

Black-a-vized, adj. dark-complexioned. 

Black-back, sb. a fish, the flounder or fluke, Platessa flesus. 

Black-head, sb. the reed bunting. 

Black lumps, sb. pi. a favourite sweetmeat made up in balls, and 
flavoured with cloves. 

Black out, adj. ' The fire's black out,' i. e. quite out. 
Black scart, sb. a cormorant. 
Blad, (1) sb. a useless thing. 

(2) ab. a slap or blow. 

(3) v. to slap. 

(4) v. to blow or flap about in the wind, as clothes do when drying 
on a line. ' The wind would blad the young trees about.' Bladding = 
flapping about. 

Blade, sb. Strawberries, raspberries, and currants, are sold by the 
blade ; i. e. a cabbage-leaf into which a pint or quart, as the case may 
be, of the fruit, has been put. 

Blade mangles, to, v. to take the outside leaves off growing 
mangolds. 

Blae, adj. livid; blueish. ' Blae with cold.' 

Blae-berry, sb. the whortle-berry, Vaecinum myrtillus. Same as 
Frughan. 

Bla-flum, Bla-fum, sb. nonsense ; something said to mislead. 



ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 9 

Blanket. ' It's as braid as it's lang, like Paddy's blanket ' = it's no 
matter which of two ways a thing is done. 

Blanter, sb. a particular kind of oats, long in the pickle, and late in 
ripening. 

Blashy, adj. splashy. 

Blast o' the pipe, sb. a smoke. 

Blate, adj. bashful. 

Blatther, sb. ' He fell atylatther on the groan',' i. e. with great force. 

Blaud, (1) sb. a slap or blow. 

(2) v. to slap. 
Bleart, adj. bleared. 

Bleary-een. sb. pi. eyes affected by a thick fluid ; inflamed eyes. 
Bleerie-tea, sb. very weak tea. 

Blessed be the Maker ! an exclamation, made after saying that any 
one is particularly ugly. 

Blessing, (1) 'You missed as you missed your mammy's blessin' :' 
said derisively to some one who is disappointed at having missed 
something. 

(2) ' The Lord's blessing be about you,' a common form in which 
a beggar acknowledges an alms. 

Blether, Blather, (1) sb. a talking, empty person. 

(2) v. to talk foolishly ; to talk indistinctly. 
Blethers, sb. nonsense ; foolish talk. 

Blind, v. to ' blind a road ' = to spread small stones or cinders so as 
to cover up the large stones, with which a new road has been 
' pitched,' and to fill the interstices. 

Blind man's stan, sb. a boy's game, played with the eggs of small 
birds. The eggs are placed on the ground, and the player, who is 
blindfolded, takes a certain number of steps in the direction of the 
eggs ; he then slaps the ground with a stick thrice, in the hope of 
breaking the eggs ; then the next player, and so on. 

Blinked, adj. Cow's milk is said to be blinked when it does not 
produce butter, in consequence of some supposed charm having been 
worked a counter charm is required to bring it right. 

Blister, sb. an annoying person. 

Blockan, sb. the coal fish, M&rlangus carbonarius. The fry are 
called gilpins, small ones pickies ; the mid-sized ones blockans and 
glashans, and when large, grey lord and stanlock. 

Blood, (1) v. 'To get blood from a turnip,' to achieve something 
very difficult in the way of getting. 

(2) y. to bleed. 'Your nose is lloodin'.' 



10 ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 

Blood-sucker, sb. a stinging jelly-fish, or Medusa. 

Blooming Sally, sb. the hairy willow herb, Epilobium hirsutum. 

Blooster, v. to bluster. 

Blootther, sb. a severe blow ; a clumsy blundering rustic. 

Bloss, sb. contraction for blossom ; a term of endearment. 

Blue-bonnet, sb. the blue titmouse. The bird that is here called 
tlie ' cock blue bonnet,' is really the great titmouse. 

Blue-bow, Blew-bowed, sb. said of flax when it blossoms. 

Blue-month. ' It happens longer or shorter, from the time that the 
owl pratis (potatoes) goes out, an' the new ones is not come in.' 
OLLMINTCK. 

Bluit, sb. a fish ; some description of skate or thorn-back. 

Blurtin' thing, sb. a crying child. 

Boag, sb. a bog. 

Boagie, sb. a strong low truck with four wheels. 

Board, (1) v. 'To board a person,' to bring him before a board (of 
Guardians, for instance) on some charge. ' What ails you at the man ? ' 
' Sure lie boarded me an' got me the sack ' (dismissed). 

(2) v. to accost a person. 

Bog-bean, sb. Menyanthes trifoliata. It is used medicinally by the 
peasantry. 

Bogging, sb. black bog or peat, used for manure (MASON'S Parochial 
Survey, 1814). 

Boggle, sb. a mischievous spirit or goblin. 
Bog- wood, sb. fir- wood dug out of peat bogs. 

Bohog, sb. a rude shed, under which the priests said mass during 
times of persecution. 

Boil, sb. the boil = the boiling point. 'The pot's comin' to the 
boil.' 'It's just at the boil. 1 

Boiled milk, sb. porridge made of oat-meal and milk. 

Boiled upon, boiled with. 'Take some of that herb boiled upon 
sweet milk.' 

Boke, v. to retch ; to incline to vomit. 

Bole, sb. a small recess in the wall of a room. 

Bo-man, sb. a bogey. The word is used to frighten children. 

Bonaught, sb. a thick round cake made of oaten meal, baked on the 
clear turf coal, and often used on the first making of meal after 
harvest (DuBOURDiEU's Co. Down, 1802). 



ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 11 

Bone dry, adj. perfectly dry. 

Bonham, sb. a pig of six or eight weeks old. 

Bonnock, sb. Same as Bannock. 

Boo, sb. a louse. 

Booket, adj. sized. ' It's big booket.' 

Bool, sb. the how of a key, or of scissors. 

Booled oars, sb. pi. a kind of oars used by the Scotch quarter fisher- 
men at Carrickfergus. 

" Booled oars are those which row, two at one beam ; upon each oar 
is fastened a piece of oak timber, the length of such part of the oar as 
is worked within the boat ; which timber enables them to balance the 
oar so that they row with greater ease." S. McSsiMlN, Hist, of 
Carrickfergus. 

Bools, sb. pot-hooks. 

Boom out, v. When a small boat is running before a light wind 
the sails are boomed out so as to catch as much wind as possible. 

Boon, sb. a company of reapers. 

Boor-tree, Bore-tree, sb. the elder-tree, Sambucus nigra. 

Boose, sb. a stall for an ox. 

Bose, adj. hollow. ' The goose is a bonnie bird if it was not bose.' 

Bother one's head, v. to trouble one's self. 

Boun', v. bound; determined; prepared; certain. 'He's boun' to 
do it.' 

Bowl, adj. bold. ' He come on as bowl as a lion.' 
Box-borra, sb. a wheel-barrow with wooden sides. 
Boxen, sb. a casing of wood such as is round the sides of a farm cart. 

Boxty, or Boxty-bread, sb. a kind of bread made of grated raw 
potatoes and flour; it differs from 'potato bread,' or 'potato cake,' 
of which cold boiled potatoes form the principal part. 

Box-wrack, sb. a kind of sea- wrack. 

Brace, sb. a screen, made of stakes interwoven with twigs, and covered 
inside and outside with prepared clay used to conduct the smoke from 
a fire on the hearth to an aperture in the roof. 

Bracken, sb. any large kind of fern. 

Brads, Breads, sb. pi. the flat boards or scales, usually made of wood, 
which are attached to a large beam for weighing. 

Brae, sb. a steep bank ; a hill ; the brow of a hill. 
Braid, adj. broad. 



12 ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 

Braik, sb. a large harrow, sometimes called a ' double harrow,' usually 
drawn by two horses ; the ' single harrow ' is much smaller, and is so 
called, not because it is in one piece, it is really double, but because 
it is drawn by one horse. 

Braird, sb. The young blades of corn, flax, &c. that come up in a 
field are called the braird. 

Bramble, sb. withered branches ; rubbish of twigs, &c. 

Bramelly, or Brambled. A ' bramelly-legged man ' is a man who 
is either ' knock-kneed ' or ' out-kneed,' or has misshapen feet and 
legs. 

Branded, Brannet, adj. of a red colour with streaks or bands, applied 
to cattle. 

Brander, sb. a broiling iron. 

Brash, (1) sb. a turn at the operation of churning. ' Gi'e the churn 
brash.' 

(2) sb. an attack of illness. 
Brattle, sb. a peal of thunder. 

Brave, adj. fine ; large. ' That's a brave day.' ' That's a brave 
chile ye've got.' 

Bravely, adv. finely. ' He's doin' bravely' i. e. he is recovering 
finely. 

Brazier, sb. a fish ; the pout, Morrhua lusca ; also the poor or power 
cod, M. minuta; also the common sea bream, Pagellus centrodontus. 

Bread. 'Bread and butter, and tith, thith, thith.' A child is asked 
to repeat this, and when he gets to the last syllables the tongue gets 
between the teeth, and when some one gives him an unexpected blow 
tinder the chin of course the tongue gets bitten. 

Bread and cheese, sb. the young leaf-buds of the hawthorn. 

Break, (1) sb. a word used by the Ulster Scots for a rout or defeat 
(obsolete). ' The Break of Drummore,' ' The Break of Killeleigh.' 

(2) v. to change money. ' Can you break that pound note for me ? ' 

Break by kind, v. to be different in habits, disposition, &c., from 
one's parents. " The son of a dhrunk man 'ill le be inclined to be 
dhrunk hisself, if he dizint break by kind." OLLMINICK. 

Breeks, sb. pi. trousers. 

Breest, or Breast, v. to spring up and alight with the breast upon 
some object. ' Cud ye breest that wall ? ' 

Breeze, sb. fine cinders or coke. " The price of fine breeze has been 
reduced to 3s. per 40 bushels." Belfast Paper, 1875. 

Bremmish, sb. a dash, or furious rush or blow ; the sudden rush 
made by a ram. 

Brent clean, adj. quite clean. 






ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 13 

Brent new, adj. quite new. Same as "bran new." 
Brequist, sb. breakfast. 

Briar bot, sb. the fishing frog or sea devil, Lophius piscatorius. 
Same as Molly Gowan, Kilmaddy. 

Briar bunting, sb. the common bunting. 

Bridge, sb. a weigh-bridge. A coal carter was found to have been 
abstracting coals from his own load. ' Ah, ye fool,' said his comrade, 
' shure A toul' ye ye had to go over a bridge.' 

Brills, sb. spectacles. 

Brissle, v. to toast or scorch. ' To brissle potatoes.' ' Don't be 
brissling your shins over the fire.' 

Broad stone, The, sb. a cromlech in the parish of Finvoy, co. of 
Antrim. 

Brochan, sb. thin oat-meal porridge. There is a saying, ' Never bless 
brochan, 1 i. e. that brochan is not worth saying grace for, and that 
such poor food comes as a right. 

Brochan roy, sb. brochan with leeks boiled in it : used by the very 
poor. 

Brock, (1) sb. a badger ; a foolish person ; a dirty person ; one who 
has a bad smell. 

(2) sb. broken victuals. 

Brogue, sb. a strong Irish accent. ' He has a brogue you could hang 
your hat on,' i. e. a very strong brogue. 

Brogues. ' As vulgar as a clash o' brogues,' i. e. a pair of common 
boots, very vulgar indeed. 5 

Broken down tradesmen, sb. a boys' game. 

Broo, sb. Snow-broo = snow broth ; half -melted snow. 

Brooghled, v. badly executed. 

Brosnach o' sticks, sb. an armful or bundle of branches gathered 
for fire- wood. Also called Brosna and Brasneugh. 

Broth. Broth, like porridge and sowans, is spoken of in the plural : 
' A few broth.' ' Will you sup them ? ' ' They're very salt the day.' 

Brough, sb. a halo round the moon. ' A far awa brough, is a near 
han' storm,' saying. 

Browlt, adj. deformed or bowed in the legs : generally applied to a 
pig, a young dog, or a calf. 

Bruckle, adj. brittle. ' That's bruckle ware ye'r carry in 1 .' 
Bruckle sayson, sb. very unsettled weather. 
Brulliment, sb. a disturbance ; a broil. 
Brumf, adj. curt or short in manner. 



14 ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 

Brust, v. to burst. 
Bucht oot ! v. get out ! 

Buck-house, sb. " To be sold or let, a good buck-house, about 80 
feet long, with a well- watered bleaching green." Advt. Belfast News- 
letter, 1738. 

Buckle, sb. a mollusk, Buccinum undatum. 
Buckle-berries, sb. the scarlet berries of the wild rose. 
Buckie-breer, sb. a wild rose bush. 

Buckled, v. bent or twisted : applied to a saw. ' There, that saw's 
all buckled; take her to the saw doctor,' *'. e. a man who repairs saws. 

Buddagh, sb. the large lake trout, Salmo ferox. The word is said to 
mean a big, fat fellow ; a middle-sized cod-fish. 

Buddy, sb. an individual. 

Budge, v. to move. ' He's that ill he can't budge his feet or his legs.' 

Buffer, sb. a boxer. ' An old buffer,' a tough old fellow. 

Bug, sb. a caterpillar infesting fruit trees. 

Bulk, v. to play marbles. 

Bulkey, sb. a constable. 

Bull, sb. a large marble. 

Bully-rag, v. to scold in a bullying and noisy way. 

Bully-raggin', sb. a great scolding. 

Bum-bee, sb. a bee. 

Bumbee wark, sb. nonsense. 

Bummer, sb. a boy's toy, made with a piece of twine and a small 
circular disc, usually of tin ; it makes a humming noise. 

Bumming, v. boasting ; talking big. 
Bun, sb. the tail of a hare. 
Bun, Bunny, call to a rabbit. 

Bunce, (1) sb. a consideration in the way of commission given to 
persons who bring together buyer and seller at a flax market. Per- 
haps a corruption of bonus. 

(2) v. to divide money. ' Bunce the money.' 
Bundle, sb. what a child sits on. 

Bunker, sb. a low bank at a road side, a road-side channel. 
Bunny, sb. a rabbit. 
Bunt, v. to run away, as a rabbit does. 
Burn, sb. a small river. 



ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 15 

Burn-shin-da-eve, sb, a term for a woman who is fond of crouching 
over the fire. 

Burrian, sb. a bird ; the red-throated diver. 

Burroe, sb. a kind of sea wrack ; the tangle, Laminaria digitata. A 
tall, shapeless person is called in derision a burroe. ' When I was 
sixteen I grew up as tall as a hig burroe, 1 said by a woman from 
Glenarm, Co. of Antrim. 

Bui-rough, duck, sb. the shell drake. 

Bursted churn. When the sun sets before the grain is all cut, on 
the last day of reaping on a farm, there is said to be a bursted churn. 

Bushes, sb. pi. masses of sea- weed (tangles), growing on sunken 
rocks, and exposed at low water. 

Busk, v. to dress, or deck oneself. 

" Gae busk yeirsel' an come awa' 
An' dinna sit here dringin'." HUDDLESTON. 

Buskin boot, sb. a man's low boot ; to tie. 

Butcher, sb. the parten or shore crab, Carcinus moenas. 

Butter goes mad twice in the year, a saying. In summer it 
runs away, and in winter it is too hard, and dear as well. 

Buttery fingers, sb. a term for a person who lets things slip from 
his hands. 

Buttin' at, v. hinting at. 

Buy. ' He cud buy ye at the yin en' o' the toon, an* sell ye at the 
ithir,' said to a person who is supposed to have a small supply of 
sense. 

By-chap, sb. an illegitimate male child. 

Bye-word, sb. a saying. " It was about this time that Paddy 
Loughran seen a ghost that had come to frighten him, but he only 
sayd, ' Ye're late,' an' with that the bye-word riz, ' Ye're late, as 
Paddy Loughran sayd t' the ghost.' " OLLMINICK. 

By Gommany, a petty oath, or exclamation. 
By Goneys, or By Golly, an oath. 
By Jaiminie King, an oath. 
Byre, sb. a cow-house. 



Cackle, sb. a concealed laugh. 

Cadda, Caddow, sb. a quilt 01 
cloth which lies on a horse's I 

Cadge, v. to carry about anything for sale. 



Cadda, Caddow, sb. a quilt or coverlet ; a cloak or cover ; a small 
cloth which lies on a horse's back underneath the ' straddle.' 



16 ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 

Cadger, sb. a pedlar ; an itinerant dealer in fish. 

Caff, sb. chaff. 

Cahill, sb. an eel net. 

Caigey, adj. in very good spirits ; lively ; wanton ; eager. 

Cailey, sb. a call or friendly visit. 

Caillyea, sb. a talk round the fire ; a gossip among neighbours. 

Caleeriness, sb. giddiness ; fun ; mischief. 

Caleery, adj. light ; vain ; full of mischief. 

Calf. When a calf is born, it is customary in some places to crush 
an egg in the hand, and thrust it, shell and all, down the animal's 
throat. It is also dragged by the heels round the yard for luck. 
MASON'S Paroch. Survey, 1819. 

Caliagh, sb. a potato of more than a year old (probably from its 
wrinkled appearance, as this is the Irish word for an old woman or 
hag). 

Call, sb. occasion or need. ' You had no call to do that.' ' What 
call had you to touch them ? ' 

Called on, in demand, as certain classes of goods in shops. ' Flan- 
nen's greatly called on this weather.' 

Calling, v. ' He's a calling' i. e. he is being called. 

Cambered, adj. slightly arched ; a builder's term for a floor or ceiling 
which has become bent. 

Came on, v. became of. ' What came on you 1 ' 

Candy-man, sb. a rag-man. These men generally give a kind of 
toffee, called ' candy,' in exchange for rags, &c. 

Canney, v. cannot. 
Canny, adj. cautious. 
Cant, v. to sell by auction. 

Can you whistle and chaw meal ? addressed to a person who is 
boasting of his powers of doing difficult things, j 

Cap-ball, sb. a boys' game. 

Capper, sb. a turner of wooden bowls. 

Carcage, sb. a carcase. 

Carf, Carp, sb. a fish, the sea bream, Pagellus centrodontus. 

Carf, sb. a ditch ; a shallow channel cut in peat bogs for conveying 
water. 

Carnaptious, adj. quarrelsome ; fault-finding. 



ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 17 

Carpers, sb. pi. " Hundreds of men, women, and children, called 
carpers, are ready to catch the fish [herrings] that break from the net 
on. its drawing on shore." MASON'S Paroch. Survey (P. Ardolinis, 
Co. of Antrim), 1819. 

Carrion. 'A carrion won't poison a crow,' i. 6. there are some 
persons who can eat anything, or to whom nothing comes amiss. 

Carry, sb. a weir or mill-lead. 

Carryings on, sb. pi. boisterous or improper proceedings. 

Carry my lady to London. In this game two children grasp each 
other by the wrists, forming a seat, on which another child sits, who 
is thus carried about, while the bearers sing 

' Give me a pin, to stick in my thumb, 
To carry my lady to London; 
Give me another, to stick in my other, 
To carry her a little bit farther.' 

Carry of the sky, sb. the drift of the clouds. 

Carry on, v. to behave in a boisterous or giddy manner ; to act 
improperly. 

Carvy seed, sb. carroway seed. 

Case equal. ' It's case equal,' i. e. it's just the same ; it's as broad 
as it's long. 

Cash, sb. a pathway ; a covered drain made to leave a passage for 
water in wet ground or bog. 

Cast, (1) adj. rejected as being faulty. 'Them's old cast yins; A 
wouldn't tak them.' 

(2) v. to reject on account of some imperfection. 
Castaway, sb. an old, worn-out horse. 

Casting out, v. falling out ; quarrelling ; also the fading out of 
colours from articles of dress. 

Cast ones, sb. pi. rejected things. 

Cast up, v. to reproach; to bring up byegones; to remind one of 
past errors or offences. 

Catch it, v. receive punishment. ' If he finds you here you'll 
catch it.' 

Cat-fish, sb. a cuttle fish, Sepia qfficinalis. 
Catteridge, sb. a cartridge. 
Caup, sb. a wooden cup without a handle. 
Cawney, adj. cautious. Same as canny. 

Cawsey, Cassy, sb. the paved or hard-beaten place in front of or 
round about a farmhouse. 



18 ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 

Cess, (1) v. a house painter's term. When water is put on an oily 
surface it is said to cesa, i. e. it runs into separate drops. 

(2) sb. ' Bad cess to you,' saying ; *'. e. bad luck. 
Chainy, sb. china. 
Champ, sb. mashed potatoes. 
Chander, v. to chide ; to scold in a complaining way. 

Change, sb. not merely ' the change ' coming back after a payment, 
but money itself. ' Sir, I've called for the change for them pea-rods.' 

Change one's feet, v. to put on dry shoes and stockings. 

Chapman gill, sb. a toll of one shilling levied annually by the 
sheriffs of Carrickfergus from each vessel trading to the port. It is 
to pay the cost of burying the bodies of sailors or others cast on shore. 
, Hist. Carrickfergus. 



Charged. ' diarged or no charged she's dangerous : ' said of a gun 
or pistol. 

Charity, sb. a person who is deserving of charity is said to be a 
' great charity.' 

Charlie. ' It's long o' comin', like Eoyal Charlie : ' said of a thing 
that has been long expected. 

Charm. ' That would charm the heart of a wheelbarrow ; ' and 
' That would charm the heart of a beggar-man's crutch : ' said in 
derision to a person who is singing or whistling badly. 

Chase-grace, sb. a scapegrace. ' Eunnin' about like a chase-grace.' 
Chay-chay, said to cows to call them or quiet them. 
Chay, lady, said to a cow to quiet her. 
Check, (1) sb. a slight meal. 

(2) v. to chide. ' He checked me for going.' To slightly slacken 
the sheet of a sail. 

Cheep, v. to chirp. 

Cheevy, v. to chase. Same as Chivy. 

Chert your tongue, bite your tongue. ' If you can't tell the truth, 
you had better chert your tongue and say nothing.' 

Chew, sir ! away ; or behave yourself : said to a dog. 
Childhre, sb. pi. children. 
Chile, sb. a child. 
Chimin', v. singing. 
Chimley, sb. a chimney. 

Chimley brace, sb. the screen that conducts the smoke from a fire 
on the hearth upwards through the roof. 



ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 19 

Chirm, v. to sing ; to make a low, murmuring sound. 

" But sweetly you cliirmed on ould May momin'." FLECKER. 
Chitterling, (1) si. a swallow. 

(2) v. chattering, as applied to the noise that swallows make. 
Chitty wran, sb. the common wren. 
Chivy, (1) sb. a chace. 

(2) v. to chase or pursue. ' He chivied me.' 
Chokes, sb. pi. the sides of the neck. 
Chollers, Chillers, sb. pi. the sides of the neck. 

Chop-stick, sb. a small Lit of whalebone attached to a sea fishing- 
line to keep the snood and hook clear of the sinker. 

Chow, v. to chew. 
Chrissimis, sb. Christmas. 

Christen, (1) sb. a, human being. ' The poor dog was lyin' on a 
Christen' a bed.' 

(2) adj. Christian. 

Chuckie, a hen ; the call for fowl. 
Churchyard deserter, sb. a very sickly-looking person. 
Churn, sb. a harvest home. 

Clabber, sb. mud. ' They clodded clabber at me.' 
Clabbery, adj. muddy. ' Don't put the dog into that clabbery hole.' 
Clachan, sb. a small cluster of cottages. 
Claghtin', v. catching or clutching at. 
Clam, sb. a shell-fish, Pecten maximus. 

Clamp, sb. a small stack of turf, containing about a load. When 
turfs or peats are ' put out,' they are left for some time to dry; as 
soon as they can be handled they are put into ' footins ' or ' futtine,' 
*. e. about four peats are placed on end, the upper ends leaning against 
each other. In the course of a week or two, if the weather be dry, 
these are put into ' turn footins,' several footins being put together. 
In this case, two rows of turf are placed on end, say six in each row, 
the upper ends leaning against each other ; on these are laid, cross- 
wise, as many peats as the upright ones will hold. After some time 
these ' turn footins ' are put into ' clamps, 1 in which they remain until 
they are sufficiently dry to be removed from the bog. 

Clan-jamfrey, Clam-jamfrey, sb. a whole lot of people. 

Clargy, sb. a clergyman. ' Ah ! he's a good man ; he's my clargy.' 

Clarkin', v. clerking ; doing the work of a clerk. 

Clart, sb. a dirty, slovenly woman. 

c 2 



20 ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 

Clash, (1) sb. a slap or blow. 

(2) eb. a tell-tale. 

(3) v. to tell tales. ' He went and clashed on me.' 

Clashbag, sb. a tale-bearer. 

Clatchen, sb. a brood of young chickens or ducks. 

Clatin', v. the act of raking together. 

Clatty, adj. dirty, slovenly. 

Clatty and long-some. ' You weren't both clatty and longsome at 
that,' means that though you were quick about it, you did it badly 
and dirtily. 

Claut, a strong rake for raking up mire or rubbish. 

Clavin, a sea-fish, the spotted gunnel, Blennius Gunnellus. Called 
also Flutterick and Codlick. 

Claw-hammer, sb. a slang name for a pig's foot, also for a dress coat. 

Clay-bug, sb. a common clay marble. 

Clean, adv. quite. ' I dean forgot.' ' He's clean mad.' 

Clean ower, adv. completely over. 

Clean wud, adj. stark mad. " 

Clearsome, adj. clear; bright. 

Cled, adj. thickly covered, as a branch with fruit. 

Cleek, sb. a hook. 

Cleeked up, adj. hooked up, as window curtains sometimes are. 

Cleekups, sb. stringhalt ; a twitching disease in the hind legs of a 
horse or ass. 

Gleet, sb. a double hook used in a boat for belaying small ropes to. 

Cleg, (1) sb. the gad fly. 

(2) v. to clog. 

Clemmed to death, adj. perished with wet and cold. 
Cleush, sb. a sluice ; a water channel or spout. 
Clever, adj. large ; fine-looking. 
Clib, sb. a horse one year old. 
Clifted, adj. cleft or split. 

Clincher, sb. a convincing statement or argument that settles the 
matter. 

Cling, v. to shrink or contract, as wood in drying. 
Clint, sb. a projecting rock. 



ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 21 

Clip, sb. a gaff, or strong iron hook with a wooden handle, used for 
landing fish ; a mischievous young girl. 

Clipe, sb. anything pretty large. * A clipe of a boy.' 

Clipes, sb. tongs for holding stones when being lifted by a winch. 

Clish-ma-claver, sb. silly talk ; nonsense. 

Clitterty, clatterty, meal upon Saturday. The rattling noise of 
a grinding mill is supposed to resolve itself into these words. Another 
form 

' Clitterty, clatterty, late upon Saturday 
Barley parritch, an' hardly that.' 

Clockin', v. hatching. 

Clocks, (1) sb. pi. dandelions in seed. 

(2) ' I'd as soon watch clocks [beetles] as mind them childre.' 
Clod, v. to throw anything, such as stones. 
Cloot, sb. a hoof. 
Clootie, sb. a left-handed person. 
Cloots, (1) sb. pi. ragged clothes; fragments of cloth. 

(2) sb. the devil. 

Close side, sb. the right side of a carcase of mutton, so called 
because the kidney at that side adheres more closely than at the left, 
which is called the open side. 

Cloth, sb. linen. 

Clout, (1) sb. a slap. ' A'll gi'e ye a clout on the lug if ye dar' to 
clash.' 

(2) v. to slap. 

Clove, sb. aii instrument used in the preparation of flax ; by it the 
' shows ' are removed which have not been taken off at the ' scutch 

mill.* 

Clutch, sb. the silty substance in which oysters are partly embedded 
on the oyster banks near Carrickfergus. 

Coag, sb. a vessel for carrying or holding water, made of hoops and 
staves, like a small barrel, with one of the ends removed. 

Coal, sb. a lap of hay ; a lap cock. 

Coaling hay, v. rolling it in small cocks after being cut. 

Coast anent, v. Farm labourers who are given money to lodge and 
board themselves are said to ' coast anent? 

Coat, (1) sb. a woman's gown. 

(2) ' I wear my coat none the worse for it to-day,' *'. e. I am nothing 
the worse now for having been in a much lower position at one time., 

Cobble, v. to bargain or haggle. 
Cobblety-curry, sb. Same as Shuggy-shu (1). 



22 ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 

Cobbs, or Herring Cobbs, sb. pi. young herrings. 

Cock-bread, sb. a mixture of hard-boiled eggs and other things with 
which game cocks are fed. 

Cocked up, adj. conceited. 

Cocker, sb. a cock-fighter. 

Cockers, Caackers, sb. pi. the heels of a horse's shoe turned down. 

Cockles of the heart. A warm drink or a dram is said to ' warm 
the cockles of onda heart.'' 

Cocks, sb. a common wild plant, Plantago. Children amuse them- 
selves in summer with knocking off the heads of each other's cocks. 
This is called 'fighting cocks.' 

Cock-shot, sb. anything set up as a mark at which to throw stones. 

Cock-stride, sb. applied to the lengthening of the days. "About oul' 
New Year's Day, the days is a cock-sthride longer." OLLMIMCK. 

Cod, (1) sb. a silly, troublesome fellow. 

(2) v. to humbug or quiz a person ; to hoax ; to idle about. ' Quit 
your coddin'.' 

Codger, sb. a crusty old fellow. 
Codlick, sb. a fish, the spotted gunnel. 

Coffin-cutter, sb. Ocypus olens, the cock-tail, an insect larger than an 
earwig, of a black colour. Called also The Devil's Coachman. 

Cog, (1) sb. a wedge or support fixed under anything to steady it. 

(2) v. to steady anything that is shaky by wedging it ; to place a 
wedge under a cart-wheel to prevent the cart going down hill. 

Coggle, v. to shake. 

Cogglety, Coggly, adj. shaky ; unsteady. 

Colcannon, sb. potatoes and ' curley kail ' mashed together. A dish 
of Colcannon used to form part of the dinner on Hallow-eve, and 
usually contained a ring. The finder of the ring was to be married 
first. 

Cold comfort, sb. no comfort at all ' That's cold comfort ye're givin' 
me.' Compare " He receives comfort like cold porridge." Tempest, 
Act ii. sc. i. 

Coldrife, adj. chilly ; cold ; of a chilly nature. ' Some people's 
naturally coldrife.' 

Coif, v. to wad a gun. 

Colfin', sb. the material used to wad a gun. 

Colley, sb. smuts. 



ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 23 

Collogue, (1) sb, a confidential chat. 

(2) v. to talk confidentially. 
Collop, sb. a slice of meat. 
Collop Monday, sb. the day before Shrove Tuesday. 

Colly [coalie], a dog. ' It's as clean as if Colly had licked it : ' said 
of a plate or bowl that has been thoroughly emptied and polished off. 

Come back. ' Come back an' pay the bap ye eat,' i. e. come back ; 
don't hurry away. 

Come in, v. to suit ; to serve. ' It's sure to come in for some use.' 
Come on, v. to grow up ; to thrive. ' The chile's comin' on finely.' 

Come over, v. to repeat anything told in confidence. ' Now don't 
come over that.' 

Come round, v. to recover from illness. ' Doctor, do you think he's 
comin' roun\' 

Come speed, v. to get on with any work. ' Are ye comin' much 
speed wi' the job ? ' 

Commanding pain, sb. a severe pain, such as almost disables one. 

Common, (l)sb. hockey ; a game. Same as Shinney. Called in some 
districts Comun and Kaminan, from the Irish name for the game. 

(2) ' As common as potatoes,' i. e. of very low extraction, or a com- 
parison for anything very common. 

Connough worm, sb. the caterpillar of Sphinx atropos. "Cows 
eating of the grass that it passes over are believed to be affected with 
that fatal distemper called the connough." McSxiMiN's Hist. Carrick- 
fergus, 1823. 

Conquer, sb. a conqueror. 

Consate, (1) sb. conceit ; a pleasurable prides ' He takes a great consate 
in his garden.' 

(2) si. conceit. To ' knock the consate out of any one,' means to 
give him a beating. 

Constancy, sb. a permanency. ' I wouldn't do it for a constancy? 
'. e. I would not make a practice of it. 

Contrairy, (1) adj. obstinate; contradictory. 'Now, what's the 
good o' bein' so contrairy ? ' 

(2) Inconvenient. ' It happened at a most contrairy time.' 

(3) v. to prove the contrary ; to controvert. ' I couldn't contrairy 
that.' 

Convenient, adj. near. { His house is convenient to the church. 
Convoy, v. to escort or accompany. 

Coody doon, v. kneel down. ' Coody doon an' say yer prayers.' 
Same as Coorie doon. 



24 ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 

Coof, or Couf, sb. a clownish fellow. 
Coo-pnshla, sb. a single dropping of a cow. 
Coorie doon, v. kneel down. Same as Coody doon. 
Coorse Christian, sb. a rough fellow. 

Coorse morning, sb. coarse morning, i. e. very wet or stormy. This 
is a common greeting. 

Coo-sherran, sb. cow-dung. 

Corby, sb. the grey crow or hooded crow. The corby has become rare 
in Antrim and Down since the purchasing of dead horses and cows by 
the artificial manure makers became usual. 

Corker, sb. a large pin ; anything large a large fish, for instance. 
Cormoral, sb. a cormorant. 
Corn, sb. oats. 

Corny-gera, or Corny-keevor, sb. the missel thrush, Turdus vici- 
vorous. 

Corp, sb. a corpse. 

Corrag, sb. a wind guard for the door of a cottage, made of inter- 
laced branches. Same as Wassock. 

Corruption, sb. matter from a sore. 
Corvorant, sb. a cormorant. 
Cot, sb. a flat-bottomed boat. 
Coulter-neb, sb. the puffin. 
Coult fit, sb. colt's foot, Tussilago. 

Country, sb. ' My country ' is the common way of saying ' the part 
of the country where I live,' so that if two farmers from districts 
three or four miles apart meet at market, one asks the other, 'What's 
the news in your country ? ' 

Country Joan, sb. an uncouth country person. 

County crop, sb. having one's hair cut very short, as it would be cut 
in the county prison. ' You've got the county crop : ' said in ridicule. 

Course, v. ' To course a lime-kiln ' is to put in the alternate layers 
of limestone and coal. 

Coutther, sb. a plough-share. 
Cove, (1) sb. a cave. 

(2) v. to rub a flagged floor with a ' coving-stone.' 
Cove, v. to rub a flagged floor with a ' coving stone.' 

Covered car, sb. a car with two wheels, drawn by one horse. 
There is room inside for four passengers, who sit facing each other. 
The door and step are at the back, the driver sits in front, perched 
up near the top. There are two very small windows in front, and one 
in the door. 



ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 25 

Cowl, adj. cold. 

Cowp, v. to upset ; to empty. 

Cow's-clap, sb. a piece of cow's-dung. 

Cow's tail. ' To grow down, like a cow's tail : ' said in derision to 
a person who is supposed to be growing shorter instead of taller. 

Crab, v. to carp ; to scold at. ' A couldn't thole bein' crabbed at, 
when A didn't do nothin' ondaicent.' 

Crab's allowance, sb. the treatment that juvenile fishers give to 
those crabs (' partens') that fasten on their hooks and eat off the bait 
the crabs, when landed, are instantly trampled to death. 

Crack, (1) sb. a chat. 

(2) v. to gossip or chat ; to boast. 

Cracked, adj. damaged : as ' cracked hams,' hams which are slightly 
damaged in appearance. 

Cracker, sb. the thin cord at the end of a whip ; a boaster. 

Cracks, sb.pl. tales; gossip. 

Crane, sb. the iron arm over a fire from which the ' crook ' hangs. 

Crapen, sb. the crop of a fowl. 

Crave, v. ' To crave a man,' to apply to him for payment of a debt. 

Craw, Crow, sb. a rook. 

Creel-pig, sb. a young pig, such as is taken to market in a creel or 
basket. 

Creepers, sb. pi. lice. Same as Podes. 
Creepy, or Creepy-stool, sb. a very low stool. 

Creesh, (1) sb. a punishment of an uncertain kind. ' You'll get the 
creesh,' i. e. punishment. 

(2) sb. grease. 
Creeshy, adj. greasy. 
Creuben, sb. a crab. 

Crib, or Crib-stone, sb. the curb-stone at the edge of a foot-path. 
Crine, v. to shrink. 

Crock, sb. a derisive term for a person who fancies himself ailing or 
delicate. 

Crocky, adj. fanciful about his health ; hippish. 

Croft, sb. a space surrounded by farm buildings. ' Just go through 
thon farmer's croft down there,' a small field near a house. 

Cronkin, adj. to describe the baying sound made by a flock of Brent 



Croo, sb. a poor, filthy cabin. See Pig Croo. 



26 ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 

Croodle, v. to crouch ; to cuddle. 

Crook, sb. a hook which is suspended from the ' crane ' in a kitchen 
chimney for hanging the pot or griddle from. ' As black as the crook' 
very black. 

Croon, v. to lament or wail. 

Croose, adj. sharp-tempered ; pugnacious ; irritable ; conceited. ' He's 
as croose as a banty cock.' 

Crop, v. to crop land. ' To put in crop,' to sow seed. 

Cross. ' He would steal the cross off an ass :' said of an avaricious 
person. 

Crottle, sb. a lichen. A decoction of it is used for dyeing. 

Crowl, (1) sb. a small person; a dwarf. 'A crowl on a creepy looks 
naethin',' saying. 

(2) v. to stunt the growth of anything. It is said that dogs can 
be crmvled by giving them whiskey when they are young, and that a 
child is crowled if a man puts his leg over the child's head. 

Crown of the causey, sb. the centre of the road, the driest and 
cleanest part, and therefore taken possession of by the strongest. The 
expression refers to the old paved country roads, which had no side 
patha 

Crnb, (1) sb. a horse's curb-chain. 

(2) v. to check. ' The caterpillars crul the blooms of the roses.' 
Cmden, sb. a parten (crab), Carcinus mcenas, of a reddish colour. 
Cruds, sb. pi. curds. 

Cruel, Crule, adj. very. ' Cruel big.' * Cruel nice.' ' Cruel party.' 
Cruels, sb. the king's evil. 
Cruffles, sb. pi. a kind of potatoes. 

Crule ban', sb. a disagreeable spectacle ; a bad case. ' He's made a 
crule han' o' hisself with the dhrink.' Same as Sore Hand. 

Crulge, v. to crouch near the fire ; to cramp oneself by sitting in a 
crouching attitude. 

Crumbs. Children are recommended to eat up the crumbs, ' for the 
crumbs will make you wise.' 

Crummel, sb. a crumb. 

Crumming-knife, sb. a cooper's tooL 

Cruse, adj. captious; cross. 

Cuckle, sb. a cockle. 

Cuckoo-sorrel, sb. wood sorrel, Oxalis acetosella. 

Cckoo-spittle, sb. the white froth deposited on plants, which is 
secreted by and encloses the young of an insect, Aphromora spumaria. 



ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 27 

Cudden, sb. a small fish, the young of the coal-fish, Merlangus 
carbonarius. 

Cuddy, sb. a donkey. 

'Cudnae tell a B frae a bill's-fit,' applied to a person utterly 

ignorant. 
Cuidhich, sb. a night's lodging and food. 

Culloch, sb. the broad-nosed eel, Anguilla latirostris. This word is 
used at Lough Neagh, and is the Irish Colloch = wicked, in allusion 
to this eel's yoracious habits. It is also called Hunter Eel and 
Gorb Eel. 

Cummings, sb. pi. the rootlets of malt. 

Curchie, sb. a curtsey. 

Curcudioughly, adv. comfortably ; cosily. 

Curl doddy, sb. a flower, the blue scabious, Scabiosa succisa. 
Children twist the stalk of this flower, and as it slowly untwists in 
the hand, say to it : 

' Curl doddy on the midden. 
Turn round an' tak' my biddin'.' 

Curleys, sb. curled kail. 

Curmurring, sb. grumbling ; the sound caused by flatus within the 
body. 

Curn, sb. a currant. 

Curnaptious, adj. quarrelsome ; cross-grained. 

Custom gate, Custom gap, sb. one of the approaches to a fair. 

Cut, (1) sb. a measure of linen yarn. See under Spangle and Lea. 

(2) v. to tack from side to side up an inclined plane; to more a 
heavy object forward by pushing each end alternately. 

Cut butter. ' It would cut butter, if it was hot/ is said of a parti- 
cularly blunt knife. 

Cut meat, To, v. to eat anything. 'They never cut meat from 
Saturday till Wednesday : ' said of a lot of sheep which were in transit 
from Ireland to England. 

Cuts. ' To draw cuts,' to draw lots. 
Cutter, sb. a slate pencil. 

Cutty, (1) sb. a short, clay pipe. 

(2) sb. a sea bird, the razor-bill. Also the guillemot. 

(3) ' There you are puttin' in your cutty among spoons,' said to a 
youngster who attempts to join in the conversation of the elders. 

(4) adj. short. ' Cutty pipe.' ' Cutty spoon.' 

Cutty full. * You hav'n't a cutty full ' (of brains), i. e. you have 
no sense. 



23 ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 

Da, Da da, sb. father. ' Hi da ! come home to the wain ! ' 

Da-dilly, sb. a helpless, useless person. ' She's a sore da-dilly of a 
crayture.' 

Dab, (1) sb. a small flat fish. 
(2) Z>. a snatch, or clutch. 
Dab at the hole, sb. a game of marbles. 
Dad of bread, sb. a large lump of bread. 
Daffy-downdillies, sb. daffodils. 
Daft, adj. weak-minded ; mad. 
Da-ho, sb. the hedge parsley, Anthriscw sylvestris. See Hi-how. 

Dais, sb. A log used as a seat, and placed against the gable of a 
cottage at the back of the fire, that is where a ' round about ' fire was 
used. If the fire-place was against the gable there was of course no 
room for a dais. 

Daiver, v. to strike a person such a blow as almost to stun him. 
Daivered, adj. doting ; bewildered. Same as Doithered. 
Damsel, (1) sb. a damson. 

(2) sb. an iron rod with projecting pins, that shakes the shoot of 
the hopper in a corn mill. 

Dander, on the dander ; idling about ; on the spree. 
Dandher, (1) sb. a slow walk. Til just take a dandher.' 

(2) v. to saunter ; to walk about slowly. 
Dangersome, adj. dangerous. 

Dapery, sb. When oats are being put through frames the lightest 
grains fall through a sieve, and are collected by themselves, these are 
called dapery, co. Antrim. In co. Down they are called ' wake corn,' 
t. e. weak corn. 

Dare, or Dar, v. to taunt, or challenge. ' He darred me to fight him.' 
Dark, adj. blind. ' Will you give something to a poor dark woman 1 ' 

Darlin, adj. nice. ' A darlirt red-head,' means a nice head of red 
hair. 

Danndered, adj. dazed. 

Daurna, v. dare not. Sometimes Daurnae. 

Daver, s. to stun. 

Davy, sb. an affidavit. ' I'll take my davy.' 

Daw, sb. a lazy, good for nothing person. 

Dawmson plume, nb. a damson. 

Day, sb. one's lifetime. See under Your day. 



ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 29 

Day an' daily, adv. constantly ; every day. 

Dayligon, Dayly goin, 6-6. (daylight going); the dusk of the 
evening. 

Dead end. ' If you saw it you would take your dead end,' i. e. you 
would die of laughter. 

Dead knowledge, sb. deceitfulness ; cunning. 

Dead man's plunge, sb. this is made by throwing a stone, so that it 
enters the surface of water with such force that no splash is made. 

Dead men's pinches, sb. Small discoloured marks on the skin, which 
come mysteriously during the night, and which show themselves in 
the morning. They resemble the marks of finches or bruises. 

Deaf nut, sb. an empty nut. 

Dear bless you ! God bless you [?], an exclamation. 

Dear help you ! God help you [?], an exclamation. 

Dear knows. A common rejoinder, meaning ' who knows,' or ' no- 
body knows,' probably meant originally, ' God only knows.' 

Dear love you ! God love you [1], an exclamation. 

Deave, v. to deafen ; to bewilder. * You would deave one's ears.' 

Debate, sb. a defence, or fight. ' He can make a great debate for 
himself.' 

Deck of cards, sb. a pack of cards. 
Decline, sb. consumption. 
Dede auld, adj. very old. 
Deed and doubles, indeed. 

Deil (1). 'The deil couldn't do it unless he was drunk:' said of 
something very difficult. 

(2) ' The deil gang wi' ye, an' saxpence, an' ye'll nether want money 
nor company,' a saying. 

Deil bane ye, an expression of anger. 

Deil perlickit, nothing. ' What fortune did his wife bring him 1 ' 
' Oh, deil perlickit, tied up in a clout.' 

Deil's needle, sb. a dragon-fly. 

Demands, sb. commands. ' Have you any demands into town ? ' 

Demean, v. to lower, or disgrace. 'I wouldn't demean myself to 
speak to him.' 

Demin ane, sb. an odd one, i. e. singular, unusual. 
Den, (1) sb. a dark cellar in a mill building. 

(2) the place of safety in games, such as ' Hy spy.' 
Desperation, sb. a great rage. ' The master was in desperation.' 



30 ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 

Deval, Devalve, or Develve, v. to desist. 

Devarshion, sb. ridicule. ' Makin' divarshion,' turning into ridicule. 

Devil's churn staff, the sun spurge, Euphorbia lielioscopia. 

Devil's coachman, sb. an insect. Same as Coffin cutter. 

Dhirl, sb. a good-for-nothing person. 

Dhrap with hunger, v. to die of hunger. ' If I was dhrappin' with 

hunger I wouldn't ask him for a farden.' 
Dhruv, v. drove ; driven. ' I dhruv past him.' ' A've dhruv that horse 

these five year.' 
Dibble, sb. a pointed wooden implement for making holes in the 

ground for planting in. 

Dibble, or Dibble in, v. to plant by means of a dibble. 
Diddies, sb. the breasts of a woman. 
Differ, sb. the difference. 
Dig, (1) sb. a blow. ' I wish I had three digs at him.' 

(2) ' To dig with the wrong foot,' is a way of saying that the person 
referred to belongs to a religious persuasion different from that of the 
speaker. 

Dig wi' baith feet, this is said of a clever person. Compare Two 
hand boy. 

Dig with the same foot, to belong to the same religious denomination. 

Dimpsy brown, adj. ' Dimpsy brown, the colour of a mouse's waist- 
coat,' an undecided colour. 

Din, adj. dun, or brown-coloured. 
Dinge, (1) sb. a dint. 

(2) v. to dint. 

Dingle, or Dinle, v. to throb ; to vibrate ; to tingle. 
Dinlin, adj. trembling; vibrating. 
Directly, just so ; precisely. 

Dirt bird, sb. the skua. It follows flocks of sea-gulls, and chases 
these birds till they disgorge the contents of their stomachs, and the 
vomited matter the dirt bird eats. See Allan hawk. 

Discomfuffle. v. to incommode. 

Discoorse, v. to talk to. ' Come here till I discoorse you.' 

Disgist, v. to digest. 

Disremember, v. to forget. 

Distress, sb. a sickness. ' Since I had that distress in my head.' 

Ditch, sb. a fence, generally of earth. 

Divil mend ye. ' Served you right.' ' You deserved it richly.' 



ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 31 

Diwid, v. divided. ' We divvid them as well as we cud.' 

Do [doo], v. to recover from illness. 'I'm thinkin' he's not goin' 
to do.' 

Dochrai, sb. gruel. 

Dockan, sb. a dock-plant. When a boy gets stung by a nettle he 
searches for a dock leaf, and rubs it on the wounded part, repeating 
the charm, ' Dockan, Dockan, in. Nettle, nettle, out.' 

Dofe, adj. heavy ; stupid, as with a cold ; also to describe a dull 
heavy sound. 

Doff, v. to take the full bobbins off a spinning-frame in a mill. 

Doffer, sb. a girl who doffs, i. e. takes off the full bobbins from the 
spinning frames. The doffers are the youngest girls employed in flax 
spinning- mills. 

Dog, sb. the end of a rainbow. It generally precedes or accompanies 
a squall at sea. Same as Weather gall. 

Dog wilk, sb. a sea mollusc, Purpura lapillus. 
Doing off, sb. a scolding. 
Doithered, adj. doting; bewildered. 

Dolachan, sb. a large lake trout, not so large as the ' buddagh,' but 
same species (Salmo ferox). 

Doldram, adj. confused; stupid. 
Dolfer, Dolver, sb. a large marble. 

Dolly. ' He had hardly a dolly on him,' means he had scarcely any 
clothes on him. 

Done, v. did. In the same way ' seen ' is used for saw ; ' had went,' 
for had gone, &c. 

Done man, sb. a worn-out old man. 

Donse, sb. the devil. 

Donsy, Dauncey, adj. sick; sick-looking. 

Dool, sb. a kind of nail. An iron spike, sharp at both ends. 

Dooled, a cooper's term. " The head and bottom equally dooled and 
set into the cross." Belfast News-letter, 1738. 

Dooless, adj. helpless ; thriftless. 

Dorn, sb. a narrow neck of water (not fordable) between two islands, 
or between an island and the mainland (Strangford Lough). 

Dotard, adj. doting. 
Dottier, v. to totter. 
Douce, adj. neat; tidy. 
Dour, adj. sulky ; disagreeable. 



32 ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 

Dousing, sb. a beating. 'A good dousing.' 

Dowd, sb. a woman's white cap without any frilling. 

Dowdy cap, sb. Same as Dowd. 

Down in the mouth, in low spirits. 

Dowp, sb. a candle-end ; also a child's ' bundie.' 

Dowse, v. to extinguish. 

Doylt, adj. stupid. 

Dozed, adj. decayed, applied to wood. 

Drabs, sb. See Dribs. 

Draft, sb. a drawing, or picture. 

Drafts, sb. cart-traces made of chain. 

Drapisy, sb. dropsy. 

Drap it like a hot potato, i. e. drop it at once. 

Draw, (1) v. to cart. 'He's away drawin' peats.' 

(2) v. to lift or raise for the purpose of attack. ' He drew his fist, 
and hit him on the face.' ' He drew his foot and kicked her.' 

Drawky, adj. wet ; misty. ' It's a draicky day.' 
Dredge, sb. a boat used for dredging in harbours. 
Dredge box, sb. a flour dredger. 

Dreegh, adj. dreary ; tedious ; slow. ' It's a dreegh jab ' (a weari- 
some piece of business). ' A dreegh road ' (a tedious road). ' A dreeyh 
boy ' (a slow boy). 

Dreep, v. to drip slowly ; to ooze. 
Dreepin', adj. very wet ; drippiug. 

Dribs and drabs, sb. small amounts. 'He pays it in dribs and 
drabs.' 

Dring, v. to delay ; to linger. 

Dringing, adj. lingering, or dawdling on the way. 'Come on, 
Joan, an' don't be dringing behin'.' 

Drink-a-penny, the bald coot, Fulica atra. The little grebe is also 
so called. 

Drogget, sb. cloth which is a mixture of flax and wool. Of the off- 
spring of mixed marriages it is sometimes said, ' They're drogget, an' 
that's the worst of all cloth.' 

Droghey, adj. drizzly. 
Droll, sb. a tale, or story. 

Dropned, adj. When the sky is overcast and dark all round, it is 
said to have ' a drooned appearance.' 

Drop, sb. a rather small quantity. ' Give us a wee drop.' 



ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 33 

Droukit, n<lj. drenched; drowned. 'As wet as a drouJc.it rat.' 
Drouth, -s6. thirst ; a drought. 

Drown the miller, this is said to be done when too much water is 
added to the whiskey in a glass of grog. 

Drown your Shamrock. On Patrick's day (March 17th) persons are 
frequently requested to come and drown their shamrocks, this means 
to have a drink. On this day when anyone is observed in liquor, he 
is said to have been ' drowning his shamrock' 

Drudge, (1) sb. a dredge. 

(2) v. to dredge for oysters; to shake flour from a dredger. 

Drugget, sb. to speak drugget. To endeavour to graft a fine accent 
on a vulgar one. 

Drum, sb. ' I'll give you what Paddy gave the driim,' i, e. a good 
beating. 

Drumlin, sb. a mound or ridge of gravel (Co. Down, Geo. Survey}. 
Druthy, adj. thirsty. 'Talkin's druihy work.' 

Dub, sb. mud. " Their petticoots weel kill ahin, nor dub, nor 
stoure mismay them." HuDDLESTOlf. 

Ducey, adj. juicy. 

Duck, sb. a dip in the sea. ' I can take nine back ducks running,' 
i. e. in succession. 

Duck at the table, sb. a boy's game played with round stones, and a 
table-shaped block of stone. 

Duck in thunder. ' He turned up his eyes like a d nek in thunder,' 
saying expressive of astonishment. 

Duck's meat, hardened mucous in the corners of the eyes after 
sleeping. 

Duds, sb. clothes, ragged clothes. 

Due sober, sb. quite sober. 

Duggen, v. dug. ' I'll get that plot duggen: 

Duke, (1) sb. a duck. 

(2). v. to evade ; to stoop the head so as to avoid a blow. Same 
as Juke. 

Dullis, Dillisk, sb. dulce, Rhodomenia pahnata, a sea-weed, eaten or 
rather chewed, after having been dried for a few days in the sun. 

Dumb craythurs, sb. the lower animals. 

Dunch, v. to push, or butt. ' That cow will dunch you.' 

Dundher, (1) sb. a violent noisy blow. 'A dundhcr came to my 
door. ' 

(2) v. to make a dull heavy noise, stich as pounding. 



34 ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 

Dunduckity, adj. ' DunclucJcity mud colour, the colour of a mouse's 

diddy,' an undecided colour. 
Dunne, sb. a bird, the knot, Tringa camdas. 
Dunny, sb. the skate, Raia bat is. 
Dunt, tsb. a push ; a hard blow. 
Dure, s!>. a door. 
Durgan, (1) a short stout person ; a kind of pig. 

(2) &. oatmeal fried in dripping, and sometimes flavoured with 

leeks, &c., co. Down. This dish is called in co. Antrim, mealy-crushy. 

Durin' ash or oak, for ever. 

Dursent, dare not. 'They dursent do it." 

Duskiss, sb. the dusk ; the evening. 

Duty hens, sb. fowls of which a tenant has to give a certain number 
to his landlord each year. 

Dwamish, adj. feeling sick. 

Dwaum, sb. a fainting fit ; a sudden fit of sickness. 

Dwine, r. to die away ; to decline in health ; to diminish. 

Dwyble, v. to walk with a foltering gait, as if weak in the limbs. 

Dwybly, adj. shaky ; tottering. 

Dyke Sheugh, sb. a ditch or trench, alongside a fence. 

Dyor, sb. a small quantity of any liquid. A wee dyor is the same as 
' a wee sup,' 'a wee drop. 1 

Dyorrie, adj. dwarfed ; small. ' There's a dyorrie pig in every 
litter,' saying. 

Dyuggins, sb. shreds and tatters. 



Earles, sb. earnest money. Same as Airles. 

Ears, (1). When the right ear is hot, some one is speaking ill of 
you ; when the left ear is hot, some one is speaking good of you. 

(2) ' I can't hear my ears, 1 i. e. there is such a din that I can't hear 
a word. 

Earywig, sb. an earwig. 

Easin, sb. pi. the eaves of thatch. Same as Aizins. 

Edge, sb. an adze. ' Foot edge,' a foot adze. 

Ee, Een, ?b. eye ; eyes. 

Eedyet, sb. an idiot. 

Eelans, of the same ago. 'We're i-tl'tns.' 



ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 35 

Eel oil, ah. used as a cure for deafness. 

Eel skins, sb. these are used for bandages for sprains, and are sup- 
posed to possess a curative property ; they are hound round the hurt 
wet and slimy, just as they are taken off the eels. Eel-skin is also 
used for the ' hooden,' or ' mid-kipple ' of a flail. 

Ekes an' ens, sb. odds and ends ; small scraps of things turned to 
account. ' Ekes an' ens rise to something if you just put them together.' 
' Between ekes an' ens I've managed this.' 

Elder, sb. a cow's udder. 

Elk, sb. a term for the wild swan (HARRIS, Hist. co. Doicn). 

Elsin, sb. a shoemaker's awl. 

End. ' From, end to one ' = from one end to the other ; throughout. 
' I've cleaned the hedge from end to one.' ' The story's known from 
end to one through the whole place.' 

Endeavour, sb. an attempt ; one's utmost. To do one's endeavour = 
to try earnestly. ' He come in, an' they done their whole endeavour 
to get him out.' ' Make an endeavour to do it.' 

End's erran'. ' On one end's erran',' on one single purpose or errand. 

Eneugh between melts and rounds, i. e. between one thing and 
another : the allusion is to the milt and roe of herrings. 

Engrained, Ingrained, v. A very dirty-looking person is said ' to 
have the dirt engrained into his skin.' 

Enjain, Injain, sb. an ingenious thing. 'That's a great enjoin.' 

Entertainment, sb. lodging and food. ' Entertainment for man and 
beast,' a notice. 

Entry mouth, sb. the end of an entry or lane, where it opens upon a 
street. 

Ere yesterday, sb. the day before yesterday. 

Erran', sb. an errand. ' If A mak an erran' tae yer face, it 'ill no 
be tae kiss ye,' said in anger. 

Errock, sb. a young hen. 

Espibawn, sb. the ox eye, Chrysanthemum Leucanthemum. 

Etarnal, adj. infernal. ' He's an eternal villain.' Compare Shake- 
speare, ' The eternal devil.' 

Ettle, v. to intend. 

Even, v. to impute. ' Would you even the like of that to me.' 

Even ash, sb. an ash-leaf with an even number of leaflets, used in a 
kind of divination. The young girl who finds one repeats the words 

" This even ash I hold in my han', 
The first I meet is my true man." 

She then asks the first male person she meets on the road, what his 
Christian name is, and this will he the name of her future husband. 

D 2 



oG ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 

Evenlier, <ulj. more even. 

Even one's wit, r. to condescend to argue with another. ' I wouldn't 

fi-i-ii in if n-if to you.' 
Even on, or Even down, applied to heavy, continuous rain. ' Then; 

\v;is ;ili i-fi'n i//nr,, pour.' 

Every, each. ' There's a chimley on every en' o' the house.' 

Eyes, (1) When the right eye itches it is a sign of crying: whon 
the left eye itches it is a sign of laughing. 

(2) ' Your eyes are like two burnt holes in a blanket,' an expression 
of derision. 

Eye sore, --/>. a blemish ; anything that looks ill. 



Face card, sl>. a court card. 

Fadge, ( 1 ) *b. a kind of thick bread made of potatoes and flour or 
meal, baked on a griddle. 

(2) 7>. a bale of goods of an irregular shape. 
Failed, looking very ill, or in impaired health. 
Fairin', si. a present from a fair. 

Faize, Fiz, r. to show or make an impression. 'Drink never fizzes 
on that man.' 'He took all the medicine, and it never faized on him.* 

Fall, i: to fell trees. 

Falling hatchet, sb. an axe for cutting down trees. 

Fan, r. to fawn, as ' the dog fans on me.' 

Fangled, v. entangled. 'The cow has got j 'angled in her tether.' 

Fangs, *b. the roots of the teeth. 

Fans, tab. a winnowing machine. 

Far through, nearly finished ; very ill. 

Farl, sb. the fourth of the circular piece of oaten cake, which is baked 
on a griddle at one time. 

Farley, sb. a wonder ; something strange. See Spy farlies, also 
used as a term of contempt. ' Ye farley ye.' 

Farm o' Ian', sb. a farm. 

Farmer. ' By the holy farmer? an oath. 

Farness, sb. distance. ' What fnrnesg off do you live ? ' 

Farntickled, adj. freckled. 

Farntickles, sb. freckles. ' The furntickle* niver sayd a word but 
one, that they wouldn't light on a din skin,' saying. 

Fash, v. to trouble oneself. ' Don't fash your lug,' pay no heed ; 
never mind. 



AXTU1M AND DOWN GLOSSARY. .'57 

Fasten's e'en, sb. Shrove Tuesday. 

Fatigue, ab. hard wear or abuse. 'That cloth will stand fatigue.' 

Fault, v. to blame. 

Fause face, a mask. 

Favour, v. to resemble, as regards family likeness. ' That chile 
favours his father.' 

Feat, adj. neat ; tidy. 

Feather, sb. the lines and markings seen in polished wood. 

Febberwerry, February. 

Feck, sb. a quantity ; the greater quantity or majority. 

Feerd, afraid. 

Feint a hate, devil a bit ; nothing at all. 

Felt, sb. a bird, the redwing : the fieldfare is here called the ' large 
blue /eft.' 

Fend off, ?;. to prevent a boat from striking against any object. 

Fend off post, sb. a post set in the ground to protect an object from 
injury by carts, &c., coming in contact with it. 

Feth i, Heth i, faith yes. 

Feth and troth, by faith and truth. 'Feth and troth, but I won't 
let you.' 

Fettle, v. to fix; to settle; to grind the rough edges from iron 
castings. 

Fettler, sb. a man \v~hofettles castings. 

Fiery-edge, sb. the first or original edge on a knife or other cutting 
implement ; the first eagerness on commencing a new thing. ' I'll 
just eat a bit now to take the fiery-edge off my appetite.' It is some- 
times said of a new servant, * Oh wait till you see how he does, when 
the fiery-edge goes off him.' 

Fike, v. to be busy in a trifling way. 

Fillaira, sb. a plant, valerian ; also called villera. 

Fined in, v. fined. ' He was^/wed in 10s.' 

Finger-stail, sb. a finger-stall ; the finger of an old glove used as a 
protection for a sore finger. 

Fired. When black specks appear on the stem of growing flax, it 
is said to be fired (MASON, 1814). 

Firing, sb. a kind of mildew or disease to which young flax is sub- 
ject ; called by bleachers ' sprit' (DTJBOURDIET/S Antrim, 1812). 

Fissling, sb. a stealthy noise, such ns a faint rustling. 
Fisty, sb. a nick-name for a person who has only one hand. 



38 ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 

Fits. ' It jits you to a hair in the water ' = it fits you exactly : said 

of a garment.' 
Fitty forra coo, sb. a cow that has been giving milk for say fifteen 

mouths, and is not with calf. 

Flaff, (1) sb. ' Lichenin' Jla/,' a flash of lightning. 
(2) v. to nutter or flap. 

Flaghter spade, sb. a broad, pointed spade, with one edge turned up, 
used for paring sods or ' scraws ' off the surface of the ground. 

Flail, sb. A flail consists of three parts ; the han' stav', the hooden 
or mid-kipple, which is a piece of cow-skin or eel-skin; and the 
soople, or part that comes in contact with the grain. 

Flake, Flaik, sb. a hurdle, or arrangement -erf "branches, on which flax 
was formerly dried over a fire. 

Flannen, sb. flannel. 

Flatter, to wheedle ; to coax ; to persuade. ' Away and flatter him 
for the loan of his wheel-barra.' 

Flaucht, sb. a flash. 

Flayers, sb. what drops from a dog's tongue. 

Flax ripple, sb. a comb with large iron teeth through which flax is 
drawn, to remove the bolls or seeds. 

Flea. ' He would skin a flea for the hide and tallow : ' said of an 
avaricious person. 

Flee, sb. a fly. 

Fleech, v. to coax or supplicate in a fawning way. 

Fleet-line (float-line), sb. a line used in a particular kind of sea- 
fishing ; the hook floats mid- way between the surface and bottom , 
and is carried away clear off the boat, which remains at anchor by 
the current. 

Flied, Fliet, adj. frightened. 
Flinch, sb. a finch ; e. g. gold-flinch. 

Flisky, adj. skittish, specially applied to a mare which kicks when 
touched on the flank. 

Flit, v. to change house. 'Do you flit this week or next?' 

Flitting, sb. furniture, &c., when in transit from one house to another 
' A load of flitting.' 

Floffing, Flaffin', v. fluttering, as a bird when held. 

Flooster, Floosterer, sb. a flatterer. 

Flooster, v. to flatter, or coax. 

Floostered, v. flurried. 

Flowan, the bog cotton, Anthemis Cotuln. 



ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 3 ( J 

Flowans, Flouans, sb. the light clinging dust in a flax-scutching mill ; 
small fragments of the flax stem. 

Flow-bog, Flow-moss, sb. a bog through which water has flowed, or 
in which it lodges. 

Flower, sb. a bunch of flowers. 

Flug-fisted, left-handed. 

Flummery, sb. nonsense. See under Sowans. 

Flush, (1) v. to startle a shoal of herrings at night, so that the fish indi- 
cate their presence by disturbing the surface of the water. 

(2) sb. a pool ; a pool of water that extends nearly across a road. 

(3) fledged, as young birds. 

Flutterick, sb. a fish. Same as Clavin. 

Flysome, adj. frightful ; dreadful. 

Fog, sb. moss. 

Fog-cheese, sb. a soft inferior cheese, made late in the year. 

Fog-harrow, sb. a harrow to clear moss away. 

Fog-meal, sb. a full or hearty meal. A person who has eaten too 
much is said to have got a ' fog-fill,' or to be ' fog-fu.' 

Footing, sb. the melancholy howling of a dog. 

Fool, adj. foolish. E.g. ' a fool man.' 

Fooran, sb. a bird, the puffin. 

Foosted, adj. fusty ; decaying ; having a bad smell. 

Foot and a half, sb. a boy's game. 

Foot go, sb. a sloping plank, Avith stout laths nailed on to assist the 
feet, used by masons. 

Footins, sb. small heaps of cut peat. See under Clamps. 

Footther, (1) sb. a useless, foolish, or awkward person. 'You're a 
footther, and the duck's ill get you,' common saying. 

(2) v. to idle; to do anything useless. 'Don't stan' foottherhiy 
there.' 

Foottherin', adj. handless. 
Footy, adj. trifling; small; mean. 

For. ' I'm for doing it,' /. e. I'm going to do it. ' Are you for 
going ? ' i. e. do you intend to go ? 

Forbears, Forebeers, sb. ancestors. 

Forbye, (1) adv. besides. 'There was tvroforbye myself.' 

(2) ad. very; past the common. ' That's aforbye good horse.' 
Forder, (1) sb. progress; speed. See Good forder. 

(2) >\ to assist ; to help forward. 



JO ANTIUM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 

Fordersome, what forwards any work ; manageable. 
Fore. ' To the fore ' = in existence. 

Fore-end, sb. the beginning, or early part. ' He may go out in the 

fore-end of the day. ' 
Fore-milk, sb. the first milk got from a cow at each milking ; it is 

very poor and watery. 

Foreway, to get the foreway of one ; to forestall ; to anticipate one. 
Forget, sb. an omission ; a neglect. ' That was a great forget.' 
Fornenst, opposite to ; in exchange fur. 

Forra-coo, sb. a cow that has been giving milk, for say nine or ten 
months, and is not with calf. 

Forrard, Forrit, adj. fast, as a clock. ' She's twenty-minutes forrard.' 

Forth, sb. an earthen fort or rath. 

Fosey, adj. spongy, like an overgrown turnip, or decayed wood. 

Foul ground, sb. the bottom of the sea, where it is covered with 
rocks or stones, and sea- weed. 

Founded, Foundet, sb. anything. ' There was not a foundet in the 
house,' i. e. there was nothing always used with a negative. 

Founder, sb. a catarrh; a cold, or illness. ' The boy has got a, founder.' 

Foundered, adj. exhausted or lamed with wet and cold. ' The horse 
was foundered in one of his forelegs.' 

Fower- square, adj. square. 

Foxed, adj. Women's cloth boots are foxed when they have a bind- 
ing of leather on the cloth all round next the sole. 

Foxing, adj. scheming. 

Foxy, sb. a term for a red-haired person. 

Freen, sb. friend, or relative. 

Freet, sb. an omen. 

Freety, adj. having belief in charms or omens, 'We're no that 
freely about here.' 

French flies, sb. a boy's game. 

Friend, Freen, sb. a relative. ' They're far out friends of mine, but 
I niver seen them.' 

Frimsy-framsy. Same as Frincy-francy, q. v. 

Frincy-francy, sb. a game played between the dances at balls in 
farm-houses. A chair was placed in the middle of the barn or room ; 
the master of the ceremonies led to the chair a young woman, who 
sat down and named the young man whom she was willing should 
kiss her. This he did, and then took the seat which theladv vacated. 



ANTRIM A XI) DOWN GLOSSARY. 41 

He then called out the name of some favourite girl, who was led up to 
him ; there was another kiss. The girl then took the seat, and so on 
(Co. of Down). The same game is called Frimsey-framsey in parts of 
the co. of Antrim. 

Frizzens. sb. the iron mountings on single and double trees, by which 
they are attached to a plough or harrow. 

From that I went, from the time that I went. 
Frost, (1) 'By the holy frost,' an exclamation. 

(2) ' She'll sit a, frost,' i. e. she will die an old maid. 

(3) ' The frost has taken the air,' this is said when a wet day follows 
a clear frosty morning. 

Frughans, sb. whortleberries. Same as Blaeberries. 

Frush, adj. brittle, as applied to wood, &c. : said of flax when the 
1 shoughs ' separate easily from the fibre. 

Fud, sb. the tail of a hare. 

Full farmer, #b. a large, or well-to-do farmer. 

Fum turf, sb. light spongy turf. 

Fur, sb. a furrow. 

Furrow and land, the hollows and heights on the surface of a mill- 
stone. 

Fut, v. i. e. foot, to walk. ' Ye futted it \veel ' = you walked 
quickly. 

Fuzionless, adj. insipid, or innutritions, as applied to fodder, &c., of 
inferior quality. 

Fyammy, adj. applied to a sea bottom covered with a growth of 
' fyams,' i. e. tangles. 

Fyams, sb. the long sea-weeds known as tangles. 



Gab, (1) sb. the mouth : hence talk. 'Gie us none of your gab.' 

(2) ' All gal and guts like a young crow,' a comparison. 
Gabbuck, ov Gobbock, sb. the piked dog-fish. 
Gackin', v. mocking. 
Gaffer, sb. the head man over a gang of navvies. 

Gag, (1) sb. a joke ; a deception. 

(2) v. to ridicule. ' They began with gaggin' other.' 
Gailick, Gelick, sb. an earwig. 
Gaily pot, sb. a jam pot. See Gelly cup. 
Gaining, adj. winsome ; lovesome. 



42 ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 

Gaits, s1>. sheaves of corn set up singly on end. They are tied higher 
up than usual, so as to allow the base to spread. 

Gallon, sb. the butter burr, Petasites vulyaris. 

Gallowses, sb. suspenders. 

Galore, Galyore, sb. abundance. 

Game. A dog is said to be game if it does not howl when held up 

by the tail or ear. 

Game leg, sb. a lame leg; a leg shorter than i's fellow. 
Gammel, sb. the back of the knee of a horse's hind leg. 
Ganch, sb. an awkward, silly fellow. ' A sore ganch of a craithur.' 
Gang ower (going over), ,96. a scolding. 

' Gang up the hous,' go on to the best room or parlour, i. e. when 
the parlour is up a step from the passage or outer room. In some 
farmhouses, where the parlour is down a step, the expression used is 
' Gang doon the hous' an' mine the step.' 

Gangway, sb. a frequented thoroughfare. ' Oh, we live right in the 
gangway.' 

Gant, Gaunt, sb. a yawn. 
Gant, Gaunt, v. to yawn. 

Gapeseed, sb. what one can see or spy out ; what catches the eye. 
' They came in here just for gapeseed, for they had no erran'.' 

Gar, v. to make or cause. 
Garron, sb. an old horse. 

Gash, sb. a rent or gap. ' That cow has made a sore gasU in your 
hedge.' 

Gaskin, sb. any material, such as flax or india-rubber, used to pack 
the joints of steam or water-pipes. 

Gather, v. to suppurate. 
Gathering, sb. a suppuration. 
Gatherup, sb. a wandering rag-man. 
Gavel, sb. a gable. 

Gaw, sb. a trap-dyke. Also called a March. HAMILTON'S Antrim, 
1784. 

Gawk, sb. an awkward person. 

Gazebo, sb. a stand at a racecourse ; a tall building from which a 
look-out can be had ; a staring looking building. 

Gazened, sb. "When the seams of a boat, a barrel, or any wooden 
article are opened and gaping in consequence of heat or drought it is 
said to be gazened. 

Gelly cup, sb. a small jam pot or cup. 



ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 43 

Gentle, <i<lj. haunted by fairies. The large hawthorns growing singly 
are deemed sacred to fairies, and are hence called gentle thorns. 
McSxiMix's Carrickferyits, 1823. 

Gentry, sb. the fairies. 

Gentry bushes, ' fairy thorns,' &c. They are sacred to the ' good 
people,' and are therefore let alone. 

Get, (1) sb. an opprobrious term used in scolding matches. 

(2) v. to be called. ' He gets the name of Toal,' i. e. he is commonly 
called Toal. ' His name is Mulgrew, but he gets Timony.' 

Get out of the sheugh,' get out of the way. 

Get yer heed in yer han', v. to get a great scolding. 

Get your lines, v. to be dismissed from employment. Same as Get 
the sack and Get the bag. 

Ghost, v. to haunt a person or place for the purpose of importuning 
for money or anything else. 

Ghoster, sb. one who follows another person or hangs about for the 
purpose of asking for something. 

Giants' Graves, sb. cromlechs and kistvaens. 
Gib, sb. a hook on the end of a peculiar pattern of yard-stick. 
Gif, if. ' I certainly will fight gif your honour bids me.' 
Giff-gaff, mutual giving and taking. ' Giff-gaff mak's guid freens.' 

Gig-ma-gog's Grave, sb. a kistvaen between Coleraine and Bush- 
mills, Co. of Antrim. 

Gilderoy. ' I wouldn't give it to you if you were as big as Gildei-oy,' 
a defiance. G. was a celebrated outlaw. 

Gillaroo trout, sb. a large lake trout, commonly said tc have a 
gizzard like that of a fowl. 

Gillets, sb. narrow channels among rocks. 

Gilpins, sb. the fry of the coal-fish, Merlangus Carbonarius. 

Ginkin, sb. a fish. Harris (1744) says it is "a delicate small fish, 
spotted and shaped something like a trout. It is called here a ginkin, 
in the rivers of the 0. Galway a streamer, in some parts a graveling, 
and in the C. Kilkenny a gilloge." 

Ginling, v. catching fish under stones with the hands. 

Girn, (1) sb. a noose. The noose which is made with a halter and put 
in a horse's mouth is called a girn. ' Pit a girn in his mooth.' 

(2) v. to snare trout, &c., with a noose. 

(3) v. to cry. ' Stop that girning.' 



44 ANNUM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 

' Girny go gabby the cat's cousin,' said to a child that cries fre- 
quently without much cause. 

Grlaikit, adj. thoughtless ; giddy. 

Glaiks, sb. a lever attached to a churn-staff, by use of which the 

churning is less laborious. 

Glam, sb. a sudden snatch. ' I made a glam at it.' 
Glar, Glaur, #b. slimy mud. 

Glashan. sb. the coal fish, Merlangus carbonarius. Called also 
Blockan and Grey Lord. 

Gled, sb. a kite (bird). 

Gleed o' sense, sb. a spark or grain of sense. 

Glimin', v. looking out of the corner of one's eye. 

Glipe, sb. an uncouth fellow. 

Glower, v. to stare or look. 

Go, or Gang, of water. A go of water is two pails, i. e. as much 
as a person can carry at one time from the well. 

Goak, Gouk, sb. a cuckoo. 

' The bat, the bee, the butterflee, the cuckoo, and the gowk, 
The heather bleat, the mire snipe, hoo many birds is that ? ' 

Answer Twa. Another form : 

' The cuckoo and the gouk, 
The lavrock and the lark, 
The heather bleat, the mire snipe, 
How many birds is that ? ' Three. 

Goat. ' It would blow the horns off a goat : ' said of a great storm. 

God speed. ' The back of God speed,' any very solitary and unfre- 
quented place. 

God's truth, the truth. 

Going on a stick, v. walking by the help of a stick. 

Gold Head, sb. the pochard or red-headed Avidgeon. HARRIS, Co. 
Down, 1744. 

Goldspring, Gooldspring, sb. a goldfinch. 

Golly, sb. a ball or block of wood used in the game of ' shinney. ' 
Called also a Nag. 

Gomeril, sb. a fool. 

Gomus, sb. a stupid person or blockhead. 

Good. ' He's no good,' i. e. he is of no use or of no account. 

Good forder, sb. a salutation to a ploughman or labourer, meaning 
' May you get on well.' 



ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 4-J 

Good lock, sb. a large quantity. ' Ah, that's nuthin' ; gi'e us a good 
loci-: 

Gooldspring, sb. the goldfinch. 
Goose seam, sb. goose grease. 

Goppen, Goapen, sb. the full of hoth hands. ' She gave the poor 
body a goppen o' meal.' 

Gorb, ,s>/>. a greedy person. In Belfast the boys of any one school 
called the boys of another yorbs. 

Gorb-eel. Same as Culloch, q. v. 

Gorgy-mill-tree, sb. a willow. 

Gorsoon, ,*b. a young lad. 

Gospel greedy, fond of going to church. 

Goving about, or Goving round, v. staring about in a stupid way. 

Gowk storm. On the X.E. coast of Co. Antrim, " the peasantry 
look forward with the greatest interest every spring for what they call 
the gowk (cuckoo) storm, that takes place about the end of April or 
the beginning of May, when the note of this bird is heard. This 
storm, which is from the east, casts on the beach vast quantities of 
sea-wrack, which is used as manure for their potatoes." THOMPSON'S 
Nat. Hist, of Ireland. 

Gowl, v. to howl ; to cry in a howling way. 

Gowler, zl>. a dog, /. e. a howler. 

Gowpin, sb. the painful beating or throbbing in a suppurating finger. 

Gra, liking for ; affection. ' I had no c/ra for it.' 

Graden, sb. a coarse kind of oat-meal. Obsolete. 

Graith, sb. horse harness. 

Granny, sb. The granny is a small sheaf composed of the last 
remaining growing stalks of corn on a farm at harvest. The stalks 
are plaited together, and are cut down by the reapers throwing their 
reaping-hooks at it from a little distance. It is then carried home in 
triumph, and the person who has ctit it down puts it round the neck 
of the oldest woman of the farmer's family. It is sometimes hung 
up against the ' chimney brace,' where it remains till next harvest, 
when it gives place to the new granny. Also called the Churn and 
the Hare. 

Granny gills, sb. head vermin. 

Granny's needle, *b. a hairy caterpillar ; a dragon-fly. Same as 
Deil's needle. 

Graul, sb. a sea-fish resembling a young salmon. HARRIS (1744). 
A half-grown fellow. 



46 ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 

Graving bowl, sb. a gratuity paid to ship carpenters when they have 
completed the repair of a vessel, on bringing her out of the graving 
dock. 

Great, adj. intimate ; confidential. ' As great as inkle weavers," 

saying. 

Greatly failed, adj. much impaired in health. 

Great shakes, adj. much consequence. 'He's no great shakes' 
he's not of much consequence. 

Greeshaw, Grushaw, sb. glowing ashes ; embers. 

Greet, v. to weep. 

Gregagh, sb. a fish, the ballan wrasse. Same as Bavin, q. r. 

Grew, (1) sb. a greyhound. 

(2) sb. a tremor. 

(3) v. to shudder. ' The chile greived at its medicine.' 
Grewsome, adj. frightful ; anything that makes one shudder. 
Grey, sb. the grey linnet. 

Grin (corruption of grain), a small quantity. ' Gi'e us a wee grin o' 
sthroe.' ' A'll no gi'e ye a taste.' 

Gripe, sb. a ditch. 

Grogan, sb. a kind of fairy about two feet high and very strong. He 
helps the farmers hi harvesting, threshing, &c., but takes offence if 
any recompense be offered him. 

Groof, sb. the front of the body. ' We found him lyin" on his groof' 
Group, sb. a drain in a cow-house behind the cows. 

Grubs, sb. juvenile thieves of the street Arab kind, who run away 
with the tops or marbles of school-boys. 

Grummel, sb. a backing of clay put round the outside of the brick 
lining of a well. 

Grummles, sb. grounds ; sediment. 
Grumpy, adj. disagreeable in manner. 
Grunt, sb. a fish, the perch. 
Grup, (1) sb. a grasp. 

(2) v. to grasp or grip. ' Eels is gy an' ill to yrup.' 

(3) v. to catch ; to overtake. ' She's gruppin' on us : ' said of one 
boat gaining on another. 

Gudge, sb. a short, thick, fat person. ' He's just a gudye of a man.', 

Guldher, (1) sb. a loud, sudden shout, caused by anger or surprise. 
' I gave a yuldher at him, and he ran away.' 
(2) r. to shout loudly. 



ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 47 

Gullet hole, 6-6. a deep hole in a sand or mud bank dangerous to 

bathers. 
Gulley, sb. a butcher's knife ; and, in derision, a butcher's boy. 

Gullion hole, sb. a muddy hole ; a cesspool. 

Gullions, sb. mud. Same as Gutters. 

Gumph, sb. a stupid person. 

Gumption, adj. quickness of understanding ; common-sense ; tact. 

Gun. ' It's like the man's gun, that wanted a new lock, stock, and 
barrel, some repairs, and a ram-rod : ' said of anything that is quite 
worn out. 

Gunked, adj. taken aback; disappointed. 'Greatly gunhed,' 'sorely 
(funked, 1 or ' quarely gunked, are common ways in which this word is 
used. Same as Be-gunked. 

Gunner, sb. a workman who repairs fire-arms ; a gun-smith. 

Gurly, adj. surly ; cross. 

Gut, s'b. a narrow navigable channel among sand-banks or rocks. 

Gutters, .v&. mud. ' The gutthcrs was dhreepin' aff him,' i. e. off a 
horse. 

Guzzle, v. to take by the throat ; to choke a person. 

Gy, or Gai, adv. very. ' It's gy an' hot the day.' 

Gyly, adi\ very well ; in good health. ' How are you?' ' Cfyty.' 

Hackit hands, sb. pi. hands chapped from exposure to cold. 
Hackle berry, sit. a growth on a horse's leg. Same as Angle-berry. 
Haddin, sb. a holding or ' tak ' (take) of land. 

Hadclin. sb. the wall in a cottage which faces the door, and in Avhich 
is the triangular or other shaped ' spy-hole.' Same as Hollan. 

Haen, v. had. ' I should ha' haen them things home in the cart.' 
Haffets. sb. locks of hair growing at the temples. 

Haft, v. to plug the teats of milch cows when they are brought to 
market, so that the udder becomes very full of milk, or to leave them 
unmilked for the same purpose. 

Hag, v. to cut or chop ; to disfigure or spoil by cutting. ' I hogged 
a wheen o' sticks.' 

Haggle, v. to wrangle over a bargain. 
Hag-yard, sb. a stack-yard. 

HaiL, sb. shot. ' Sparrow hail ' = fine shot. ' The whole charge of 
hail wont into his back.' 



48 ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 

Hain, v. to save ; to economise. Also to save or spare oneself. ' Yo 

hained yersel' the day.' 

Hair. ' No a hair feared,' not a bit afraid. 
Halt, anything. ' Deil a hait ' = nothing at all. 
Haiverel, (1) sb. a fellow half a fool. 

(2) adj. giddy ; foolish. 
Half away, adj. mad. 
Half natural, sb. a fool. 

Half one, Hef yin, sb. a half-glass of whiskey. 
Half-piece crock, sb. the ordinary deep-shaped dairy crock. 
Hallion, x?>. a coarse, idle, worthless felloAV. 
Hames, Hems, sb. the iron or wooden parts of a cart-horse's collar. 

Hammer, block, and Bible, a boys' game. Each of the three 
objects is represented by a boy. 

Han'. ' It's doon the hill, an' wi' the han' : ' said of a thing that is 
easily done. See Wi' the han'. 

Hanch, sb. a voracious snap. ' The dog made a hand) at me.' 
Hand, (1) sb. a ham made from the fore-leg of a pig. 

(2) sb. something spoiled, or broken, or dirtied; much the same 
as Sore hand, q. v. ' If you let the chile get the book he'll make a 
hand of it.' 

(3) To ' take a hand at ' a person is to make fun of him or mislead 
him. ' There, don't mind him ; he's only takin' a ban' at you.' 

Hand idle, a/7/, idle. ' They're band idle for want o' their tools.' 

Handketcher, sb. a handkerchief. 

Handle yer feet, make good use of j T our legs. 

Hand ma doon, a term for any article of clothing purchased second- 
hand or ready-made, from the fact of its being handed down by the 
stall-keeper for the inspection of the intending purchaser. The term 
is sometimes used in ridicule for any odd-looking garment. ' Whar 
did ye get that auld hand ma, doon of a coat ? ' Compare D:'croclte moi 
ca, the slang French term for an old clothes shop. 

Hand over head, one with another, an expression used in selling, 
and meaning the putting an average value on a number of things 
that differ in value. ' Now how much a piece will you say for them, 
if I take the whole lot hand over head.' 

Hands. When the left palm itches you are going to receive some 
money, when the right itches you are going to pay money. 

Handsaw. ' Your voice is like the sharpening of a 
very harsh and disagi-eeable. 



ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 49 

Hand's turn, sb. any work. ' lie hasn't done a hand's turn these 
six mouths.' 

Hand write, sb. hand- writing. ' Whose hand write is that ? ' 

Hang, v. to hang a scythe is to attach it to its ' sned ' (handle) for 
use. 

Hanging, v. standing. ' Hangin' on my feet all day.' 

Hanging gale. On some estates it is customary to allow one gale of 
rent to lie always in arrear. This is called the hanging gale. 

Hank, sb. a measure of linen yarn. See under Spangle and Lea. 
Han'le, v. to hurry ; to exert oneself. 

Hansel, (1) sb. an early meal given to farm-labourers before they 
commenced work. 

2) v. The first purchase made from a dealer hansels him, . <. 
brings luck. 

Hansel Monday, the first Monday of the year. 
Han' stav, sb. the handle of a flail. See Flail. 
Hap, (1) sb. a covering, as a cloak or a blanket. 

(2) v. to cover; to wrap up in muffling or bed-clothes. 
Hap aff, a call to a horse to turn to the off, or right, side. 
Hape of dacency, much politeness or good manners. 

" Boys, A had a hape o' dacency, 
When A first come among ye." 

Hard, (1 ) adj. close-fisted ; penurious. 

(2) adj. quickly; fast. ' Now run hard ! ' 

(3) adj. strong : as applied to strong drink, whisky, &c. 
Hard bowed, adj. said of flax when the seed has formed. 

Hardies, sb. broken stones used as road metal. ' Nappin' hardies,' 
breaking stones. 

Hardy, adj. frosty. ' It's a hardy mornin'.' 

Hare, The, sb. the last handful of growing corn at harvest. Same as 
The Granny, q. v. 

Hare scart, sb. a hare lip. 
Harey, adj. cunning ; knowing (like a hare ?). 
Harl, adj. a rough, coarse, field labourer. 
Harn, v. to harden bread on a griddle. 
Harnishin, sb. harness. 

Harp, sb. an Irish shilling (temp. Eliz. and Jas. I.) equal only to 
Qd. sterling money (HlLL's Plantation in Ulster). 



50 ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 

Harrow goose, *//. a ' large ' bird mentioned by Harris, Hist. Co. 

Down (1744). 

Hash, sb. a lazy, untidy person. 
Hasky, (1) adj. husky; hoarse. 

(2) adj. harsh : applied to flax, fibre, &c. 
Haste. ' The more haste the worse speed, as the tailor said to the 

long thread,' saying. 
Hatterel, (1) ' He's all in a hatterel, 1 i. e. his body is all over sores. 

(2) a great many ; a flock. ' A hatterel o' weans.' 
Haud, v. to hold. 
Hand awa', go away. 
Haughle, v. to walk badly ; to hobble. 

Have no mind, to forget. ' I had no mind of it ' I forgot it. 
' Have you mind of that, Sam ? ' 

Hawthery, Huthery, adj. untidy ; tossed. 

Hay -bird, sb. the willow wren, so called from its using hay largely in 
building its nest. 

Hazelly, adj. ' Light hazelly land,' i. e. light, poor soil. 

Hazerded, adj. half dried, as linen, &c., spread on grass. 'Them 
clothes are not dry at all ; they're only hazerded.' 

Head, (1) sb. used for mouth. ' !Xot a word out of your head.' 'Every 
tooth in my head was aching.' ' The doctor said he was never to have 
the milk away from his head.' This of a person who required con- 
stant nourishment. 

(2) ' He was like to ate the head off me,' L e. he was very angry 
with me. 

(3) ' Hould up your head, there's money bid for you : ' said as 
encouragement to a bashful person. 

(4) ' Over the head of,' on account of. ' I got dismissed over the 
head of a letter the master got.' 

(5) ' To stand over the head of,' to warrant the quality or quantity 
of anything. 

Head beetler, the foreman beetler in a beetling mill, and hence any 
foreman or head man over workpeople. 

Head fall. " An infant at its birth is generally forced by the mid- 
wife to swallow spirits, and is immediately afterwards suspended by 
the upper jaw with her fore-finger ; this last operation is performed 
for the purpose of preventing a disease called head-fall. Many 
children die when one or two days old of the trismus nascentium, or 
'jaw-fall,' a spasmodic disease peculiar to tropical climates; here, 
however, it is probably a dislocation caused by the above-mentioned 
barbarous practice." MASOX'S Parochial Survey, Parish of Culdaff, 
Co. of Donegal, 1816. 



ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 51 

Heaghmost, adj. highest. 

Hear tell, v. to hear. ' Did ever ye hear tell o' the like ? ' 

Heart. ' I could find in my heart to,' &c., i. e. I have the heart to, 
&c. ' I couldn't find in my heart to leave her.' 

Heart fever. 'Measuring for the heart fever, 1 a country charm. A 
tape is passed round the chest. 

Heart lazy, adj. very lazy. 
Heart's disease, sb. heart disease. 

Heart sick, adj. wearied ; disgusted. ' I'm heart sick of your goin's 
on.' 

Heartsome, adj. cheerful ; lively. 
Heartsomeness, sb. cheerfulness. 

Hear your ears, to hear yourself speak. ' There was sich a tar'ble 
noise A couldn't hear ma ears.' 

Heather bleat, sb. the common snipe. 

Heatherling, sb. the twite or mountain linnet. Called also Heather 
Grey. 

Heavy. ' He's very heavy on the strawberries,' i. e. he eats a great 
many. A heavy drinker. 

Heavy-footed, adj. pregnant. 

Heavy handful, sb. a weighty charge. ' She has a heavy handful :' 
said of a widow who is left with a large family. 

Hech, faith. ' Hech man, but ye're dreigh o' drawin',' i. e. faith 
man, but you have been slow in coming to call. Same as Heth. 

Heddle, sb. part of a loom. 

Heeler, sb. a sharp, prying, managing woman. 

Heel in, v. to plant young trees in a temporary way, to keep them 
safe till it is convenient to plant them permanently. They are placed 
in a slanting position. 

Heel of a loaf, the last bit of a loaf. 

Heel of the hand, the part of the hand nearest the wrist. 

Heels foremost, dead. ' Never ! till A'm taken heels foremost .' 

Heir, v. To heir a person is to inherit his property. 

Heir skip, sb. inheritance. ' He got it by heir skip.' 

Hen. ' Like a lien on a hot griddle,' a comparison for a very restless 
person. 

Hen fish, sb. the poor or power cod, Morrhua minuta. 
Hern cran, Hern crane, sb. the heron. 

Herring hog, nb. the bottle-nosed whale. 

E 2 



.?' ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 

Het, v. heated. ' He over Jiet liimselV 

Heth, faith. ' Heth no.' ' Heth aye.' ' Heth an' soul, Lut you won't.' 
Same as Feth. 

Heugh, sb. a rocky height. ' The Gobbin HeuyhsJ precipitous rocks 
on the coast at the east of the Co. of Antrim. 

Higglety-pigglety, in confusion. 

Hi-how, sb. the hedge parsley, Antliriscus sylvestris. Of the parts of 
the stem between the joints children make ' pluffers ' to ' pluff ' haw- 
stones through. Children also make ' scouts,' i. e. squirts, of the stem 
of this plant. An instrument for producing a noise is also made. 
Could this sound have originated the curious name ? A correspondent 
says: "When we were wee fellows we used to make horns of the 
hi-hoiv." Called also Da-bo. Compare the Sco. hech-how. 

Hinch, (1) sb. the thigh. 'The corn was. that short a Jinny Wran 
might ha' sat on her hinches, an' picked the top pickle off.' 

(2) v. to throw stones by bringing the hand across the thigh. 
Hingin' lock, sb. a padlock. 

Hingit, adj. drooping : applied to flowers or plants. 
Hintin, Hint, sl>. the furrow in a ploughed field between the ridges.- 
Hippo, sb. ipecacuanha. 

Hip-roofed house, a house the roof of which has no gables. 
Hirple, v. to walk lame. 
Hisself, himself. 
Hitch, v. to run. 

Hives, sb. red, itchy, raised spots on the skin. 
Hize, Hoise, v. to hoist. 
Hoag, Hogo, sb. a strong smell. 
Hock, Hawk, Hough, v. to throw stones under the thigh. 

Hoges. * The hoges,' a boys' game played with ' peeries ' (peg-tops). 
The victor is entitled to give a certain number of blows with the 
spike of his peerie to the wood part of his opponent's. 

Hoggat, Hoggart, sb. a dry measure consisting of ten bushels. (I 
believe obsolete.) 

Hoke, v. to hollow-out anything, such as a toy boat. A dog hokes 
out the earth from a rabbit hole. 

Hokey Oh ! an exclamation. 

Hole and taw, a game of marbles. 

Holed, v. worn into holes, or suddenly pierced. 

Hollan, sb. a wall in a cottage. Same as Haddin. See under Spy- 
hole. 



ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 53 

Holland hawk, sb. This name is applied to two birds the great 
northern diver and the red-throated diver. Same as Allan hawk. 

Holy show, sb. a ridiculous or ahsurd exhibition of oneself. ' He 
made a holy show of himself.' 

Honey, a term of endearment. 

Hooden, sb. the hinge or joint of a flail. Called also the Mid- 
kipple. 

Hooden sheaves, Hudden shaves, sb. the sheaves which are placed 
on the top of a ' stook ' of corn to turn off the rain. Also called 
Head sheaves. 

Hook, Hyeuk, sb. a reaping-hook. 
Horn, (1) v. to gore. 

(2) ' To have got the horn in him,' to be slightly tipsy. 

(3) v. to saw the horns off cattle. 

Horned, adj.- Applied to cattle which have had their horns sawed 
off. Same as Skulled or Polled, 

Horn-eel, sb. the garfish, Belone vulgans. Called Mackerel scout 
at Strangford Lough, and Spearling at Portrush. 

Horney, sb. a constable. 

Horn ouzel, sb. a bird mentioned by Harris (1744) as found in the 
Co. of Down. 

Horse elf stone, sb. a petrified sea urchin. 

Horse pipes, sb. the great horse-tail, Equisetum maximum. 

Host, sb. a large number. ' I've a whole host of things to do/ 

Hot. ' You were hot in the house : ' said to persons who come out 
in wet or inclement days without apparent reason. 

Hough, (1) ' It's the last hough in the pot,' i. e. the last of anything, 
particularly anything to eat. 

(2) v. to hamstring. 

Houghel, sb. a person who walks hi an awkward, loose, clumsy way. 
' He's a sore houghel of a craithur.' 

Houldin', sb. something held, such as a farm. 

Hoults, holds. ' When I first seen them they were in hoults? i. <>. 
they were grappling with each other. 

Houl' yer han', stop work for a moment. 

Houl' yer loof, i. e. hold out your hand: an expression used in 
bargaining at markets. 

Houl' yer tongue, be silent. 
Houl' yer whisht, be silent. 
Hoved up. swollen; inflated. 



54 ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 

Hovel, si. the stand on which a corn rick is built. 

Hovel-cap, sb. the broad stone, or piece of iron, laid on the top of 
each pillar of a ' hovel' to prevent rats, &c., from climbing up to the 
grain. 

How-an'-divir, however. 

' How are you comin' on ? ' how do you do 1 

How do you come on ? how do you do 1 

How do you get your health? a common salutation, meaning how 
do you do ? 

Howziver, however. 

Hulge, any large unshapely mass. ' A Imlfje of a horse,' a loose- 
limbed horse. Same as ' a wallop of a horse.' 

Hum, sb. a morsel of food masticated by a nurse, and then put into 
an infant's mouth. 

Hummin', v. feeding a child with 'hums.' 

Humplock, sb. a shapeless heap : applied to a badly-built hayrick. 

Hungry. ' A hungry eye sees far,' saying. 

Hungry grass, sb. some plant. When a person treads on it in the 
fields he is seized with an intolerable hunger and weakness. A crop 
of hungry grass is said to spring up if persons who have dined in the 
fields do not throw some of the fragments away for the fairies. 

Hungry heart, sb. an empty, craving stomach. 

Hungry land, poor, sandy soil. 

Hunker, v. to crouch on the ground with the heels under the hams. 

Hunkers. ' To sit on one's hunkers, 1 is the same as ' to hunker.' 

Hunt ago wk, sb. a person sent on a fool's errand. 

Hunter, sb. A cat that is a good mouser is a hunter. ' Her mother 
was a right hunter : ' said of a kitten. 

Hup, a call to a horse to go on; a call to a horse to go to the 
right or off side. 

Hup ! hup ! a car-driver's cry to get out of the way. 

Hurlbassey, sb. a star which when it is seen near the moon foretells 
stormy weather. HcSKiMLx's Hist. Carrickfergits. 

Hurly, (1) sb. a game ; hockey. Same as Shinney or Common. 

(2) sb. a long, low cart with two wheels. 
Hurly burly, *b. a boys' game. In it the following rhyme is used : 

' Hurly-burly, trumpy trace ; 
The cow stands in the market-place ; 
Some goes far, and some goes near, 
Where shall this poor sinner steer ? ' 



ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 55 

Hurries, The, sb. a term for the Irish Rebellion of 1798. Called 
also the Turn-out, 

Hurrish, Thurry, a call to pigs. 
Hurry, (1) sb. a row or fight ; a quarrel. 

(2) ' Take your hurry? or ' Take yer Imrry in yer han',' take 
your time. 

Hurstle, Hurstling, the sound of rough breathing caused by mucus 
in the air passages. 

Hush, to drive a flock of fowl, saying at the same time, ' Hush, 
Sometimes Whush, or Wheeshoo. 

Hut, tut ! an exclamation of impatience. 
Hy spy, sb. a boys' game. 



I, adv. yes. 

I-dent, adj. diligent ; hard-working ; attentive. 

Idleset, sb. off work ; idle time. ' The horse was kept idleset. ' 
' There wasn't much idleset since you went away.' 

If I know, I don't know. ' Deed if I knoiv when he's commin'.' 

Ignorant, adj. wanting in manners. 

Il-convainient, Onconvainient, adj. inconvenient. 

Ill, adj. difficult. ' That stuff's ill to grind.' 

Ill done, wrong. ' It was very ill done of you to go there.' 

Illfaured, adj. ill-favoured; ugly. 

Ill-like, adj. ugly. 

Ill put on, badly or carelessly dressed : said of a person. 

Ill to learn, difficult to teach. ' I wasn't ill to learn when I was 
young.' 

Ill willie, 111 wullie, adj. disobliging ; not willing to share any- 
thing with neighbours. 

Immaydiantly, adv. immediately. 
Impedent, adj. impudent. 

Impediment, sb. 'There was a man there who had an impediment; 
he had lost more than the half of his hand.' 

I'm sure ! indeed ! really ! 

Income, sb. a running sore: ' What makes you lame 1 ' 'A tuk' it 

first wi' an income in ma knee.' 
In coorse, of course. 
In Ieed-an'- doubles, a strong way of saying indeed. 



5fi ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 

India buck, sb. meal or porridge made from Indian corn (maize). 
Indue, adv. due. ' He was indue me a year's wages.' 
Industrious, sb. an industrious person. ' He was a good industrious. 
Infair. sb. the bringing home of a bride. 
Innocent, sb. a simpleton. 

Inns, sb. inn. ' I put up at the head inns.' l He went to the horse 
show, and stayed at the inns.' 

Innundher, adv. underneath. Same as Annundher. 

In or over, near about any fixed date or any exact quantity. 

Ins and outs. ' The ins and outs ' of anything, i. e. all that can l>e 
known about a thing. 

Insense, v. to explain. ' Come here, and I'll insense you into it.' 

Inshave, sb. a cooper's tool, like a drawing knife, but curved. 

In the inside of an hour, within an hour. 

Intill, prep. into. 

It's lone, alone. ' Can the chile go ifs 'lone ? ' 

It took me all *my time, i. e. I found ifc very difficult to do ; it 
kept me very busy to do it. 

Ivory, sb. ivy. 

J. This letter is sometimes called jaw. 
Jabble, sb. a sea with small broken waves. 
Jack in the box, *&. the wild arum. 
Jacks, (1) sb. parts of a loom. 

(2) sb. a children's game played with five white pebbles, called 
' Jack stones.' 

Jag, (1) sb. a prick. 

(2) v. to prick. ' A wee bit o* spruce fir jagged me in the sight o 
the eye.' 

Jap, Jaup, v. to splash water. 

Japs, sb. splashes or sparks of water or mud. 

Jaw, (1) v. to talk in an offensive way ; to give saucy answers. 

(2) sb. saucy talk. Same as Back talk. 
Jaw tub, Jaw box, sb. a scullery sink. 

Jay, si. the missel thrush is called the jay here. The jay does not 
occur. 



ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. J? 

Jeesey, adj. juicy. 
Jennerwerry, January. 
Jig, (1) v. to dandle a baby. 

(2) v. To jig for herrings is to catch herrings by means of an 

. apparatus composed of a number of wires with fish-hooks attached. 

The jig is lowered into the sea where the fish are numerous, and is 

jigged up and down. Any herrings that come in contact with the 

hooks are caught and pulled into the boat. 

Jigger, sb. a sail that projects over the stern of a boat, set on a short 
mast called the 'jigger mast.' 

Jing-bang, sb. a number of people. ' I don't care a pin about the 
whole jing-bang of them.' 

Jingle, f<b. gravel. 

Jinnys. ' A pair ofjinnys,' a pair of callipers. 

Jirging, sb. creaking, as shoes. 

Job of work, anything to do. ' I hav'n't had a job of work this 
month.' 

Jog, sb. a push or nudge. 

Joggle, v. to rock ; to be unsteady. 

Joggles, sb. the projecting pieces of wood left at the ends of a 
wooden cistern, or at the end of a window-sash. 

Johnny Nod. ' Johnny Nod is creeping up your back : ' said to 
children who are very sleepy, but who don't wish to go to bed. 

Joiant, sb. a giant. 
Joice, sb. a joist. 

Join, (1) sb. a number of farmers, generally from eight to twelve, who 
join together for the purpose of making cheese. " Each/oji has vats, 
tubs, pans, and the like implements, which are kept Tip at the expence 
of the whole." flist. Carrickfergus, 1823. Also a number of persons 
who join together for the purpose of purchasing drink for a carouse. 

(2) v. to commence work. 

Jotther, sb. a small quantity or dash of a liquid, i. e. ' a jottlier o' 
whisky.' 

Joult, Jolt, sb. a lump. ' A joult of meat.' 

Juke, v. to stoop the head suddenly, so as to avoid a blow ; to turn 
off quickly when running away ; to hide round a corner. Same as 
Duke. 

Jukery, sb. roguery. 

Juke the beetle, sb. a lump in stirabout, or in ' champ." 

Jump, v. to make a hole in stone for blasting purposes with a Juniper 
(q. v.). The steel bar is jumped up and down, or is struck with a 
hammer, till the hole has been sunk the required depth. 



58 ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 

Jumper, (1) sb. a kind of maggot in meat. 

(2) sb. a bar of steel or iron used at a quarry for boring a hole 
in the rock to receive a charge of powder for blasting. 

Jump jack, si. the breast-bone of a goose made into a child's toy, 
with cobbler's wax, a string, and a stick. 

Jundy, (1) sb. a push. 

(2) v. to jostle ; to gush. 

Jurr, sb. a cart-load of flax offered for sale, which it is suspected is 
not the genuine production of the farmer, but has been manipulated 
by some unscrupulous dealer, is called ajurr, or ajurred load. 

Jute of tea, sb. a small quantity of tea. 



Kail runt, sb. a cabbage stalk. 

Kailyee, sb. a friendly evening visit. 

Kaimin' kaim, sb. an ivory or ' fine-tooth ' comb. 

Kaivel, Kevel, v. to toss the head, as a horse does. Also applied to 
the same kind of gesture in a person. ' Watch the way yon girl 
kaivels her heed.' 

Kam, sb. a small iron pan used for holding the melted grease from 
which rushlights were made. A mould for casting several small 
bullets at once, or for casting small articles in. 

Kash, sb. a bog road, or causeway of uncut turf. 
Keckle, sb. a smothered laugh. 

Keddis, sb. a small quantity of silk, or woollen material, or flax, 
stuffed into an ink-bottle, and then saturated with ink. The pen is 
supplied by coming in contact with the keddis, and if the bottle is 
overset the ink does not spill. 

Keed, sb. cud. ' Chow the IteedJ 

Keek, v. to peep. 

Keel, sb. ruddle, a red earthy substance. 

Keel men, sb. the term for a class of illiterate buyers, who used to 
attend the country linen markets. When one of them purchased a 
web of brown hand-loom linen, he marked with a piece of 'keel,' on 
the outside lap, some obscure characters, which were to the keel man 
a record of the cost price, &c. 

Keen, (1) adj. anxious ; eager. ' She's keen to be married.' 

(2) sb. a cry of lamentation over a corpse. 

(3) v. to wail or cry over a corpse. ' When I heard the ban-shee 
it was just like an old woman keenying.' 

Keenk, v. to cough ; to laugh in a convulsive way. 



ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 59 

Keep company, v. to be lovers. 

Keeshion, sf>. the hedge parsley. 

Keeve, sb. a large tub used in bleach works, &c. 

Kell, sb. the debris of the skin. 

Kelp, sb. the ash of burnt seaweed, of value for the alkali and iodine 
contained in it. 

Kemp-stone, sb. a large cromlech near Dundonald, Co. of Down. 

Ken, v. to know. 

Kennel, v. to kindle. 

Kenspeckled, adj. remarkable looking ; easily recognised. 

Keos, sb. funny tricks ; jokes ; nonsense. 

Keous, sb. the rootlets of the potato plant. 

Kep, v. to catch ; to stop ; to head or turn back any animal. 

Kerries, sb. fleecy driving clouds. See Carry of the sky. 

Kettle-bellied, adj. big bellied. 

Kib, sb. a kind of spade used in stony or hilly ground where a 
plough cannot work. It is very narrow and thick. 

Kilmaddy, sb. the fishing frog, Loplrius piscatorius. 

Kilt, v. badly hurt. The wean's kilt: 

Kimlin, sb. a small wooden vessel, used for dressing butter in. 

Kindlin', sb. fuel. 

King of the mullet, a fish, the basse, Labrax Lupus. Called also 
White Mullet. 

Kink, sb. a twist in a rope or chain. 

Kink, Keenk, sb. a paroxysm of coughing or of laughter. 

Kipple, sb. the coupling of the frame of a roof. 

* 

Kipple butt, sb. that part of the principal of a roof which rests on 
the wall. 

Kisses, sb. small sweetmeats rolled up along with mottoes in a piece 
of coloured paper. 

Kist, sb. a chest. 

Kitchen, (1) sb. anything eaten as a relish with other food. ' Butter 
to butter's no kitchen,' saying. 

(2) v. to save or husband anything carefully. 
Kitlin, sb. a kitten. 

Kittagh handed, left-handed. Colla Macdonnell (circa 1600) is 
known as Coll Kittagli. 



6() ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 

Kittle, v. to bring forth kittens ; to bring forth young alive. ' Some 

fishes spawn and others kittle.' 

Kittling, adj. A hare with young is called a ' kittling hare.' 
Knab, v. to snatch up ; to steal. 
Knap, v. to strike repeated blows, as with a hammer. 
Knapsack breed, children born in the army. 

Knockin' trough, sb. a large mortar made of stone, formerly used 
for pounding barley in. It held about twenty quarts. The ' mell ' 
used was of wood. 

Knowd, Nowd, sb. the grey gurnard, Trigla gurnardus. 

Knowe, sb. a knoll ; a small hill. 

Knowin', sb. a knowing ; just what could be perceived. ' We took a 
wee knotvin' o whisky.' -. 

Knowledgible, adj. knowing. "Pigs is a dale Tmowledyibler nor 
people think." OLLMINICK. 

Knur, sb. a dwarf ; anything small or dwarfish ; any animal that has 
become stunted in his growth. 

Krittity, adj. of uncertain temper ; skittish ; cross ; unreliable. 
Kye, sb. cows. 

Lab, sb. a game of marbles. 

Labour, v. ' To labour a field,' to dig it or cultivate it. 

Lachter, sb. a brood of chickens, &c. ; a quantity. 

Lacken day, sb. a wet day. 

Lag, lag, Leg, leg, the call to geese. 

Laimeter, Lamiter, sb. a lame person. 

Lair, sb. A man or horse is said to lair when he sinks in mud or 
snow, and cannot extricate himself. 

Laivins, sb. the refuse. 

Lamed to the ground. 'I got a stab of a bayonet in the groin, 
which has lamed me to the ground.' 

Lament'able, adj. unpleasant ; disagreeable. ' It's a most lament' - 
ulle wet day.' ' The smell of the fish was most lamentable? 

Lammas floods, sb. heavy rains which are expected about the first of 
August. 

Land, sb. cultivated land or pasture, as opposed to a road. ' Come 
on the land, 1 i. e. come off the road into the fields. 

Landed, v. arrived ; placed. ' I landed off the car at six o'clock.' 
' I gave him won skite, an' funded him into the middle of a whin- 
bush.' 



ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 61 

Langle, (1) sb. A 'sheep's langle' is a short piece of any kind of 
rope, with a slip knot at each end. The loops are passed over the 
fore and hind leg of a sheep. The animal is thus lanqled, and cannot 
go over fences. Hence the saying, ' He goes out of the langle, 1 applied 
to a person who goes on the spree occasionally. 

(2) v. to tie the hind foot and the fore foot of an animal together, 
to prevent it straying far. 

Lap, or Lapcock, sb. a small roll of grass cut for hay. Same as a 
Cole of hay. 

Lap, v. to roll up grass. ' They lap it from the swathe.' 

Lapped up, wrapped up. 

Lapsther, sb. a lobster. 

Lark heeled, sb. having long heels : a term of derisien. 

Lash, (1) sb. a large quantity. ' The master bought a lash o' things 
from them.' 

(2) v. to throw anything down violently. 

Lashins, sb. plenty. ' Lashins and lavins,' more than plenty. 
Lash, wheat, v. to beat the grains of wheat out of the ears. 

Last day. ' I wouldn't have lifted it, not if it had lay till the last 
day in the afternoon,' ?'. e. I would never have taken it. 

Latter end, sb. the end. ' The latter end of the week.' 
Laugh. ' Laugh with the wrong side of your mouth ' = to cry. 

Laughin' sport, sb. sport ; fun. ' You'll find it no laughin' sport,' 
i. e. it will turn out more serious than you expect. 

Lave, (1) sb. the remainder; the rest. ' Ye may have the lave o't.' 

(2) v . to lift or throw water out of a pool by means of anything, 
such as a bucket or scoop. 

Laverock, sb. a lark ; also a hare. 

Law, v. ' To take the law ' of a person is to go to law with him. 

Laws. ' By the laws,' a mild oath. 

Lay a finger on, to touch, in the way of hurting or harming. 

Lay down yer bone, v. to work hard or earnestly. 

Lay out, v. to arrange ; to plan. ' I laid myself out to do it.' 

Lazy led, sb. a broad ridge of potatoes. 

Lea, sb. a measure of linen yarn. Same as Cut. The ' lea ' or ' cut ' 
contains 300 yards, a 'hank' contains 12 'cuts,' and a 'bundle' of 
yarn 200 ' cuts.' 

Leagh, v. low. 

Leagh the brae, at the foot of the hill. 



62 ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 

Leal, adj. loyal ; true ; faithful. 

Leap the bullock, a boys' game. Same as Leap-frog. 

Leasing, sb. a twisted thread of cotton or flax used for tying the 
' cuts ' of liuen yarn. 

Leasing, v. putting in order or disentangling anything, such as 
thread, that has been tossed or tangled. 

Leather winged bat, a bat. 

Leave over ! v. stop ! desist ! 

Lees. ' I hav'n't got the Ices of you,' i. e. I don't comprehend you. 

Lemon sole, sb. the lemon dab, Platena microcephala. 

Lend, sb. a loan. ' Give me the lend of it.' 

Lerk, Lurk, sb. a wrinkle or fold. ' The child's that fat I can't get 
dryin' all his lerks.' 

Lerked, adj. wrinkled. ' The uppers of your boots is all lerfwd.' 

Let, v. to hinder ; to interfere with. A boy's term in ball-playing, 
&c. ' Don't let the game.' 

Let alone, besides. ' I fell in and got hurt, let alone bein' all wet.' 

Let on, to show knowledge of a thing. ' I never let on I seen him.' 
' Don't let oil,' i. e. don't tell. 

Libel, sb. a label. 

Libbock, sb. a small, loose piece of something. 

Lick, (1) sb. a blow. 

(2) v. to beat. 
Licking, sb. a beating. 
Lieve, lief. 

Lift, (1) sb. the bend in the shaft or blade of a spade. ' I would like 
a spade with more lift,' i. e. with the shaft more bent. 

(2) v. to collect, as tickets, subscriptions, &c. 

(3) v. ' Lift it and lay it like the lugs of a laverock : ' applied 
when persons make frequent changes, such as moving things about 
from one place to another. 

(4) ' Come here to I lift you : ' said in derision or in fun to a person 
who has fallen down. 

(5) v. to start a funeral. ' What time do they lift ? ' 

Lift yer han', v. to strike. ' Wud ye lift yer han' to a woman 1 ' 

Lig, v. to lie : a boy's term in playing marbles. ' Let him lig,' i. e. 
let his marble lie. 

Light, adj. 'Old light,' 'new light,' the terms for two sects of 
Presbyterians. The former subscribe the Westminster 'Confession, the 
latter arc principally Unitarians. 



ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 63 

Light. 

' Light, light, low, 
The butterfly low.' 

Sung by children who are chasing butterflies. 
Like. ' What like is he ?' i. e. what is he like ] 

Like is applied to words thus : ' I'm all tremblin' like.' ' He was all 
frightened like.' ' He seems careless like.' ' Summer like.' 

Like I don't know what, a vague but common comparison. 
Lilt, v. to sing or hum an air. 
Limber, adj. flexible ; light ; frail. 

Limner, sb. a portrait painter : hence sometimes applied to a photo- 
grapher. 

Limpy coley, sb. a boys' game. 
Line, (1) sb. dressed flax. 

(2) sb. a road. The new roads are so called. 

Linen lease, sb. a lease granted under the provisions of the ' Linen 
Act.' It was for lives, renewable, and provided for the keeping of a 
certain number of looms on the farm. 

Lines, (1) When a dispensary doctor is engaged making calls in his 
district he is said to be out on linet, i. e. when he has received a line 
or order. 

(2) sb. a discharge given to a worker or servant. 

Line yarn, sb. yarn made from flax that lias been dressed and sorted, 
so that the fibres are long and run in one direction. 

Ling, sb. Heather, Erica cinerea, is especially called liny. 
Linge, v. to beat ; to chastise ; to lunge. 
Linging, sb. a beating. 

Lingo (pi. Lingoes), sb. a long, thin weight of wire used in Jacquard 
looms. 

Lint, sb. flax. 

Lint-hole, sb. a pit or dam for steeping flax. 

Lint-white, sb. a linnet. 

Lint-white, adj. very white. 

Linty, sb. a linnet. 

Lip, sb. ' Give us none of your lip,' i. e. impudent talk. Same as 
Jaw. 

Lippen, v. to trust ; to depend on. ' I wouldn't lippen her to carry 
it.' 

Lisk, sb. the groin. 



G4 ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 

Liths, sb. the layers of a slaty rock ; the layers of an onion ; the 

divisions of an orange. 
Lithy, adj. flaky ; in layers. 

Loaden, v. to load. ' I was told to loaden up with flax.' 
Leadened, adj. loaded. 

Load of coul', a heavy cold. Same as Morth o' coul. 
Loaning, sb. a country lane. 

Lock, sb. a quantity. ' A big lock.' ' A wee lock.' 
Lockjaw, v. to take lockjaw. ' He lockjawed.' 

Lock spit, v. to mark off the boundaries of land by cutting a slight 

furrow. 
Lodged, adj. Growing corn that has been laid by the wind and 

rain is said to be lodged. 

Loghter, Lughter, sb. a handful of growing corn, or crop of any 
kind cut with, a reaping-hook. 

Loke smell, sb. a nasty, sickening smell. 

Long. ' The long eleventh of June,' a saying. 

Long last, the very last. 'Well, at long last he did it.' 

Long line, sb. a fishing line with several hundred hooks. Also 
called a Bulter . -^ 

Longsome, adj. tedious ; slow. 

Looby, sb. a great, loose, indolent fellow. 

Loof, sb. the open hand. ' They're scuddin' loofs an' buyin',' i. e. 
they are striking hands over their bargains. 

Look, v. to search. ' Away an' look the child's head.' 

Loose, adj. unoccupied. ' I want to see the mistress when she's 
loose.' 

Loot your broos, to look sulky. 
Loss, v. to lose. 

Lossin 1 (i. e. losing), v. going to the bad. ' Them childre's lossin' for 
the want o' somebuddy t' see afther them.' 

Lost, adj. cold ; wet ; perished. ' Come in, chile, out o' the cowl' ; 
yer lost.' ' Och, ye craythur, ye'll be lost if ye go out the day.' 

Loughry men, a race of small hairy people living in the woods. It 
is said that ' they would get your gold.' They are very strong. 

Lonin, adj. hot. * My ears are louin.' 

Loun, sb. a boy ; a low, idle fellow. 

Loup, v. to jump. 

Louse. ' They wad skin a louse : ' said of very grasping people. 



ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 65 

Low, sb. a flame. 

Low come off, sb. a low expression ; an offensive remark. ' They 
touT me to ate ma wee dog, an' A sayd to them, it's a low come off in 
ya to say the like o' that.' 

Lown day, a calm day. 

' Lown yer crack,' speak lower. 

Lowze, v. to loosen. 

Lozenger, sb. a lozenge. 

Luck. ' It was more by good luck than good guiding,' saying. 

Lucky, adj. full ; something over in count or measure. 

Lucky half, rather more than half. 

Lucky stones, sb. small pebbles of hard, white limestone, which 
have been perforated by a sea- worm. They are found on the beach, 
and when the perforations extend in such a way that a string could 
be passed through the stone, and it could thus be suspended round 
the neck, it is called a lucky stone. 

Lue warm, luke warm. 

Lug, (1) sb. the lob- worm, Arenicola piscatorum, a large sea- worm used 
for bait. 

(2) sb. the ear ; the ear at the side of a can or bucket. 

Luggie, sb. a boys' game. In this game the boys lead each other 
about by the ' lugs,' i. e. ears, hence the name. 

Lump, (1) sb. anything big. 'A lump of a girl.' 
(2) sb. a quantity. ' A lump of people.' 

Lump it. ' If you don't like it you can lump it,' i. e. you must put 
up with it. 

Luppen shinnen, sb. a started sinew. 

Lurgan, Lurg, Lurk, sb. a whitish, very active sea-worm used for 
bait. 

Lusty, adj. healthy looking. 
Lying, adj. sick. ' He's lying these two months.' 
Lying heads and thraws, lying in different directions. 
Lythe, (1) sb. a fish, the pollack, Merlangus pollacldus. 

(2) v. to thicken broth with flour or meal. 
Lything, (1) sb. flour or meal put into broth to thicken it. 

(2) v. fishing for Lythe. 

Machine, sb. anj Kind of conveyance, such as a carriage, car, &c. 

Mackerel - cock, sb. a sea bird, the Manx shearwater, Puffinus 
anglorum. 

F 



66 ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 

Mackerel-scout, sb. the gar fish. Same as Horn-eel. 

Mad, adj. angry. 

Mad angry, very angry ; raging. 

Magnify, v. to signify. ' That hurt won't magnify. 1 

Mailie, Mailie, a call to a pet sheep. 

Mails, sb. pi. small perforated scales made of copper or other metal 

used in Jacquard weaving. 
Maist feck, sb. the greater part. 
Make, v. to attempt; to offer. ' He made to strike me.' 

Make moan, v. to pity. ' When you've tooth ache they make no 
moan for you.' 

Make off, v. to run away. 

Make up, v. to accost a person with a view of making acquaintance. 
To be attentive to, or to make love to a person. 

Man. ' You'll be a man before your mother,' said to comfort a little 
boy in trouble. 

Man alive ! an impatient mode of address. 
Man-big, adj. full grown ; the size of a man. 

Mankeeper, Mancreeper, sb. a water newt, Lissotriton punctatus. It 
is said that mankeepers will creep down the throat of a person who 
falls asleep near any water where they are. 

Manner, v. to prepare. ' It's hard to manner that ground.' ' The 
land will be well mannered by the frost.' Flax is said to be well- 
ma nner ed, or the reverse, according to its having been carefully 
treated, or the reverse, in the various processes of preparation. Flax 
is passed through rollers to manner it for the scutchers. 

Man or mortal, any one. ' Now don't tell this to man or mortal.' 
Mansworn, adj. perjured. 

Manx puffin, sb. the Manx shearwater, PuMnus anglorum (HARRIS, 
1744). 

Many's the time, many a time. 

Map, sb. a mop. 

March, (1) sb. a boundary of land. 

(2) v. to border on ; to be contiguous to. ' This is where my land 
marches with his.' 

March dike, sb. the dike (fence) between adjoining farms or town- 
lands. 

Margy more, sb. the big market, i. e. the market before Christmas. 

Marksman, sb. a man who cannot write his name, and has therefore 
to make his mark. 



ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 67 

Mark the ground, put foot to the ground. ' He could hardly mark 
the ground : ' said of a horse that was very lame. 

Marred, v. hindered ; interfered with. 

Married upon, Married on, v. married to. ' She was married upon 
a man they call HcKee.' 

Marrow, v. to lend men or horses for lahour to a neighhour, and to 
receive a similar loan in return when needed. Same as To neighbour. 

Marvel, sb. a marble. 
Masheroon, sb. a mushroom. 

Mashy-corns, Mash-corns, sb. roots of 'silver-weed' (Potentilla 
anserina). The root is roasted and eaten. It tastes much like a 
parsnip (TATE's Flora Belfastiensis). 

Mass. ' If ye missed mass ye hut the gatherin',' *. e. you nearly did 
something. 

Master, sir ; a term of address. ' Are you wanting any bog- wood 
the day, master ? ' 

Mate, sb. meat ; i. e. food of any kind. * The horse dos'nt take his 
mate now at all.' 

Material, adj. good ; excellent. ' A material cow.' 
Maug. v. to walk away. * Maug off with you.' 
Maunder, v. to talk in a wandering way. 
Maunna, Mammae, v. must not. 

Mavis (pron. maivis), sb. a thrush. ' You can sing like a mavis,' a 
saying, generally used satirically. 

May be that ! Oh ! indeed ! 

May flower, sb. the marsh marigold, Caltha palustris. 

May I never stir, an appeal, used to give force to any statement. 

May jack, sb. the whimbrel. It is erroneously believed to be the 
young of the ciirlew. 

May shell, sb. the bone of a cuttle fish, Sepia officinalis. 
Mays. ' Between the two Mays,' between the 1st and 12th of May. 
Meal ark, sb. a large chest or bin for holding a store of meal. 
Meal's meat, sb. a meal ; the food taken at one meal. 
Mealy-crushy, sb. oatmeal, fried in dripping. Same as Durgan. 

Mealy-mouthed, adj. shy ; backward in asking ; not speaking out 
plainly when something disagreeable has to be said. 

Mean. ' As mean as get out,' very mean. 

Means. ' Not by no manner of means,' i. e. by no means. 

F 2 



68 ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 

Meat and Mense, food, and manners or politeness. "Ye shud still 
ax a frien' t' take a bit o' whatiwer's goin', if lie diz, why A wish 
him his health, an' much good may it do him ; if not ye hae yer meat 
and mense both," OLLMINICK. 

Meckin'. ' Meckiri a chimley o' yer mooth,' smoking. 
Meddle, ?;. to hurt or annoy. ' The dog won't meddle you.' 
Meg, sb. a boy's term for a bad old ' peerie,' i. e. peg-top. 
Meg-many-feet, sb. a centipede. 

Meer, sb. a mare. ' The white meer come oot o' some ermy,' i. e. the 
white mare had been in a cavalry regiment. 

Meerin, Mearing, sb. a land boundary. 

Melder, sb. the quantity of meal ground at one time for a person ; a 
large vague quantity. ' I've eaten a melder,' i. e. I've eaten too much. 

Mell whims, v. to bruise whins (furze) with a mallet or ' beetle,' for 
cattle feeding. 

Melt, (1) sb. the milt, or soft roe of a fish. 

(2) slang, sb. the tongue. ' Keep in your melt' . 

(3) ' I'll knock the melt out of you,' a threat. 
Ment, v. mended. 

Meout, sb. a slight sound. ' There wasn't a meout out o' the childre.' 
' Don't let a meout out o' you.' 

Messen, sb. a contemptuous term for a little person of either sex. 

Mich, v. to play truant. 

Mid kipple, sb. part of a flail. Same as Hooden. 

Midden, sb. a manure heap, or pit. 

Midge's knee-buckle, sb. a very small article. 

Miles, Milds, sb. a wild plant used as spinach, Chenopodium album. 

Miller's lift, sb. an upward thrust with the point of a crowbar, to 
move a heavy object forwards. 

Miller's thumb, sb. two small sea fishes are so called, Coitus scorpius, 
and C. lullalis. 

Mill eye. 'Hot from the mill eye,' a comparison for something 
freshly made. 

Mim, Mimsey, adj. prim ; prudish. 

Mind, (1) v. to remind. 'Now mind me of that to-morrow.' 

(2) v. to observe. ' See ! d'ye mind the way she's walkin'.' 

(3) v. to remember. ' I mind the time,' a common beginning to 
a story. 'I don't mind much about my father being killed' = I 
don't remember much, &c. 



ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 69 

(4) sb. recollection. ' I hadn't a bit mind of it.' 

(5) ' I was a mind to ha' done it,' i. e. I intended to do it. 

(6) ' I had no mind,' i. e. I forgot. 

Mint, v. to beat ; to aim a blow at ; to hit with a stone ; to hurt. 
' Mint the gowler,' i. e. hit the dog with a stone or anything. 

Misdoubt, v. to doubt ; to suspect. " He misdoubted there wud be 
blood dhrawed somewhere or another." OLLMINICK. 

Misert, sb. a miser. 

Misertly, ad. miserly. 

Mislippen, v. to neglect. 

Mislippened, adj. neglected ; not cared for. ' A mislippened child.' 

Mislist, v. to molest. 

Mismay, v. to annoy ; to disturb. 

Misses, v. ' There's not much misses you,' i. e. you notice every 
thing that goes on.' 

Miss yer fat, to make a false step ; to stumble. 

Mistress, sb. wife. ' His mistress opened the door to me,' i. e. 
his wife. 

Mizzle, (1) sb. a drizzle. 

(2) v. to drizzle; to run away; to disappear. 
Moan, v. to pity. 

Moan you a hair, pity you in the least. 
Moat, sb. an earthen mound, or tumulus. 

Mockin' 's catchin', i. e. mocking is catching. A warning not to 
mock or laugh at a person who is suffering from anything unpleasant, 
lest the same misfortune may happen to one-self. It is said particu- 
larly to persons who are mimicking the personal defects of others. 

Moiled, adj. bare, applied to a bare-looking building. 

Moily, Moilya, sb. a hornless cow. 

Moily, adj. hornless. 

Molly gowan, sb. the fishing frog, Lopliius piscatorius. 

Molrooken, sb. the great crested grebe, Podiceps cristatus. 

Money. ' Money 's roun', an' it goes roun',' saying. 

Monkey flower, sb. mimulus. 

Mools, sb. broken chilblains. 

Mooly heels, sb. heels affected with ' mools.' 

Mooth, sb. mouth. ' Ma heart was in ma mooth,' i. e. I was very much 
startled. 



70 ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 

Mootther, sb. the proportion of meal or seeds that the miller takes 
as his payment for grinding. 

Mope, sb. a mop. 

More betoken. Besides, generally used when adding a circumstance 
to prove the correctness of a statement. 

More holy nor godly, applied to a tattered garment. 
More red nebs than midges : said in very cold weather. 

More than middling, very superior. ' His mother was more thaii 

middling.' 

Morn's morra, sb. the day after to-morrow. 
Morra. ' The morra come niver ' = never. 
Morrian, sb. a fish, the "ballan wrasse. Same as Bavin. 
Morth o' cowl, sb. a very heavy cold. 

Mortial, or Mortal, very, or very great. ' Mortial cold.' ' A martial 
lot.' 

Moss, sb. a peat hog. . . 

Moss-ban, sb. the edge or boundary of a peat hog. 
Moss-cheeper, sb. the titlark or meadow pippit. 
Mother naked, adj. quite naked. 

Mountain men, sb. pi. " That sect of dissenters called ' Covenanters '." 
McSKlMiN's OarricJcfergus. 

Mountainy, adj. mountain. ' Mountainy people.' ' Mountainy land.' 

Mouth. ' Entry mouth,' i. e. entry end ; where an entry opens on a 
street. 

Mouth, (1) 'A mouth on you like a torn pocket,' a comparison. 

(2) ' He niver as much as axed me if A had a mouth on me,' i. e. he 
did not offer me anything to eat or drink. 

(3) ' You're a mouth,' 1 an expression of contempt. 
Mowls, Mowl, sb. i. e. moulds ; earth. 

Muckle, adj. much ; big. 

Muddle for potatoes, v. to get them out with the hands, surrepti- 
tiously. 

Mud fat, adj. very fat. ' The grass here is that good, that in six 
weeks a beast will get mud fat on it.' 

Mud-lark, sb. a navvy, working at muddy embankments or exca- 
vations. 

Mudler, sb. a small metal stamper, used in public houses to crush 
the lumps of sugar in punch. 



ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 71 

Mudyees, sb. short tongs. 
Mug, sb. the mouth ; a sulky person. 

Muggy, (1) sb. a hand-basket made of well twisted straw rope. 
(2) adj. foggy; close and wet; dark, applied to the weather. 
Mull, sb. a mess ; something spoiled. 
Murphies, sb. pi. potatoes. 

Murran-roe, sb. a fish, the ballan wrasse. Same as Bavin. 
Mussel picker, sb. a bird, the oyster catcher, Hcematopus ostralegus. 

My day, sb. all my life. ' He's the wee-est man ivir A seen in 
ma day.' 

My lone, His lone, &c., ad. alone. 
My lord, sb. a hunch-backed man. 
My ! an exclamation of surprise. 

Naethin' ava, sb. nothing at all. 

Nag, sb. the wooden ball or ' knur,' used in the game of ' shinney ' 
(hockey) ; also called a ' golley.' 

Nager [naiger], sb. a niggardly person. 

Nagerliness, adj. niggardliness. 

Naggin, sb. a measure of liquid = quarter of a pint. 

Naigies, sb. pi. horses. 

Nail, v. to strike with a sure aim. 

Nails. The little white marks that come and go on the finger-nails are 
the subject of the following divining rhyme : we begin at the thumb 
a gift ; a friend ; a foe ; a lover ; a journey to go. 

Naperty, sb. a vetch, with a fleshy root, Lathy r us macrorliizus. 
Children dig up and eat the little knobs at the roots. 

Napper, Nabber, sb. anything large and good of its kind. 

Nature, sb. the name for a particular quality in flax, an oiliness, 
softness, or kindliness in working, which is of great value. ' This 
flax is hard and birsely, it has no nature.' ' Now here's a flax full of 
nature.' 

Nauky, adj. cunning. 

Neaped in, adj. term used when a vessel cannot get out of a harbour 
in consequence of tides or winds causing the water to be shallow. 

Near, adj. miserly ; penurious. 

Near begone, adj. penurious ; stingy. ' Near begone people disn't 
give the workers mate enough sometimes, an' that's a burnin' shame.' 



72 ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 

Near by, adv. near at hand. ' Do you live near by ? ' 
Neardest, adj. nearest. 

Near hand, adv. near; nearly; almost. 'I was near ban' kilt.' 
' Not a shot came near hand us.' ' The rope was not near hand long 
enough. ' 

Neayghen, sb. a small marine bivalve, about the size of a cockle, 
used for bait. 

Neb, sb. the nose ; a bird's bill. 
Neck, v. to catch and shake a person. 

Nedcullion, sb. the wood anemone. Said to be derived from colleen, 
Ir. for girl (Co. Derry). 

Needcessity, sb. necessity. 
Neeze, v. to sneeze. 

Neighbour, (I) sb. a fellow; a match. ' A'm lookin' for the neighbour 
of ma shai, i. e. I'm looking for the fellow of my shoe. 

(2) v. to give mutual assistance in farming, by lending and borrow- 
ing men and horses. Same as to Marrow. 

Neugh, v. to catch, or grasp a person. 

Never off his back, never ceasing to advise, or scold, or look after a 
person. 

New-ans, or Newan.ce, something new ; a novelty. ' It's new-ans to 
see you down so early.' ' Ye'r behavin' yerself for new-ans, 1 i. e. you 
are behaving well for a novelty. 

New-fangled, adj. strange ; new-fashioned ; much taken up Avith 
some new thing. 

Next, adv. near. ' Are you going next the quay ] ' 

Nick and go, sb. a close shave. ' It was just nick and go with him.' 

Nicker, v. to neigh. 

Nick my near, sb. a narrow escape ; a close shave. Same as Nick 
and go. 

Nick of time, sb. the right moment. ' I arrived in the nick of time.'' 

Nieve, sb. the fist, or closed hand. 

Nievy. 

' Nievy, navy, nick nack. 
Which han' will ye tak', 
The right or the wrang, 
I'll beguile ye if I can.' 

The rhyme is used in a game played with the closed hands ; in one 
hand of the player is a marble, or any small object ; the other is 
empty. The second player tries to choose the hand that is not empty. 
Same as the old English game of ' Handy-Dandy.' 



ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. : 73 

Nignay, Nignoy, v. to do what is useless ; to do something, but with 
no good result. 

Nignays, Nignoys, sb. pi. useless profitless doings. 

Nigh, han', adv. near ; nearly. 

Nippin', adj. painful with cold. ' Ma toes is just nippin.' 

Nits, sb. pi. small objects among the hair, supposed to be the eggs of 
vermin, or young lice. 

Niver 's a long day, a saying. 
No, adv. not. ' I'll no do it.' 
Noan, adv. none. 
No canny, adj. not lucky. 

No fit, adv. not able. 'I'm no fit to draw a herrin' off the brander,' 
i. e. I ain in the last stage of weakness. 

Noggin, sb. a wooden vessel with a handle smaller than a ' piggin.' 
Porridge and milk used to be eaten out of noggins. 

Noit, sb. ' A noit of a crayture,' an insignificant person. 

No odds, no matter. 

Noole-kneed, adj. knock-kneed. 

Norration, sb. a great noise. ' The dogs are making a great narration.' 

Not a founded, sb. nothing at all. 

Not at himself, adj. mad ; not in health. 

Not can, v. cannot. ' You'll not can do that.' 

Note, sb. A cow is said to be ' commin' forward to her note ' when 
the time of her calving draws near. ' When is she at her note ? ' i. e. 
when will she calve ? The expression seems to originate in a note 
that is kept of the expected time. " For sale, a Kerry cow, five years 
old, at her note in May." BELFAST PAPER, 1875. 

Not expected, adj. not expected to recover from sickness. 

Notionate, adj. obstinate ; self-opinionated ; fanciful. 

Notish, v. to notice. 

Nout, sb. nothing. ' I got it for nout.' 

Nowd, sb. the grey gurnard. Same as Knowd. 

Nudyan, sb. a bunnian. 

Nurg, adj. miserly ; stingy. 

Nurr, sb. a small insignificant thing. 

Nurse tender, sb. a monthly nurse. 



74 ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 

0, sb. ' a round ; ' a stupid or silly fellow ; a softy. 
Oberins, sb. ' Wee oberins,' means trifling work. 
Obledgement, sb. a kindness. 
Och-a-n.ee ! int. an expression of weariness or sorrow. 

Odd or even, sb. a boys' game. A boy shuts up a few small objects, 
such as marbles in one hand, and asks his opponent to guess is the 
number odd or even. He then either pays or receives one, according as 
the guess is right or wrong. 

Of, as. ' The same of that,' i. e. the same as that. 
Offal, sb. the refuse part of ground wheat. 
Off and on, more or less ; there about. 

Offence. ' No offence,' is a rejoinder when a person has said, ' I beg 
your pardon.' 

Offer, (1) sb. an attempt. 

(2) to attempt. ' Don' t offer to do it,' i. e. don't attempt ; don't dare. 
Ogenagli, sb. a simpleton. 
Oh then ! int. Oh indeed ! 

Old-fashioned, Oul-fashioned, adj. knowing or cunning. 
Old May day, sb. the twelfth of May. 

Old stock, sb. a familiar term in greeting an acquaintance. ' "Well, 
old stock, how are ye the day ? ' 

Old wife, sb. a fish, the ballan wrasse, Labrus maculatus. 

On, (I) prep, used for 'to.' ' "Who did it on you ?' 'Who done it on 
you ? ' i. e. who did it to you ? There is another idiomatic use of on 
in the expression, ' Don't break it on me,' i. e. don't break that thing 
of mine.' 

(2) adv. continually ; without stopping. ' They would sit there and 
eat on.' 

(3) adv. ready. ' On for sport.' 

(4) is sometimes prefixed to the words to-morrow and yesterday, 
thus ' I'll do it on to-morrow.' 

Ondaicent, adj. unfair. 

On dying, dying. ' They say he's just on dying. 1 

One purpose, on purpose. 

Ones, sb. people. 'What's the reason, sir, that Tomson's ones 
always sends them kind o' coals ? ' 

Onset, sb. a small cluster of houses : ' McCullough's onset.' 
Ontorious, adj. notorious. 



ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 75 

On you, on your person ; about you. ' Have you any money on 

you ? ' 

Open weather, sb. weather in winter that is not frosty. 

Or, adv. till. ' It won't be long or we'll be back.' 

Or chit, sb. an orchard. 

Ordinary, adj. plain-looking, as a person. 

Or ever, adv. before. ' It's twelve or ever you're in bed.' 

Ortin', v. rejecting ; taking out, as a cow does the good fodder from 
the bad. 

Ortins, Oartins, sb. refuse ; anything rejected. " Other weemen's 
ortins shan't be Sally's pick." FLECHER. 'The mornin's oa rtins is 
the evenin's fodther,' saying. It arises from cow-house experience. 

Other, each other. ' If they take out the gun they'll shoot other.' 
Other morrow, sb. the day after to-morrow. 
Our, adv. over. 

Our ones, Our uns, sb. my own family. ' Our ones all goes to 
meetin'.' 

Out-by, adj. out of doors ; outside the house. 

Outlandish, adj. foreign, such as ships belonging to foreign countries. 

Out of the face, adv. to do a thing ' out of the face ' is to do it right 
through from first to last without stopping. 

Out of one's name, by a wrong name. ' He called me out of my 
name,' i. e. not by my own name. 

Out ower, adv. out ; quite over. 
Out-relation, sb. a distant relative. 
Out-wailins, sb. refuse. 
Over, adj. asleep. ' The chile's just over.' 

Over all, adv. ' That's over all ivir A heerd,' i. e. that surpasses 
all, &c. 

Over-looked, v. the same as Over-seen, and means having received 
the ' blink of an evil eye.' 

Overly much, adv. too much. 'That meat's overly much done.' 
Owrance, sb. mastery ; authority ; having command over. 
Oxther, sb. the armpit. 

" Whether would you rather 
Or rather would you be 
Legs to the oxther 
Or belly to the knee ? " 

Oxther-cogged, v. ' They oxther- cogged you home,' i. e. helped you 
along by holding you up by the arm-pits. 



76 ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 

Pad, sb. a path. 

Paddlin' walk, sb. a gait, in which the steps made are very short. 

Paddock, Poddock, sb. a frog. 

Padrolls, sb. ' On his padroHs] i. e. on his walks or rounds. 

Paidlin', v. wandering ; walking or running with short steps. ' A 
paidlin' collie,' a wandering dog. A horse that is standing, and lifts 
his feet in an uneasy way, is said to be paidlin'. 

Pairins, sb. thin fragments of pork pared off the bones, in pork- 
curing stores. 

Palms, sb. pi. small branches of the Spruce fir, also budded twigs of 
the willow. These are supplied on Palm Sunday to persons attend- 
ing service in the Eoman Catholic Churches. 

Pamphrey, sb. a kind of cabbage. 

Pandy, sb. a punishment at school, being a blow on the hand from 
a cane or ruler. 

Pane, sb. a section of ground in a garden. 
Pangd, v. stuffed full (of food). 
Paps, sb. pi. teats. ' A cow's paps.' 

Paramoudra, sb. a large cylindrical mass of flint, sometimes the 
shape of the human trunk. It is said that this curious word is merely 
gibberish, coined by a facetious quarryman to puzzle the late Dr. 
Buckland, when he was geologizing among the co. Antrim chalk 
rocks. 

Parfit, adj. perfect. 

Parge, v. to plaster the inside of a chimney with mortar. 

Parritch, sb. porridge. 

Parten, sb. the shore crab, Carcinus moenas. Also called Butcher. 

Pastre, sb. the pastern of a horse. 

Patch. ' Not a patch on it,' i. e. not to compare to it. 

Pattheridge, sb. a partridge. 

Pawky, adj. sly ; cunning. 

Pea shaups, sb. pi. pea shells. 

Peaswisp, sb. a small bundle of anything tossed roughly together 
like a wisp of pea straw. ' Your head 's just like a peaswisp.' 

Peat waight, or weght, sb. a tray or sieve on which peat was 
carried into the house. 

Peeler, sb. a crab which has cast its shell, and is soft ; used for bait. 

Peel garlick, sb. a yellow person : a person dressed shabbily or 
fantastically. 



ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 77 

Peely grass, sb. barley, with, the ' hulls ' and ' auns ' removed. 

Peen, sb. the cross end of a mechanic's hammer, opposite to the face. 

Pee-pee, the call for pea-fowl. 

Peep hawk, sb. the kestrel. 

Peerie, sb. a peg-top. 

Peeweet, Peesweep, sb. the lapwing. 

Pegh, s. to pant ; to puff. 

Pelt, sb. the skin of an animal. ' Bare pelt, 1 one's bare skin. 

Penned, v. contracted. A horse sometimes has its knee 'penned in 
the sinews.' 

Penny bird, sb. the little grebe. Also called Drink-a-penny. 
Pens, sb. pi. the old twigs in a hedge. 
Pernicketty, adj. particular ; hard to please. 

Perswadians, sb. pi. persuasion ; entreaties. ' Through perswadians 
I done it.' 

Peter Dick, sb. a child's toy made of a half walnut shell, a small 
piece of stick and some thread. When played upon by the fingers in 
a particular way, it makes a ticking noise, and is supposed to say : 

' Peter Dick, 
Peter Dick, 
Peter Dick's peat stack.' 

Petted on, v. to be fond of a person, as a child is. 
Pevil, v. to strike rapidly. 
Phaisians, sb. pheasants. 
Piano rose, sb. the peony. 

Pickin' calf, v. Same as Casting Calf, i. e. dropping a calf before 
the time. 

Pickle, sb. a very small quantity ; one grain. 

Pickock, or Picky, sb. Same as Blockan. A small fish, the young 
of the coal-fish. 

Piece, sb. what a child gets for lunch ; it is generally a piece of bread. 

Pied, v. searched ; examined. 

Pig-croo, sb. a pig- sty. 

Pigeon. ' A pigeon's pair,' a term for a family of two children only. 

Pigeon walk, sb. a boy's game. 

Piggin, sb. a small wooden vessel made of hoops and staves, with 
one stave prolonged so as to form a handle, used for milking in, &c. 

Pig's whisper, sb. a loud whisper, one meant to be heard. 



78 ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 

Pig's wrack, sb. a kind of sea wrack, boiled with meal or potatoes, 
and given as food for pigs. 

Pike, sb. a rick of hay. 

Piky dog, sb. the piked dog-fish. Same as Gobbuck. 

Pile, sb. a single grain of shot. 

Pill, Bad pill, or Bitter pill, sb. a disagreeable person. 

Pillaber, sb. a pillow. 

Pin bone, sb. the pointed bone above a horse's flank. 

Pingey lookin', adj. tight ; pinched looking. 

Pink, (1) sb. a term of endearment applied by a young man to his 
sweetheart. 
(2) v. to strike with, a sure aim. 

Pin well, sb. a well in the demesne of Red Hall, near Carrickfergus, 
is so-called. A person having drunk from it throws in a pin as an 
offering. 

Pipe. ' Put that in your pipe and smoke it/ an expression enforcing 
some rather disagreeable piece of advice or information. 

Pipers, sb. pL stems of grass. 

Pipe stapple, sb. the stem of a clay pipe. 

Pirn, sb. a wooden bobbin. 

Pirn cage, sb. an arrangement of pins standing up from a square 
frame, and in which ' pirns ' or bobbins are stuck used in power- 
loom factories. 

Pirre-maw, sb. the tern. 

Pismire, Pishmither, sb. an ant. 

Placket hole, sb. a pocket hole. 

Pladdy, sb. (Pladdies, pi.) a sunken rock. 

Planet showers, sb. pi. short heavy showers. 

Plan of wrack. In parts of the co. of Down the flat portion of the 
shore, between high and low water mark, is divided into plots, each 
of which belongs to a certain farm, and on these plots or ' plans ' the 
farmers grow sea- weed for manure, cutting the wrack periodically, 
and carting it inland. Stones are placed for the wrack to grow on. 

Planting, sb. a plantation of young trees. 

Plants, sb. young cabbage plants fit for planting out. 

Plarted, v. fell down. 

Plaster, sb. anything overloaded with vulgar showy ornament. 

Plastery, adj. gaudy; over-ornamented. 



ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 79 

Plates, sb. pi. flat rocks in a harbour. 

Play oneself, v. to play. ' Play yourselves,' i. e. go and play. ' The 
chile 's playin' his self.' 

Pleaich, sb. the 'sea devil' or fishing frog, Lophius. Also called 
Molly gowan, Kilmaddy, &c. 

Pleasement, sb. what pleases ; satisfaction ; gratification. * I was 
glad to hear it, but perhaps it's no pleasement to you.' ' I'll do it to 
your pleasement. ' 

Plenishing, sb. the furnishing of a house. 

Ploigher, v. to cough in an asthmatic or wheezing way. 

Ploitin' down, v. falling down. 'What are ye ploitin' down for 
there, ye fitless falla.' 

Plout, v. to splash. 
Pock-arred, adj. pock-marked. 
Poddock-stool, sb. a toad-stool. 

Podes, sb. lice. Children are warned that if they do not allow their 
heads to be combed with a ' fine tooth comb,' the podes will make ropes 
of their hair, and drag them into the sea and drown them. 

Point. 'Potatoes and point,' i.e. potatoes and nothing. The 
potatoes are supposed to be pointed at a herring as they are eaten, to 
give them an imaginary flavour. 

Poitered out, Poutered out, v. said of land which has been ex- 
hausted, and has received only slight superficial cultivation. 

Poke, sb. a bag. 

Poke shakins, sb. the last child borne by a woman supposed to be 
puny. ' That's a brave chile, it's no the poke shakins I'm thinkin'.' 

Polled, having the horns cut off. Same as Skulled. 

Polluted, adj. puffed up with pride ; conceited ; overrun. ' Them 
people 's got quite polluted.' 'The house is polluted with books.' 
' Polluted with beggars,' &c. ' The other man polluted the mearing,' 
t. e. he tampered with the boundary. 

Pont, sb. a kind of boat which carries thirty hundred-weight of turf, 
used on Lough Neagh (MASON'S Par. Survey). 

Pooin', v. pulling. 

Poor mouth, v. to ' make a poor mouth,' to complain of troubles or 
poverty, and to make the most of these, for the purpose of exciting 
pity. 

Poppel, sb. a flower, the corn-cockle, Lychnis Githago. 

Porvent, Purvent, v. to prevent. 

Poss-tub, Pouss-tub, sb. a kind of wash-tub. 



80 ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 

Post. ' Between you and me and the post,' a preliminary to some- 
thing confidential being told. 
Posy, sb. a flower. 

Potyeen, Poteen, sb. illicit whiskey. 

Ponce, sb. the floating dust in rooms where flax is being dressed. 
Policy, adj. asthmatic, from the effects of inhaling 'pouce.' 

Pounder, sb. a person who sells freestone for scouring ; the freestone 

is sold pounded. 
Ponss, v. to push clothes against the bottom of a tub when washing. 

' Gie the claes a guid poussing.' 

Power, sb. a great quantity. ' He made a power o' money.' 
Pox, sb. the small-pox. ' Cut for the pox,' vaccinated. 

Praity-oaten, sb. a kind of bread made of potatoes and oaten meal ; 
in texture it is very coarse. ' As coarse as praity-oaten,' saying. 

Prank, v. to amuse oneself. 
Pree, v. to taste. 

Presha, Presha bhwee, Prushns, sb. the wild kale, Sinopsis arv&iisis 
(bhwee is from Ir. for yellow). 

Prick at the loop, a cheating game played with a strap and skewer, 
at fairs, &c., by persons of the thimble-rig class, probably the same as 
the game called Fast and Loose. 

Prig, v. to beat down in price. Same as to Haggle. 
Prittaz, Praitays, sb. potatoes. 

Prod, (1) 'He gave me a prod,' i. e. he cheated me in something 
he sold me. 

(2) v. to prick or stab. 'Prod him with a pitch-fork.' 

Proddled, v. prodded, i. e. stabbed or poked up. ' Your eyes are 
like aproddled cat under a bed,' saying. 

Proker, sb. a poker. 

Proper, adj. good. ' A proper spade.' 

Pross, (1) sb. a process at law. 

(2) v. to sue a person. I pressed him.' 
Pnck, sb. a blow. < He got a puck in the eye.' 

Puckan-snlla, sb. a basket or hamper made of well twisted oat straw 
rope, used for holding seed potatoes; it holds about two and a half 
bushels. 

Pnddle, sb. a small dirty pool ; prepared or tempered clay. 

Mian, Pollan, sb. the 'fresh water herring' of Lough Neah, 
Coregonus Pollan. 



ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 81 

Purre, sb. two sea birds, the tern and the black-headed gull. See 
Pirre and Pyrmaw. 

Purty middlin', adj. pretty well ; reply to a salutation. 
Pushla, sb. See Coo-pnshla. 

Put down one's foot, to come to a determination of stopping some 
, thing which has been going on. 

Put on, v. to put on clothes ; to dress oneself. ' I had hardly time 
to put on me.' ' He rose an' put on him.' 

Pyot, sb. a magpie. 

Pyrmaw, sb. a sea bird, probably the tern or ' purre ' (HARRIS, Hist. 
Co. Down, 1744). 



Quaa, Quah, sb. a marsh ; a quagmire, or shaking bog. 
Quait, adj. quiet. 

Quaker. ' You're not a quaker ? ' said in bargaining to persons who 
will not abate the price they have asked. 

Quakin 1 esp, sb. a kind of poplar with trembling leaves. 

duality, sb. gentry. 

Quare, Queer, adj. very ' quart 1 , an' nice ' = very nice. 

Quarter cleft, sb. a crazy person. 

Quern, sb. the old hand-mill, consisting of two stones. 

Quey, or Quy, sb. a female calf. 

Quickens, sb. pi. couch grass. Same as Scutch grass. 

Quicks, sb. pi. young thorn plants for setting. 

Quo' he, v. said he. This with ' qiuf she, quo' /,' are in very 
general use. 

Quut, Quet, v. quit, ' Quut yer cloddin',' i. e. stop throwing stones. 

Raave, sb. a fresh water plant, Anaeharis. 
Rack comb, sb. a dressing comb. 
Back of mutton, sb. a breast of mutton. 
Ram-stam, adj. headlong ; rash. 

Randy, sb. a wild reckless fellow ; an indelicate romping woman ; a 
scold. 

Rannel, v. among school-boys ; to pull the hair. 



82 ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 

Rannel-tree, Raivel-tree, sb. the cross-beam in a byre to which the 
cows' stakes are fastened ; hence a long thin person is called a ' rannel- 
tree,' or is said to be ' as thin as a rannel-tree.' 

Banners, sb. pi. wild indistinct dreams. 

Ranty-berries, sb. rowan-tree berries. 

Ratherly, or Retherly, adv. rather. 

Rausps, sb. pi. raspberries. 

Ream, v. to froth or foam, as a liquor. 

Red, (1) done work. ' What time will you get red ? ' 

(2) v. to put in order; to separate fighters. 
Reddin' kaim, sb. a dressing-comb. Same as Rack-comb. 

Red head. 

' Red head, fiery skull, 
Every hair in your head would tether a bull.' 

Said derisively to a red-haired person. 
Red loanin', sb. the throat (inside). 

Redshank, (1) a flowering plant, Polygonum Persicaria. 

(2) ' Eun like a redshank,'' i. e. as fast as you can. I suppose the 
redshank is the wading bird so called, and not the human redshank, 
known to readers of the Irish wars. 

Red the road ! clear the way ! 

Ree, adj. fresh as a restive horse ; wanton. 

Reef, sb. a rent or tear. 

Reek, sb. smoke ; the smell of peat smoke. 

Reel, v. to quiz or humbug. 

Reel-fitted, adj. club-footed. 

Ree-raw, adj. untidy; confused. 

Reeve, v. to split wood by heat. ' The sun will reeve it.' 

Remember, v. to remind. ' Well, sir, I'll call in the morning and 
remember you about it.' 

Remlet, sb. a remnant. 

Remove, sb. the re-shoeing of a horse with the old shoes. 

Rench, Range, v. to rinse. 

Renlet, Runlet, sb. a small barrel. 

Residenter, sb. an old inhabitant. 

Ret, v. to steep flax. 

Rex, v. to reach. 



ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 83 

Ribish, adj. thin, as applied to persons, but more especially to pigs. 
' They come of a ribish breed.' 

Rice, sb. a small branch of a tree ; a twig. 
Ricketty, sb. a ratchet brace for boring metal. 
Rift, v. to belch. 
Rig, sb. a ridge. 

Rig and fur, ridge and furrow in a field. A particular kind of 
knitting is also called ' rig and fur.' 

Riggin, sb. the ridge of a house. 

Right, adv. thorough ; very ; good. ' He's a right rascal.' ' You're a 
right bad boy.' ' He's a right wee fellow.' 

Rightly, adv. in good health ; right well ; very well. * I'm rightly! 
' I know him rightly.' ' He got rightly frightened.' 

Rip, sb. a handful of unthrashed corn. 

Rippet, sb. a row, or disturbance. 

Ripple, v. to take the seed off flax. See Flax ripple. 

Ripple grass, Plantago lanceolata. 

Rive, v. to tear ; to split. 

Roach, sb. the rudd or red-eye, Leuciscus erythropthalmiis. 

Road, (1) sb. way. ' What road are you going 1 ?' 

(2) ' No road," 1 is the formula for ' no thoroughfare.' 

(3) v. to direct ; to show the way. ' Who roaded you ?' 

Roans, sb. pi. 'Hazely roans,' hazel brakes. 'Brackeny roans,' 
fern brakes. 

Robin-run-the-hedge, sb. a plant, Galium aparine. The juice of 
this plant is extracted and boiled with sugar, and given as a remedy 
in whooping-cough. 

Rockets, sb. pi. the plumes of a hearse. 
Rodden, sb. a little road ; a mountain path. 
Rope, v. ' The clay ropes off my spade like putty.' 
Rose, sb. ' The rose ' is a name for erysipelas. 

Rosit-slut, or Rosin-slut, sb. a rag dipped in resin and used as a 
substitute for a candle. 

Rot-heap, sb. a heap of weeds left to rot for manure. 

Roughness, sb. plenty ; abundance. ' There's a great roughness 
about his farm,' i. e. great plenty. ' Them people has a great rough- 
ness of money about them.' 

Rough weed, sb. Sfrachys palustris. 

o2 



^4 ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSS All Y. 

Hound cast, sb. a particular throw in sowing grain. ' He sows with 

a round cast.' 
Roup, sb. an auction. 
Routh, or Rouths, sb. plenty ; abundance. 

Routing-wheel, sb. an eddy or whirlpool at the entrance of Strang- 
ford Lough. Mentioned by Harris (1744). 

Rowt, v. to bellow or roar as a bull. 

Rrog, a sea-weed, the long tangle, Chorda filum. 

Rubber, sb. a housemaid's dusting-cloth ; a coarse kitchen towel. 

Rubber apron, sb. an apron made of a coarse material. 

Ruchness. Same as Roughness, abundance. 

Ruction, sb. a row, or disturbance. 

Rue, v. to change one's mind ; to draw back. ' To take the me,' to 
repent of an engagement, or promise. 

Rugg, v. to pull about roughly ; to pull the hair. 

Ruggle o' banes, sb. a thin person. 

Ruinate, v. to destroy. 

Ruination, sb. ruin. 

Rullion, sb. a big, coarse, dirty fellow. 

Rummle, (1) ' Put that in your jug an' rummle it,' i. e. consider that 
piece of information or advice. Same as Put that in your pipe and 
smoke it. 

(2) v. to rumble ; to shake about. ' I feel that rummUn' about in 
my inside.' 

Rundale, a plan of working farms in partnership ; mentioned as a 
'pernicious practice 'in M'SltiMlN's Carrickfergus, 1 822. Anciently 
many farms were wrought in ' rundale.' 

Rung, (1) a round or step of a ladder ; the rail of a chair. 

(2) sb. an old woman. 'That auld rung o' mine's bravely,' a 
young lad. 

Runners, sb. pi. small channels for water. ' I made runners across 
the pad to keep it dry.' 

Runrig, sb. Same as Rundale. 

Runt, (1) sb. a dwarfish person; an old woman. 

(2) sb. a stalk. ' A kale runt.' 
Rust, v. to be restive or stubborn. 
Rusty, adj. restive or stubborn. 



ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 85 

Sack, v. to vanquish an opponent by a show of superior learning. 
W. CARLETON. 

Sacrament, sb. an oath. 

Sad, adj. sodden, as badly-baked bread. 

Sads. ' Sitting over their sads,' L e. regretting something ; repenting. 

Safety, adj. (pronounced sometimes as a trisyllable). A useful 
article in nurseries is called a ' saf-e-ty pin.' 

Saggan, sb. the wild iris. 

Said, v. ' To be said,' to be advised. ' Now be said by me.' 

Sail, sb. a ride in a cart or carriage of any kind. 

Sailor-man, sb. a sailor. 

Sailor's grip, sb. a mode of holding hands by hooking the fingers. 

Sair-bones, sb. ' A'll gi'e ye sair-banes,' i. e. I'll give you a beating. 

Saired, v. served. 

Sair sought, adj. nearly worn out with age or weakness. 

S air- wrought, adj. hard-worked. 

Sally, sb. a willow. 

Sally wran, sb. the willow wren. 

Salt. * You will shed a tear for every grain of salt you waste.' 

Same of, same as. ' Can you give me a knife the same of that ? ' 

Sang. ' Ton my sang,' a mild kind of oath. 

Sannies. ' Upon my sannies,' a mild oath. 

Sark, sb. a shirt. 

Sarking, sb. a coarse kind of linen ; a sheeting of wood under the 
slates of a roof. 

Saturday. ' Saturday flit, short sit.' Servants think it unlucky to 
go home to a new place on Saturday. 

Saugh, sb. a willow. 
Sauny-go-softly, sb. a soft fellow. 
Saut, sb. salt. 

Saving your presence, excuse the word. ' But, savi.n' your pre- 
sence, the smell was that bad that,' &c. 

Saw doctor, sb. a workman who repairs and sharpens saws. 

Scabbling, or Scaveling, hammer, sb. a large hammer for chipping 
stone. 

Scald, sb. 'A heart scald, 1 a sore trouble. ' He's heart scalded with 
her, ' greatly troubled by her. 



86 ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 

Scale-drake, sb. the shell-drake, Anas Tadorna. 

Scame, Scam, v. to scorch. 

Scantling, (1) sb. wood cut to special sizes for carpenters' use. 

(2) sb. measurement of wood or iron to be used in work. ' What 
scantlings of iron will you put into the gate ? ' 

Scart, v. to scratch. 

Scaud, v. to scald. ' It's sae het it wild scaud a pig,' a comparison. 

Scaur, Scar, sb. a steep or overhanging bank of earth; a reef or 
ridge of rocks. 

Scheme, v. to endeavour to escape work by false pretences. 

Scholar, sb. one who can read and write. ' It's a sore thing not to 
be a scholar.' 

School, Schull, sb. a shoal of fish. 

Scobes, sb. pi. rods of hazel or willow, sharpened at both ends, for 
pinning down the thatch to the ' scraws ' or sods in thatching a house. 
Same as Scollops. 

Scog, sb. an offensive or mocking valentine. 
Scollops, sb. pi. See Scobes. 

Sconce, (1) sb. a skulking person. 

(2) sb. a hiding-place : used by wild-fowl shooters. It is generally 
a slight shelter built of stones on a beach. 

(3) v. to joke or ridicule; also to feign illness, so as to escape 
having to work. 

Sconcer, sb. one who pretends to be sick in order to escape work. 

Scope, (1) sb. an extent of land. ' He owns a large scope of moun- 
tain.' 

(2) sb. in trawling or dredging the extra length of rope which is 
paid out after the dredge has reached the bottom is called the scope. 
' Give it a faddom or two more scope.' 

Scotch, lick, sb. a very slight wash of the face or hands. 
Scotch penny, sb. the thick English penny of 1797. 
Scout, (1) sb. a squirt or syringe. 
(2) v. to squirt. 

Scout-hole, Scoot-hole, sb. a rat-hole to which rats run for shelter 
when chased, or a concealed hole planned for exit, by which rabbits 
may escape when their principal holes are watched. 

Scrab, (1) sb. a scratch. 

(2) v. to scratch. ' The cat near scr ailed his eyes out.' 
Scraigh, Scraik, sb. a scream, such as the cry of a sea-gull. 



ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 87 

Scraigh o' day, sb. early morning. 

Scran. ' Bad scran to you,' bad luck to you. Scran is said to mean 
food. 

Scrat, sb. something small. 'The fowls he had were only wee scrats.' 

Scraw, (1) sb. a thin strip of sward or turf. Scraws are laid under 
the thatch of a house to receive the points of the ' scobes ' or 
' scollops. ' 

(2) v. to strip sods off the surface of a field. ' Do you want to 
scraw the man's land ? ' 

Scraw, Sera, v. to cover a bank with sods. ' To scraw a grave.' 

Screech cock, sb. the missel thrush. 

Screed, sb. a rent or tear in clothes ; a discourse or harangue. 

Screeding, sb. the mortar pointing round a window-frame. 

Screenge, sb. a mean, miserly person. 

Screw mouse, sb. the shrew. 

Scrimpit, adj. scanty. 

Scringe, v. to creak ; to make a grinding or rasping noise. 

Scrogs, sb. pi. places covered with furze, hazel, brambles, &c. 

Scrubby, adj. mean; shabby. 

Scruff, sb. a mean fellow. 

Scruff of the neck, sb. the back of the neck. 

Scrunch, sb. a crush or squeeze. 

Scud, v. to slap. 

Scuff, v. to subject to abuse or wear ; to make shabby. 

Scuffed, injured in appearance by wear or abuse. 

Scuffle, (1) sb. a hoe that is pushed called in trade a 'Dutch hoe.' 

(2) v. to hoe walks or beds with a scuffle. 

(3) v. to scrape or drag the feet along the ground. 
Sculder, Scalder, sb. a jelly-fish (medusa) of any species. 

Scunner, Scunhur, Sounder, sb. a disgust ; a loathing. ' I've taken 
a scunhur at that man.' 

Scutch, v. to remove the ' shives ' or ' shows ' from flax. 
Scutch grass, sb. couch grass. Same as Quickens. 
Scutch mill, sb. a mill where flax is ' scutched.' 

Scutching tow, sb. the rough tow which is taken off flax at a scutch 
mill. 



88 ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 

Scythe hook, sb. a reapiug-hook that requires to be sharpened, as 
distinguished from a ' toothed hook ' or sickle. 

Seam, sb. ' Goose seam, 1 goose fat, 

Selch, sb. a seal, Phoca. 

'Seed, breed, and generation,' the whole of one's family and 

relatives. 
Seeds, sb. pi. the husks of oats. See Sowans. 

See outens, r. to go about for pleasure. ' If A didn't see outers 
when A'm young, when would A ? ' 

Seep, v. to leak or ooze. 

Seepage, sb. what ' seeps ' or leaks. * There's a great seepage from 

that cask.' 

Sel, self : hence hinw/, herseZ, ibemsel, m'sel. 
Server, sb. a snaall tray or salver. 
Set, (1) sb. a spell. ' A long set of saft weather.' 

(2) A ' low set person,' a person with a squat figure. 

(3) v. to plant. 

(4) v. determined. ' She's hard set to be married.' 

(5) v. ' She sets that very well,' i. e. that becomes her very well, 

(6) v. ' The night is set,' i. e. the night is fixed ; night has come on. 

(7) adj. applied to a person who has stopped growing taller. ' She's 
quite set lookinV 

(8) v. to appoint. ' I can't set no time,' i. e. I cannot appoint a 
time. 

Set a stitch, v. to make a stitch in sewing. 

Sett, sb. the number of ridges of corn that a ' boon ' or reaping party 
is spread over. If there are ten able-bodied reapers in the 'boon,' 
the sett would consist of ten ridges. 

' Set tae lowe,' set on fire. 

Setting down, sb. a scolding. Same as Doing off. 

Setts, sb. pi. ' Paving setts ' or ' cross setts,' rectangular blocks of 
stone used for paving streets. 

Seven'dible, sb. thorough or severe ; very great. 

Severals, sb. ^>Z. several persons or things. ' Severals told me 
about it.' 

Shaaps, Shaups, sb. pi. the shells of beans or peas. 

Shade, sb. the parting or division of the hair on one's head ; a shed. 

Shai. sb. a shoe. 



ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 89 

Shaima-hait, sb. nothing. Same as Sorra halt, Deil a hait. 

Shamrock, sb.. The lesser yellow trefoil (Trifulium minus) is the 
plant the leafy part of which is worn as a shamrock on Patrick's Day 
(March 17th). 

Shandry-dan, sb. an old shaky and noisy car or carriage. 

Shank, sb. a handle. 

Shanks 's mare, sb. on foot. ' We went there on shanks' s mare.' 

Shanough, (1) sb. a confidential chat. 

(2) v. to talk confidentially ; to gossip. 
Sharn, sb. cow-dung. 

Shaver, sb. a wag or funny fellow ; a keen, shrewd fellow. 
Shear, v. to reap corn. 
Shearin', sb. the cutting of corn. 

Shebeen, sb. a place where intoxicating drink is sold without a 
license. 

Shebeening, v. keeping a place for the unlicensed sale of drink. 

She-cock, sb. corruption of ' Shake cock,' a small hay-stack built up 
loosely. 

Shedding, sb. the place where cross roads intersect. 

Sheela, a ' molly-coddle ' or effeminate man. Shcela is a woman's 
name. 

Sheep's naperty, sb. a plant, Potent ilia tormentilla. 

Sheerman, sb. a workman employed at a bleach green. Obsolete. 
"Wanted a skilful journeyman sheerman and dyer." Belfast News- 
letter, 1739. 

She sole, sb. a fish, the whiff, Rhombus Megastoma. 

Sheugh, sb. a ditch. ' I always let the sheugh build the dike,' i. e. I 
always let what was dug out of the ditch make the raised fence, a 
saying, my spending never exceeded my earning. ' Scourin' a dyke 
sheugh,' cleaning out a ditch. 

Shill corn, sb. a small hard pimple on the face. 
Shilling seeds, sb. pi. the husks of oats. 

Shilling stones, sb. pi. the pair of stones in a corn mill which are 
used for taking the husks off oats. 

Shilty, sb. a pony (corruption of Shetland). 
Shin. Shoon, sb. pi. shoes. 
Shinnen, sb. a sinew. 

Shinney, sb. hockey, a boys' game, played with shitmeys, i. e. hooked 
sticks, and a ball or small block of wood culled the ' golloy ' or ' nag.' 



90 ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 

Shired, adj. thin : applied to a part of any knitted article which is 
thinner than the rest owing to loose knitting. 

Shirey, adj. thin : applied to the thin part of a crop or of a garment, 
or of woven materials. 

Shoddy, sb. pi. the smaller stones at a quarry. 

Shoddy men, sb. pi. the men who shape paving sets, &c., at a 
quarry. 

Shods, sb. pi. the iron heel-tips on men's hoots. 

Shoe mouth, sb. the open of a shoe. ' I was over the shoe moufh 
in glar.' 

Snog, sb. a jolt or shake. 

Shoo, v. to sew. 

Shoot, v. to set a long line or net : a fisherman's term. 

Shore, sb. a sewer. 

Shot, sb. a half-grown pig. 

Shotten herring, sb. a spent herring ; one that has spawned. 

Showl, adj. shallow, as ' sJiowl water.' 

Shows, Shoughs, Shives, sb. pi. flax refuse. It is the hard part of 
the stem in small fragments. 

Shuggy-shu, sb. (1) a beam of wood balanced so that persons sitting 
on the opposite ends go up and down alternately ; (2) a swing. 

Shuler, sb. a vagrant. 
Shunners, sb. pi. cinders. 
Shut, sb. a shutter. 

Si, sb. a dressmaker's term for the part of a dress between the arm- 
pit and chest. 

Sib, adj. related by blood. 

Sic, such. 

Siccan, such. ' Siccan a heap o' coos.' 

Sicker, adj. sure ; precise in mode of speaking. 

Sight, sb. a quantity. There was a quare sight of people there.' 

Silly-go-saftly, Silly-go-sefly, sb. a foolish, useless creature. 

Simper, v. to simmer. 

Sinnerry, Sinthery, adv. asunder. 

Sirraft Chooseday, sb. Shrove Tuesday. 

' Sit down off your feet,' sit down. 

Sit fast, *b. a ranunculus, R. reperts. 



ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 91 

Skart, Scart, sb. a cormorant. 

Skeeg, sb. a small quantity. Same as a Wee drop. ' There's no a 
skeeg o' watther in the kettle.' Same as Squig. 

Skee-weep, sb. a dash ; a smear ; something indistinct in writing. 
Skeigh, adj. restless ; frisky. 

Skelf, (1) sb. a splinter or chip. ' He got a shelf o' wud ondher 'is 
nail.' 

(2) v. to splinter. 

Skelly, (1) sb. a guess; an unsuccessful attempt. 'You made a 
queer skelly at it.' 

(2) v. to squint. 
Skelp, (1) sb. a blow. 
(2) v. to run ; to slap. 

Skemlin, sb. a quantity of peat dug from the edges of a bog-hole, 
and thrown in to be mixed, and afterwards taken out and dried. 
' Tak' a skemlin aff that side o' the hole.' 

Skeow, sb. a large flat barge, used to receive the mud raised by a 
dredging machine. 

Skep, sb. a straw bee-hive. 

Skerry brand, sb. sheet lightning. 

Skey, sb. a small artificial island forming part of an eel-weir. 

Skiff, sb. a slight shower. 

Skillet, sb. a small saucepan. 

Skillop, sb. a gouge-shaped borer, of tapered form, for wood. 

Skimp, v. to stint. 

Skimpy, adj. a tight fit ; short ; deficient in quantity. 

Skin a fairy, v. said of very cold weather. ' Dear, but it's that 
cowl it would skin a fairy.' 

Skinadhre, sb. a thin, fleshless, stunted person. 
Skink, sb. a mixture to drink. 

Skip, a box in which stones are hoisted out of a quarry ; a basket or 
crate to contain live fowls in transit ; a large basket. 

Skip-jack, sb. the merry-thought of a goose made into a child's toy. 
See Jump -jack. 

Skirl, (1) sb. a cry or scream. 

(2) v. to scream 
Skirr, sb. a sea-bird, the tern. 
Skirt, v. to run 



(J2 ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 

Skite, (1) sb. a term of contempt ; an empty, conceited fellow. 

(2) si. a sharp slap or blow. 

(3) v. to slap. 
Skiver, sb. a skewer. 

Skiver the goose, sb. a boys' game. Two persons are trussed some- 
what like fowls : they then hop about on their ' hunkers,' each trying 
to upset the other. 

Skull, v. ' To slmll cattle,' to cut off their horns close to the head. 

Skulled, adj. Same as Horned or Polled. Applied to cattle which 
have been subjected to the cruel operation of having their horns sawii 
off close to the skull. 

Skyble, sb. a thin person. 

Slabby, adj. sloppy ; muddy. ' Slabby wet clay.' 

Slack, adj. neglectful ; remiss. 

Slack lime, v. to put water on quick lime. 

Slack spun, adj. said of a person who is half a fool. The same 
kind of person is said ' to have only eleven cuts to the hank,' or ' he 
is not all there,' or ' he wants a square of being round,' &c. 

Slap, (1) sb. a gap or passage through a hedge for occasional use. It 
is closed by filling up the opening with branches, &c. 

(2) sb. a large quantity. ' A whole slap of money.' 

Slater, or Slate-cutter, sb. the wood-louse, Oniscus, and several of 
the allied species of crustaceans. 

Slats, sb. pi. The laths of a Venetian blind and the laths of a bed- 
stead are called sluts. 

Blattering, v. going about like a slattern. 
Slavers, sb. pi. water flowing from the mouth. 

Slay hook, sb. a small implement used by weavers ; in slang, a term 
for a dried herring. 

Sleech, sb. fluviatile or marine silt ; sea-wrack growing on mud banks. 

Sleech grass, sb. Zostera marina. 

Sleek, Slake, sb. a smear ; a streak of dirt. 

Sleekit, adj. cunning ; underhand ; hypocritical. 

Sleep in, v. to lie too long in the morning, so as to be late for work. 

Slep, v. slept. < A've slep noan.' 

Sleuster, v. to flatter. 

Slever, sb. saliva. 

Sliggaun, ab. the pearl-bearing fresh-water mussel, Anodon cyynea. 

Slinge, v. to sneak about. 



ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 93 

Slip, (1) ah. a pinafore. 

(2) sb. a young pig. 

(3) v. to let slip or escape from punishment. ' If ye do that again, 
see if I slip ye for it.' 

Slipe, (1) sb. a triangular framework of wood on which large boulder 
stones are drawn out of fields ; a large trough, like a cart without 
wheels, used for drawing earth or wet peat from one part of a field or 
bog to another ; a kind of sledge on which stones are drawn down 
hilly roads. 

(2) v. ' To slipe stones ' = to draw them out of a field on a ' slipe.' 
' To slipe mud ' = to carry it in a ' slipe ' from the bog-hole to a level 
place where it is spread out to harden and cake into turf. 

Slip of a girl, sb. a young, growing girl. 
Slither, v. to slip or slide. 

Sliver, sb. Flax in process of being spun by machinery is drawn 
out into a ribbon or long lock before it is twisted : this lock is called 
sliver. 

Sliver can, sb. a tall cylinder of tin in which the ' sliver ' is coiled 
away and then carried to the ' roving frame ' to get the first twist. 

Sloak, sb. a seaweed, laver, Porpliyra laciniata. Called in the Co. 
of Clare ' sluke ' or ' slukane.' 

Slobbering bib, sb. a small, thick pinafore worn by infants. 
Slockan, v. to quench fire or thirst. 

Sloiterin', Sluterin', v. loitering or lingering about pretending to 
work. 

Slonk, Slump, sb. a ditch ; a deep, wet hollow in a road. 
Slonky, adj. having muddy holes. ' That slonky road.' 
Sloosh, sb. a sluice. 
Sludge, sb. wet mud. 

Slummage, sb. a soft stuff produced at distilleries used for cattle 
feeding. 

Slump, (1) sb. a muddy place. 'The road was all slumps of holes.' 

(2) v. to sink in mud. 
Slunge, (1) sb. a skulking, sneaking fellow. 

(2) v. to slink or lounge. 

Slurry, sb. mud ; 'glar.' 'I took eight buckets of black slmry out 
of his well.' 

Sluttherin', Swattherin', v. applied to the noisy, slopping way that 
ducks feed. 

Slype, v. to strip the branches off trees. ' They would come and 
slype them down in the night for no use. ' 



94 ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 

Small family, sb. a family of small children. 

Smell, sb. a small quantity. 

Smirr, Smurr, si. ' A smirr of rain,' a slight shower. 

Smit, v. infected. ' I think you've smit me with that cowl.' 

Smithereens, sb. pi. small fragments. 

Smittle, adj. infectious. ' Is it anything smittle he has 1 ' 

Smoorin', v. smothering in sense of covering over, as snow over 
ground or treacle over bread. 

Smud, Smudge, v. to smoulder. 

Smuddy coom, Smiddy cooni, sb. the ashes from a smith's forge. 

Smudge, sb. a concealed laugh. 

Smudging, v. laughing in a smothered way. 

Snack, Snick, sb. a thumb-latch. 

Snail's pace, sb. To go at a snail's pace, to go very slowly. 

Snakes, sb. ' Snakes set here,' is a form of notice sometimes painted 
on a board at the boundaries of plantations, &c. The snakes are sup- 
posed to be iron spikes, fixed point upwards in the ground. 

Snake stones, sb. pi. ammonites found in the Lias. 
Snaply, adj. quickly. 

Snap the head off one, v. to he very angry. ' Feth, he was like 
to ha' snapped the heed aff me.' 

Sned, (1) sb. the handle of a scythe. 

(2) v. to cut. ' Sned turnips,' to cut off the leaves'. 
Snedden, sb. a large-sized sand-eel. 
Snell, adj. supercilious ; impudent. 
Snib, Sneck, v. to fasten. ' Snib the window.' 
Snicher, Snigger, v. to giggle. 
Sniffle, v. to sniff. 
Snifter, v. to sniff. 
Snifther, sb. a strong blast of wind. 
Snifthers, sb. a cold in the head. 

Snig, sb. a juvenile thief, who steals the kites of other boys by 
cutting the string and seizing the kite when it falls. 

Snirt, v. to make a noise through the nose when endeavouring to 
suppress laughter. 

Snod, adj. cut smooth ; even : as the edges or eaves of a thatched 
roof. 



ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 95 

Snood, sb. the thin part of a sea fishing-line, to which the hook is 

fastened. 

Snook, v. to sneak. 
Snool, sb. an ill-tempered, sneaking fellow. 

Snoot. ' Whether wud ye rether hae a soo's snoot stewed, or a 
stewed soo's snoot ? ' an alliterative saying, to be said very quickly. 

Snotther, sb. mucus of the nose ; also a term of contempt. 

Snow. (1) When snow lingers on the ground it is said ' to be 
waiting for more.' 

(2) To ' go like snow off a ditch ' is to disappear quickly. The 
expression is used in reference to families that have died off rapidly. 

Snow broth, Snoo broo, sb. half-melted snow. 
Snuggle, v. to nestle, as a child against its mother's breast. 
Snurley, adj. gnarled or twisted. 
So ! (1) indeed ! 

(2) ' So I am,' ' so I will,' ' so it is,' are added apparently to make a 
statement more forcible. ' I will, so I will,' is considered to be 
stronger than merely ' I will. ' 

Soans, sb. Same as Sowans. ' Sup sodns wi' an elsin,' attempt an 
impossibility. 

Soddenecl. adj. " The stones so saddened or wedged together, yoii 
cannot get one loose to throw at a fowl." EICHABD DOBBS, Descrip- 
tion of the Co. of Antrim, 1683. 

Soft, Saft, adj. wet, as applied to weather. 

Soft drinks, sb. pi. soda-water, lemonade, &c., as distinguished from 
whisky, &c., which are called hard drinks. 

Soil, (1) sb. fresh fodder for cattle. 
(2) v. to feed cattle in the house. 
Sojer (soldier), sb. a red herring. 

Soldiers, sb. pi. The little creeping sparks on paper that has been 
burned, but is not quite converted into ashes, are called by children 
soldiers. 

Sole, (1) sb. a sill. 'A window sole.' 

(2) sb. the sod ; grassy turf. ' The lawn has a good sole.' 
Sonsy and douce, pleasant and quiet. 

Sonsy, adj. lucky. ' It's not sonsy to do that.' Comely ; stout : as 
applied to a woman. 

Soo, sb. a sow. 

Soogan, sb. a saddle of straw or rushes. 

Soo luggit, sb. with the ears hanging. ' A soo luggit horse.' 



00 ANTRIM AND DOAVN GLOSSARY. 

Soop, v. to sweep. 

Soople, (1) sb. a part of a flail. See Flail. 

(2) adj. flexible; active. 
Sooter, sb. a fish, the gemmeous diagonal, CaU/onimuj Lyra. 

Sore, (1) adj. sad ; unpleasant ; severe. ' It's a sore day on the 
stocks,' i. e. a very wet day. Also pitiful or contemptible. ' He's a 
sore fool.' 
(2) v. swore. 

Sore foot, adj. Same as ' a rainy day,' i. e. bad times or sickness. 

Sore hand, Sair han', sb. a disagreeable spectacle ; anything spoiled 
or disfigured. ' He fell in the mud, an' made a sore han o 1 himsel'.' 
' He tried to paint the boat, and made a sore hand of it.' 

Sore head, sb. a headache. 

Sore thumb, sb. ' To sit up like a sore thumb,' to sit with a super- 
cilious or unbending air. 

Sorra halt, nothing. ' Sorra hait rowled up in deil perlickit,' 
nothing at all.' 

Sorra mend ye, you deserve it. 

Sorra yin, not one. 

Sort, v. to repair anything. 

Sosh, adj. snug ; comfortable ; neat-looking. ' She's a snslt wee las=.' 
Saucy. 

Soud. v. ' Let them sand it amang themsel's,' ?'. e. let them settle it 
among themselves. 

Sough, (1) sb. a hollow sobbing or groaning sound, caused by the 
wind or by running water ; the sound that conies from a great crowd 
of persons at a distance ; a rumour or report of news. 

(2) 'Keep a calm sough till the tide comes in,' i. e. have patience. 

(3) v. to breathe loudly in sleep, but not to snore. 
Sourlick, Sour'k, sb. a sorrel, Rumex acetosa. 

Sowan pot. ' A wud nae gi'e scrapin's o' a soican pot for it : ' said 
of anything very worthless. 

So wans, sb. flummery ; a sour gruel made from the husks of oats 
called seeds. These are steeped in water till the liquor sours ; they 
are then strained out, and the fluid portion is boiled. This thickens 
into a kind of jelly on cooling. 

Spadesman, sb. a man accustomed to dig. 

Spading, Spitting, 6-?>. the depth of soil raised at one time by the 
spade. 

Spae, v. to foretell. 

Spae fortunes, v. to tell fortunes. 



ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 97 

Spae man, Spae wife, sb. a man or woman who it is supposed can 
tell fortunes or foretell events. 

Spain, v. to wean a child or a foal. 
Spaivied, adj. spavined. 

Spang, sb. a bound or spring. " About three horse spangs frae the 
thicket. ' ' HTTDDELSTON. 

Spangle, sb. a measure of hand-spun linen yarn. " As the terms 
hank and spangle are not known to all readers, especially in their 
application to the quantities of hand-spun yarn, it may be stated that 
after the thread had been spun, it was wound off the spool on a reel, 
constructed so as to measure exactly ninety inches in circumference. 
Every hank contained a dozen cuts, each cut was 120 rounds of the 
reel, and four hanks were counted as a spangle." Ireland and her 
Staple Manufactures. Seconded. Belfast: 1865. 

Spark, v. to splash with water or mud. 

Spark to deeth, v. to faint. ' I was liken to spark to deeth,' i. e. I 
was in a fainting condition. Eefers also to persons who can hardly 
recover breath after a paroxysm of coughing. 

Sparrow hail, sb. very small shot. 

Spave, sb. a spavin. 

Spawls, Spuls, sb. pi. long-shaped fragments of stone or wood. 

Spearling, sb. the gar-fish. Same as Horn-eel. 

Specs, sb. spectacles. 

Speel, v. to climb. 

Speer, v. to enquire. 

Spelgh, v. to splice. 

Spell-man, sb. a man engaged to work by the job or spell. 

Spend, v. to deteriorate or 'go back,' as cattle if put upon a poor 
pasture. 

Spenshelled, v. spancelled. A cow with her fore-feet tied together 
is said to be ' spemhelled.' 

Spentacles, sb. spectacles. 
Spit, v. to rain slightly. 

Split the differ, v. to divide the sum which is the difference between 
buyer and seller in bargaining. 

Spoiled five, sb. a game of cards. 

Spoke, v. to 'spoke a cart,' is to force it on by pulling round the 
wheels by the spokes. 

Spool of the breast, sb. the bone in the middle of the breast. 
Spraughle, (1) v. to sprawl. 
(2) sb. a straggling branch. 

II 



98 ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 

Sprickly-beg, sb. a stickleback. 

Springer, or Springin' cow, sb. a cow in calf. 

Springing, v. about to calve. 

Sprint, v. the ' keeper ' of a chest lock. 

Sprig, v. to embroider muslin or linen. 

Sprigging, sb. the occupation of embroidering muslin. 

Sprit, sb. a mildew or disease to which growing flax is subject. 

Same as Firing. 

Sprnnged, adj. miserable-looking ; starved. 
Spuans, sb. what is vomited. 
Spuds, sb. potatoes. 

Spulpin, sb. a corruption of the Irish word usually written * spalpeen,' 
a troublesome or disagreeable fellow. 

Spung, sb. a large pocket. 

Spunkie, adj. high-spirited; courageous. 

Spurtle, sb. a pot stick. A small double-pointed flat stick with a 
T head, used for thrusting in the knots of straw, in repairing a 
thatched roof. 

Spy farlies, v. to pry about for any thing strange. ' Now, don't be 
commin' in here to spy farlies.' 

Spy hole, sb. In cottages a wall called the ' hollan ' is built to screen 
the hearth from the observation of any one standing at the threshold ; 
but in order to allow a person within to see who approaches the door, 
a small hole, usually triangular, but sometimes four or five-sided, is 
made in the ' hollan,' three or four feet from the floor ; this is the 
spy hole. 

Spy Wednesday, sb. the "Wednesday before Easter. 

Squagh, sb. the cry of wild ducks or geese. 

Square, sb. a squire. 

Squench, v. to quench. 

Squig, sb. Same as Skeeg. 

Squinacy, sb. a quinsy. 

Stab, sb. a stake or post. 

Stab, Beggar's stab, sb. a large thick needle. 

Stag, sb. a game cock under a year old ; an informer. 

Stagger, sb. an attempt. Same as Stammer. 

Stagging, sb. a man's game. Two men have their own ankles tied 
together, and their wrists tied behind their back ; they then try to 
knock each other down. 



ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 99 

Stag warning, sb. a boy's game. 

Stake and rice, sb. a kind of paling. 

Stammer, sb. an attempt. ' Ye didn't make a bad stammer at it.' 

Stand, sb. Four knitting needles are a stand. 

Standard, sb. the upright stick of a kite. 

Stand at peace ! stand quiet. 

Stand by, (1) sb. a snack ; something taken in place of a regular meal. 

(2) v. stand aside. 

Stand off, adj. reserved ; haughty. 
Stand over, v. to warrant the quality of anything. 
Stank, sb. a ditch or ' sheugh ' in which water lies. 
Stank hole, sb. a pool of stagnant water. 
Stank water, sb. stagnant water. 

Stanlock, sb. a fish, the seath or grey lord, Merlangus carbonarius. 
Stapple, sb. the stem of a pipe. 

Stare like a stuck pig, v. to stare in a stupefied manner. 
Stchiven, sb. a kind of sea-wrack on which pigs are sometimes fed. 
Steek, v. to shut. ' Steek your e'en,' shut your eyes. 
Steeped milk, sb. curdled milk. 

Steep grass, sb. Pinguicula vulgaris, used for cudling milk along 
with rennet. 

Stelk, sb. mashed potatoes and beans. Same as Bean champ. 
Sten, v. to rear. ' Stennin' like a tip on a tether,' a comparison. 
Stenchels, sb. pi. the wooden cross bars in a window-sash. 

Step-mother's bairn, sb. the caterpillar of the tiger moth. Also 
called Granny. 

Sthroe, sb. straw. 

Sti, adj. steep. ' A sti brae.' ' A sti roof,' a high pitched roof. 

Stian, sb. a stye on the eyelid. 

Stick. ' If you throw him against the wall he would stick,' said of 
a very dirty person. 

Stickin', adj. obstinate ; stiff. 

Still, adv. always. ' He's still asking me to do it.' 

Stilts of a plough, sb. pi. the handles of a plough. 

Stime, sb. ' It was so dark I couldn't see a stime before me,' i. e. I 
could not see anything at all. 

H 2 



100 ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 

Stir, sb. popular commotion ; excitement ; a concourse of people. 
Stirk, sb. a cow one or two years old. ' A bull stirk,' a young bull. 
Stitch, sb. clothes. ' She hadn't a dry stitch on.' 
Stock, sb. the outside of a bed, i. e. the side furthest from the wall. 
' I canna' sleep ony where but at the stock.' 

Stoit, v. to walk in a careless, staggering way. 

Stone. It is said that during the winter half of the year, the ^cold 
side of every stone turns uppermost. There is also a saying' Never 
sit on a stone in a month with an E in it.' 

Stone-checker, sb. the wheatear ; also the cock stone-chat. The hen 

is ' whin-c/iec&er.' 
Stood, v. withstood. ' Your honour knows I never stood your word.' 

Stock, (1) sb. the 'shock' into which sheaves of corn are first built 
up after being cut generally from eight to eighteen sheaves. 
(2) v. to put up sheaves of corn in ' stooks ' or shocks. 

Stookie, sb. the inflated skin of a dog or other animal, used by fisher- 
men as a float for their lines or nets. 

Stooky, sb. a thick red composition used by French polishers. 
Stopple, sb. a knot of hair in a brush. 

Stour, (1) sb. dust. ' It went oft like stour:' said of something that 

has sold rapidly. 

(2) sb. a disturbance or row. 
Stove, v. to suffocate with smoke. 
Straddle, sb. the saddle on the back of a cart-horse on which the 

' back-band ' rests. 

Strain the anklet, sb. to sprain the ankle. 

Strange, v. to wonder. ' I strange very much that you didn't come.' 

Stranger. ' You're a great stranger,' i. e. I have not seen you lately, 
or you have not been here lately. 

Stravaig, v. to wander about. 

Stresses, sb. pi. " Many of the inhabitants, particularly females, 
die in their youth of what they call stresses, that is violent heats from 
hard work." MASON'S Parochial Survey, 1814. 

Strick, (1) sb. a small handful of flax fibre. 

(2) v. to arrange flax which has passed through the rollers, for the 
scutchers, so as to make it as even as possible. 

Strickle, sb. an oak stick covered with emery for sharpening scythes. 
Same as Stroke. 

Strip, sb. the soil or clay which has to be stripped off the surface of 



ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 101 

a rock, before the rock can be quarried. Also called Red, j. e. some- 
thing to be got rid of. 

Stripper, sb. a cow that is giving milk, but is not in calf. 

Strippings, sb. the last milk taken from a cow at each milking ; it is 
the richest. 

Strit, sb. a plant, Juncus lamprocarpus. 

Stroke, (1) sb. an oak stick covered with emery for sharpening 
scythes. Same as Strickle. 

(2) sb. a measure of potatoes containing two bushels. Dungiven, 
co. Deny (MASON'S Parochial Survey, 1814). 

(3) sb. to give a ' stroke of the harrow,' is to pass a harrow over 
land. 

Stroop, sb. a spout, as ' the stroop of the kettle.' 

Strunt, sb. a sulky fit. 

Stughies, sb. pi. stews, of a greasy and coarse description. 

Stump and rump, sb. the whole. 

Stune, sb. a sting of pain. 

Stupe, v. to bathe or sponge any part. 

Sturdy, sb. " Near the sea-coast a sort of Poyson, I take it, called 
darnell, rises in the oats and other grain, very offensive to the brain, 
and cannot be cleaned out of the corn ; ye country people call it 
sturdy, from the effects of making people light-headed." Description 
of the co. of Antrim, by BICHARD DOBBS, 1683. 

Such an', such. ' Such an' a fine day.' 
Suck in, (1) sb. a deception. 

(2) v. to deceive ; to mislead. 
Suck ! Suck ! a call to a calf. 
Sucky, sb. a calf. 

Sugar. ' You're neither sugar nor salt that you'd melt : ' said to 
reconcile a person to a wetting. 

Sum, sb. " A sum of cattle in these parts is what they call a collop 
in other parts of Ireland, consisting of one full-grown cow or bullock, 
of three years old, or a horse of that age ; though in some places a 
horse is reckoned a sum and a half. Eight sheep make a sum." 
HARRIS, Hist. co. Down, 1744. In some places six ewes and six 
lambs make a sum. 

Sundays. 'A month of Sundays' = a long time. 'I won't go 
back there for a month of Sundays. 1 

Sup, (1) sb. a small quantity of any liquid. 

(2) sb. a quantity. 'A good sup of rain fell last night.' 



102 ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 

Sup sorra, v. to be sorry ; to repent. ' Sup sorra wi* the spoon o' 
grief,' a saying. 

Surely to goodness, adv. surely. 

Swab, (1) sb. a butcher's swab = a butcher's boy. 

(2) sb. a contemptuous term for a person. 
Swank, sb. a tall, thin man. 
Sward, sb. the swathe, or line of grass cut by the scythe. 

Swayed, adj. said of a wall that is leaning to one side. 

Sweel, sb. a swivel. 

Sweer, adj. unwilling ; slow. 

Swinge, v. to singe. 

Swinger, sb. anything big. ' That conger eel 's a swinger.' 

Swingle-tree, sb. part of the tackle of a plough. 

Swirl, sb. a whirling gust of wind. 

Swirly, sb. a quarryman's term for a large ammonite. 

Swither, v. to be in doubt ; to hesitate. 

Switherin', undecided. ' I'm switherin' whether to go or not. 

S withers, sb. To be 'in the swithers,' wavering; to be undecided. 
' I'm in the swithers what to do.' 

Swurl o' wun, sb. a blast of wind. 
Synavug, a soft crab. Same as a Peeler. 
Syne, adv. late. 



Taapie, sb. a silly, careless woman. 

Tack, sb. a rancid taste or taint, in butter, &c. 

Tackle, sb. a quick and rather troublesome child. 

Tacky, adj. sticky as varnish, not quite hard. 

Taen, v. taken. 

Taickle, sb. a randy ; a talking, scolding woman. 

Tail of the eye, sb. the corner of the eye. ' I saw him with the tail 
of my eye.' ' Now don't be watchin' me out of the tail of your eye.' 

Tak, or Take, sb. a piece of ground taken on lease. 



ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 103 

Take. 'Take to your beaters.' 'Take to your scrapers' = run 
away. 

Take a hand at, v. to impose upon ; to banter ; to hoax. ' I know 
yer just taJcin' a han' at me.' 

Take an' do, to do. ' Take an' do that at once.' 

Take bad, v. to take ill. 

Take in with, to overtake a person. ' You'll soon take in with him.' 

Taken on with, pleased with. 'They're greatly taken on with him." 

Take notice, v. an infant beginning to show that it observes things 
is said to ' take notice.' 

Take off, (1) si. a mimic. 'Dear! but you're a sore take off.' 

(2) v . to mimic. ' He took her off to the life.' 
Take stock, v. to take notice of ; to observe. 
Tak' yer tobacco, don't be in a hurry. 
Tammock, si. a little knoll, in a bog or marsh. 
Tanny, sb. a dark-complexioned (tawney) person. 
Tap o' kin, sb. the head of the family. 

Tap o' tow. Flax or tow placed on the ' rock ' of a spinning- Avheel, 
which if set on fire, would be all ablaze in an instant. Hence the 
saying ' He went aff like a tap o y tow' meaning he got into a flaming 
passion in an instant. 

Tarble han', terrible hand. Same as Sore hand. 
Tarbillest, adj. most terrible. 
Targe, (1) sb. a scolding woman. 

(2) v. to scold loudly. 

Targein'. ' A targein' fine horse,' a very fine horse. 
Taste, sb. a small quantity. 'A taste o' matches.' 
Tasty, adj. tasteful; natty. ' Oh, he's a very tasty man.' 
Tatty, adj. untidy ; unkempt. 
Tawpened, adj. tufted as a fowl. 
Tawpenny, sb. a hen with a tuft on its head. 
Tear, (1) v. to run fast. 

(2) v. to knock or ring violently at a door. 

(3) [Teer] 'There's a tear in yer e'e like a threv'lin' rat,' saying. 

Tears. ' The tears were running down his cheeks like beetles up a 
hill : ' said in ridicule of a child who is crying for nothing. 



104 ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 

Teem, (1) v. to pour. 'He teemed a pint of it down the dog's 
throat.' 

(2) sb. heaviest rain. ' I was out in a perfect teem' 

Telling. ' It would be no tellin',' i. e. it would not tell or count in 
one's favour would be hurtful. ' It would be tellin' me a quare dale 
if I'd knowed that afore,' i. e. it would have been of great consequence 
to me to have known, &c. 

Temp a sant (tempt a saint), to be very annoying. ' It would temp 
a sant the way you're gettin' on.' 

Tendered, v. made tender, as linen sometimes is in 'the bleach.' 
' The fibre (of flax) tendered by excess of moisture.' 

Tent of ink, sb. as much ink as a pen will lift at once out of an ink- 
bottle. 

Thairm, sb. cat-gut. 

That, (1) so. ' He was that heavy we couldn't lift him.' 

(2) used in sense of this. A. common salutation. ' That's a soft 
day,' means, ' This is a wet day.' 

The day, to-day. ' "Will you go the day, or the morrow 1 ' 

Thee, sb. the thigh. 

Thegither, adv. together. 

Theirsels, themselves. 

The long eleventh of June, saying, used as a comparison of length. 

The more, adv. although. ' He did it, the more he said he wouldn't.' 

The morra come niver, never. 

The pigs ran through it, something interfered to prevent the 
arrangement being carried out. 

Thick, (1) adj. friendly; confidential. 'As thick as thieves.' 

(2) adj. in quick succession ; close together. 
Think a heap, v. to like ; to value. ' We think- a heap of him.' 

Think long, v. to feel a longing ; to be home-sick. ' What's the 
matter with you; are you thinking long?' 

Think pity, v. to pity ; to take pity. ' I thought pity o' the chile he 
was that cowl.' 

Think shame, be ashamed. ' Think shame o' yersel', child ! ' 

Thirtage, sb. Same as Mootther, or Moulter. The proportion of 
meal paid to a miller for grinding. Obsolete, 1 believe. 

Thirteen, sb. a name for a British shilling at the time when the 
British and Irish currencies were different. The shilling was worth 
thirteen pence Irish. 



ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 105 

Thole, (1) v. to bear; to endure. 

(2) ' A haporth o' thole-weel, an' a pennorth o' nivir-let-on-ye-hae- 
it,' recommended as a cure for a trifling ailment. 

Thon, adv. yon. 
Thonder, adv. yonder. 
Thongin', sb. a beating. 
Thoom, sb. the thumb. 

Thooms (thumbs). ' They might lick thooms tae the elbows,' i. e. 
the one is as bad as the other. ' We may lick thooms upon that,' a 
common saying when two parties agree to a bargain, or have a com- 
munity of opinion (Ulster Journal of Archaeology). 

Thorn grey, sb. the common grey linnet. Also called Hedge grey. 

Thorough, or Thorra, adj. wise ; sane. ' The poor fellow's not 
thorough.' 1 

Thought, sb. a small quantity of anything. ' A wee thought,' a less 
quantity. 

Thraiveless, adj. careless ; silly, or restless, applied to a person dis- 
inclined to do anything, the disinclination arising from weakness. 
' I was thraiveless after that long illness.' 

Thrapple, Thrap, sb. the wind-pipe ; the throat. 

Thraw, v. to twist ; to turn. 

" Wha scarce can thraw her neck half roun', 
Tae bid guid morn her neighbour." HUDDLESTON. 

' Them boots would thraw yer feet.' 

Thraw a rope, to be hanged (the weight of the body causes the rope 
to 'thraw'). 

Thraw hook, sb. a hooked stick used for twisting hay-rope. 
Thraw mule, sb. a perverse and obstinate person. 
Thread the needle and sew, sb. a children's game. 
Threave, sb. the straw of two stocks (shocks) of corn. 
Threep, v. to argue, or contest a point. 
Threshel, sb. the threshold. 
Thristle cock, sb. the common bunting. 
Throm, prep. from. 

Throng, adj. crowded. ' The streets were very throng,' over-throng = 
over-crowded. 

Through, (1) adv. in the course of. ' I'll call through the day.' 

(2) adv. a horse ' working through land,' means working in fields, 



106 ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 

ploughing, &c. ' Going through the floor ' = walking about a room 
as a nurse does with a restless child. 

Through-other, Throother, adj. confused ; untidy ; without order. 
' She's a through-other sort o' buddy.' ' His horse is all through-other.' 

Throw, v, to cause. ' It throws us that we can't get the place cleared 

out.' 
Throw by, v . throw away. ' Throw by that owl hat aff ye.' 

Thrum, sb. a threepence. A commission of three pence per stone on 
flax, paid by a flax buyer to a person who brings the buyer and seller 
together in open market. 

Thrumphry, sb. rubbish ; broken furniture. 

Thrums, sb. pi. the ends of the threads of a weaver's warp. 

Thrush, sb. a boy's game. 

Thrush, the, sb. a skin eruption. 

Thrushed in the feet, applied to a horse whose feet have become 
tender from the effect of dry hot weather. 

Thump, sb. bean champ, i. e. mashed potatoes and beans. 

Thunder. ' He turned up his eyes like a duck in thunder,' i. e. he 
showed astonishment. 

Thunder-bolt, a stone celt ; also a belemnite. 
Thunderin', very. ' Thumderin* good hay." 

Thurrish, v. to be friendly, kindly, or accommodating. ' These people 
wouldn't thurrish together.' 

Tib's eve, or St. Tib's eve, never. ' I'll marry you on Tib's eve, an' 
that's neither before Christmas nor after,' saying. 

Ticht, adj. smart ; active. ' A ticM, clean fellow. 1 
Ticklish, adj. difficult; precarious. 

Tid, Tidge, sb. a fine warm bed for crops ; adj. the quality of soil 
that is fit for the reception of seed. ' That ground is in fine tid,' i. e. 
pulverised and dry. 

Tied. ' He was fit to be tied,' i. e. in a great passion. 

Tig, sb. a children's game. The one that 'has tig,' chases the others 
till he ' gives tig ' to one of them by touching ; the one ' tigged ' then 
chases the others who avoid him as dangerous. ' Cross-tig,' is a 
modification of this game. 

Till, (1) sb. heavy clay; the subsoil. 

(2) prep, used for to. ' A'm goin' till Lisburn.' 
Till iron, sb. a crow-bar. 
Till midden, sb. a manure-heap in a ploughed field. 



ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 107 

Time, (1) ' If I can make time ' = if I have time. 

(2) ' You kept time between you and the day,' i. e. you kept putting 
off the evil day. 

Time o' day. To ' bid the time o' day,' is to salute a person with 
' good morning ' or anything similar. 

Timmersome, adj. timorous. 

Tin, sb. What is known as ' a tin, 1 is a tin mug or porringer. 

Tinker's toast, sb. the crust at the side of a loaf which has been one 
of the outside loaves of a batch. 

Tint, adj. one-third rotten, applied to wood that has been kept 
seasoning till it begins to decay. 

Tip, sb. a ram. 

Tirl, Thirl, v. to turn up something. ' The wun' thirled the thatch 
las' nicht.' 

To, (1) adv. used for till. ' Come here to I kiss you.' 

(2) prep, used for for. 'You can get a bit to yourself.' 
Toardst, adv. towards. 
Tod, sb. a fox. 
To-morrow was a year, a year ago from to-morrow. 

Tom pudden, sb. the little grebe ; also called, ' penny-bird,' ' drink a 
penny,' ' Willie Hawkie.' 

Tongue, (1) ' Has a tongue wud clip clouts.' ' Has a tongue wud clip 
iron or brass,' applied to a great talker, or to a person who has ' a 
cuttin' tongue.' 

(2) v. to scold. 
Tongue thrash, v. to scold. 
Tongue-thrashing, sb. a scolding. 
Tonguing, sb. abuse ; a violent scolding. 
Too big riggit, adj. over rigged, as a boat. 
Took, (1) struck or caught. ' A stone just took him in the eye.' 

(2) v. went. ' They took down the old road.' 
Took off, v. ran away. 
Toom, adj. empty. 

Tooth. Children when they are losing their first teeth, are told 
when a tooth is taken out, that if they do not put their tongue into 
the hole, a gold tooth will grow. 

Top, v. to lop off the top branches in pruning a hedge. 

Top pickle. ' The top pickle of all grain belongs to the gentry,' i. e. 
to the fairies. 



108 ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 

Tory, sb. a deceiving person, usually applied in banter ; a term of 
endearment for a child, thus' Ah ! you're a right tory? ' A rayl 
tory? ' A sore tory,' &c. 

Tothan, sb. a silly person. 

To the fore, in existence. 

Tottherry, adj. untidy ; ragged. 

Touch, sb. a loop of cord put round a horse's tongue or lip. 

Touch an' hail, sb. (touch and heal), the St. John's wort, Hyporicum 
perforation. Prunella vulgaris is also so-called. 

Tours, sb. pi. peat sods used in firing. 

Tove, v. to boast or brag. 

Tover, sb. a boaster. 

Tovey, Toved, adj. puffed up ; silly ; self-important. 

Tovy eedyot, sb. a puffed up fool. 

Towarst, adv. towards. 

Town stinker, sb. a boy's game, played with a ball. The 'toicn' is 
marked by a circle on the ground, and two parties of boys take 
possession of it alternately, according to their success in striking the 
ball in certain directions. 

Track, sb. In playing marbles, a boy who hits one marble may 
' take track off it,' i. e. he gets another shot. 

Traik, (1) sb. a long, tiresome walk. 
(2) v. to be sickly ; not to thrive. 
Train, v. to travel by train. ' He'll have to train it every day.' 

Tramp cock, sb. a hay- cock, which has been tramped to make it more 
solid. 

Trams, sb. pi. the portions of the shafts which project behind the 
body of a cart. They are also called Back-trams. 

Trash, Green trash, sb. unripe or bad fruit. 

Travel, v. to walk. ' I travelled it every fut o' the way.' 

Treadwuddy, sb. an iron hook and swivel used to connect a single 
or double tree with a plough or harrow. 

Trench, v. to dig land down to the sub-soil. 

Trig, (1) sb. the line from which persons jumping start from, when 
making the jump. 

(2) adj. neat; trim. 
Trigged up, v. trimmed up ; settled. 
Trinket, v. a small artificial water-course. 



ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 109 

Trinkle, v. to trickle. 

Trodge, v. to walk ; to saunter. 

Trodger, sb. a traveller on foot. 

Trog, sb. slow and petty dealing in the market. 

Troth, in truth. ' Troth an' I won't.' 

Troubles the, sb. the Irish rebellion of 1641. 

Trout heaght, sb. trout height, the height that a trout can leap from 
the water, used as a standard or comparison of height. 

Truckle, sb. a small car, in common use before the introduction of 
the present farm carts. 

Truff, v. to steal. 

Truff the ducks, a term applied to beggars and vagrants. 
Trule, sb. a trowel. 
Trump, sb. a Jew's-harp. 

Trunnel, Trinnel, (1) sb. the wheel of a wheelbarrow. 
(2) v. to trundle. 'Away out an' trinnel yer hoop.' 

Truss, sb. A truss of hay is twelve score pounds. A truss of straw 
is nine score (McSKlMlN, Hist. Oarrickfergus). 

Truth. ' It's as true as truth has been this long time,' saying. 
Tryste, (1) sb. an appointment. 'He put in a tryste with his girl.' 

(2) v. to make an appointment ; to bespeak. ' You can't have them 
boots, they're trysted.' 

Trysted, v. appointed. ' I have trysted to meet him on Monday.' 
Tthur ! Tthur ! a call for pigs. 
Tuck stick, sb. a sword-stick. 

Tune. ' The tune the old cow died of,' a comparison for any unre- 
cognizable air, or any particularly bad attempt at music. 

Tuppenny ticket, sb. ' It's not worth a tuppenny ticket,' i. e. it's 
quite worthless. These 'tickets' were copper, tradesmen's tokens, 
value two-pence, of which considerable numbers were issued in the 
north of Ireland in the eighteenth century. They were about the 
size of farthings. 

Turn an arch, v. to form or build an arch. 
Turned, adj. slightly sour, applied to milk. 
Turn-footins, sb. pi. small heaps of cut turf. See under Clamp. 

Turnips. 

' You may take one, 
And you may take two, 
But if you take three, 
I'll take you.' 



110 ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 

Supposed to be said by farmers concerning persons who take a turnip 
out of a field to eat it. 

Turn out the, sb. a term for the Irish rebellion of 1798. Also 
called The Hurries. 

Turn spit Jack, sb. a game at country balls, &c., in which young 
men compete by singing for their partners in the next dance. 

Turn the word, to contradict, or dispute the correctness of a state- 
ment. ' I wouldn't begin to turn the word with you.' 

Twa, nu. adj. two. 

Twa hand boy, sb. a smart fellow. 

Twall, nu. adj. twelve. 

Twalmonth, sb. a year. 

Twict, Twicet, adv. twice. 

Two double, adj. 'Bent two double.' 'Going two double,' bent 
with pain or age. 

Two-eyed beef-steak, sb. a herring. 
Twussle, sb. a tussle. 



Unaise, Unease, Unaisement, sb. an uneasy state. ' They got into 
an unaise when they heard about it.' ' It caused a great unaisement 
in the village. 1 

Unco, adj. strange. 

Underboard, adj. dead and coffined, but not yet buried. 

Underconstumble, v. to understand ; to comprehend. 

Under foot salve, sb. filth applied as a poultice in the case of 
horses, &c. 

Unfeelsome, adj. unpleasant; disagreeable. 

Unfordersome, adj. unmanageable. 

Unknownce, Unknownst, adv. unknown. 

Unpossible, adv. impossible. 

Unsignified, adj. insignificant. 

Unsonsy, adj. unlucky. 

Untimous, adj. at unseasonable times. 

Upcast, sb. a reproach ; something ' cast up ' to one. 

Upon, prep. with. ' I take the medicine upon milk.' 

Upsetting, adj. arrogant; assuming. 'The're the most upsettinest 
people in the country.' 



ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. Ill 

Up the country people, sb. pi. persons from any part of Ireland, 

except the north-east of Ulster. 
Us, pron. me. 



Vaig, sb. a disreputable, wandering person. 
Vaigish, adj. vagrant. ' A vaigisli looking person.' 

Vast. To be ' vast against a person,' is to be very much opposed to 
him. 

Vaut, sb. a vault. 

Vermint o' rats, a great quantity of rats ; a plague of rats. 

Waarsh, Worsh, adj. insipid. 'A've got a warsh taste in ma 
mouth.' 

Wabster, sb. a weaver. 
Wad, v. to wager. 

Wag at the wa', sb. a clock, of which the pendulum is exposed to 

view. 
Wag on, v. to beckon. ' I wagged on him to come across the field 

to me.' 
Wait a wee, wait a little bit. 

Waited on, just expected to die. ' He was waited on last night.' 

' He's just a waitin' on.' 
Wakerife, Waukerife, adj. wakeful. 

Wale, (1) sb. that which is chosen or selected. 

(2) v. to pick the best out of a quantity of anything. 

Waling [wailing] glass, sb. a weaver's counting glass, which magnifies 
a small portion of the surface of linen, and thus enables the set or 
count to be ascertained. 

Walked [I sounded], adj. shrunken, applied to flannel that has shrunk 
in washing. ' The flannen 's as walked an' hard as a ca's lug ' [a calf s 
ear]. 

Wallop, sb. ' A wallop of a horse,' a loose-limbed horse. 

Walloping, v. floundering. A certain lake had overflowed its banks, 
and it was said that ' the eels were wallopiri through the fields.' 

Wallopy, adj. loose limbed. 

Walter, v. ' The potatoes lie down and waiter on the ground,' i. e. 
they remain lying. 

Walthered, adj. mired or stuck in a boggy road, or swampy place. 
' Whiles in the mornin' I find the branches of the trees all walthered 
and smashed,' broken down into the mire. 



112 ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 

Wanst, adv. once. 

Want, v. to do without. ' We can't want the pony the day.' 

Wanting, without. 'You're better wanting that.' 

Wants a square of being round : said of a person who is not wise. 

War-hawk, sb. a bailiff or summons server. 

Warm the wax in your ears, box your ears. 

Warshness, sb. a sickish feeling, accompanied by a desire to taste 
something salt or with a strong flavour. 

Warts. Warts are said to be caused by the foam of the sea if it 
touches the hands. 

Washing, sb. A washing of clothes is as much as is washed at 
once. 

Wasslin', v. making a rustling or hoarse sound in breathing. ' Do 
you hear the chile wasslin' in his chest ? ' 

Wassock, sb. a wind-guard for the door of a cottage made of inter- 
woven branches of birch or hazel. Same as Corrag. 

Watch out, v. to watch for ; to look out for. 

Water, sb. a river. 'The six-mile water. 1 ' The Braid water.' 

Water-brash, sb. a sensation as of water coming up the throat into 
the mouth. 

Water-grass, sb. water-cress. 

Water guns, sb. pi. sounds as of gun-shots said to be heard around 
the shores of Lough Neagh and by persons sailing on the lake. The 
cause of the sounds, which are generally heard in calm, weather, has 
not been explained. The phenomenon is also spoken of as the Lough 
shooting. 

Water of Ayr, sb. a kind of stone highly prized for hones ; boys' 
marbles are also supposed to be made of it. Sometimes called 
Wattery vair. 

Water table, sb. the channel at the side of a road. 

Water wagtail, sb. the grey wagtail. 

Waur, adj. worse. ' Ance ill, aye toaur,' saying. 

Way, sb. ' He's in a great way with her,' i. e. he is very much taken 
with her, or in love with her. 

(2) ' What way are ye ? ' ' What way are ye commin' on ? ' t. e. 
how do you do ? 

Ways, sb. way ; distance. ' It's a great ways off.' 
Weak turn, sb. a fainting fit. 
Wean, Wain, sb. a child. 



ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 113 

Wear in, v. ' The time will soon wear in,' i. e. the time will soon 
pass. 

Wearie. ' The auld wearie on you,' an evil wish or curse. 
Weasel, sb. the stoat. The true weasel does not occur in Ireland. 

Weather gall, sb. the end of a rainbow seen in squally weather. 
Same as Dog. 

Weavers, sb. pi. spiders. 

Webber, sb. a country linen buyer. (Obsolete.) 

Week, sb. a wick hence the riddle or puzzle, 'Licht a can'le on 
Monday mornin', an' it '11 burn tae the week's en'.' 

Wed, v. weeded. ' The garden wants to be iced' 

Wee, (1) sb. a short time. ' In a wee ' = in a short time. 

(2) adj. little. 

Weed, sb. a feverish attack to which women are sometimes liable. 
Weel-faured, adj. good-looking. 
Wee folk, Wee people, sb. pi. fairies. 

Wee knowin', sb. a small quantity; what could be perceived. 
Weel saired, adj. well served. 
Weeny, adj. little. Same as Wee. 

Wee ones, sb. pi. children. ' There was a wheen o' wee ones follayin' 
afther thim.' 

Wee thing, a little. ' It's a wee thing sharp this mornin 1 .' 

Weght, sb. a round tray, made of sheepskin stretched on a hoop, for 
carrying corn, &c. 

Weigh butter and sell cheese, sb. a children's game. Two persons 
stand back to back and interlock their arms ; then each, by bending 
forward alternately, lifts the other off the ground. 

Well? what? 

Well-blooded, adj. with a high complexion ; rosy. 

Well ink, sb. a marsh plant, Veronica Beccdbunga. It is used 
medicinally. 

Well, I think ! an exclamation of surprise ; indeed ! 

Well of a car, sb. a receptacle for luggage or parcels in the central 
part of an ' outside car.' 

Well put on, adj. well-dressed. The reverse is 111 put on. 

Welshmen plucking their geese, a heavy shower of snow when 
the wind is S.E. or E. 

I 



114 ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 

Welt the flure, a call of encouragement to persons dancing. 

Wet-my-foot, sb. the quail : so called from its cry. Also called Wet- 
xny-lip. 

Wet shod, adj. having one's boots and stockings saturated. 

Whack, (1) sb. a good allowance of drink. ' He can take his whack.' 
A profit, or a share or slice of the profit, on a transaction. 

(2) Quality. ' It's not the whack,' i. e. not the quality ; not up to 
the mark. 

Whalin', sb. a beating. 
Whammel, v. to fall in a sprawling way. 
Whammle, Whummle, v. to upset or knock over something. 
Whang, (1) sb. a thong : hence a shoe-tie. 
(2) sb. a large slice cut off a loaf. 

Wharve, sb. the spool fastened on a spindle over which the band 
passes which drives the spindle. 

What ails you at ? means what objection or dislike have you to ? 
Thus : ' What ails you at that man ? ' ' What ails you at your stir- 
about ? ' 

What come on you ? what happened to you 1 what delayed you 1 

What do they call you ? i. e. what is your'name ? 

What like is he ? what is he like 1 

What way are "ye? how do you do? 

What way is he ? how is he ? 

Whatsumever, adv. whatever. 

Whaup, sb. a curlew, Numenius Arquata. 

Whee ! Wee ! call for a horse to stop. 

Wheen, sb. a quantity ; a number. ' Give us a wheen o' them nuts.' 
' I'll try it for a wheen o' days more.' 

Wheep, v. to whistle. 
Wheepler, sb. a whistler. 
Wheetie, sb. a duck. 
Wheetie-wheetie, a call to ducks. 
Which? what? 

Which han' will ye have it in ? a taunt, meaning you won't get 
it at all. 

Whiles, adv. now and then ; occasionally. ' Ogh, 'deed, whiles he's 
betther an' whiles he's waur.' 



ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 115 

Whillalooya. ' Singing wTiillalooya to the day nettles,' dead and 

buried. 
Whimper, sb. a whisper. 

Whim-wham. ' A whim-wham for a goose's bridle,' something that 
April fools are sent in search of. 

Whin checker, si), the hen stone chat. See Stone checker. 

Whinge, v. to whine ; to cry in a complaining way. 

Whin grey, sb. a bird, the lesser redpole. % 

Whins, sb. furze. 

Whin-stone, sb. basalt. 

Whip, v. to run quickly. 

Whish ! Whisht ! Wheesht ! inter/, hush. 

White, v. to cut small chips off a stick with a knife. 

White-headed boy, sb. a favoured one ; a mother's favourite among 
her boys. 

White horse, sb. a summons. 

White side, sb. the tufted duck, or the young of the golden eye. 

Whitey-brown thread, sb. a strong kind of thread : so called from 
its colour. 

Whitterick, sb. a small swimming bird, perhaps the little grebe. 
Whitterick, Whitterit, sb. the stoat, Mustela Erminea. 
Whizeek, sb. a severe blow. ' A hut him a whizeek on the lug.' 
Who's owe it? who owns it? 

Whnddin', v. applied to a hare when it is running about as if to 
amuse itself. 

Whnmper, sb. a whisper ; a private intimation. 
Whup, sb. a whip. 
Whutherit, sb. a stoat. 

Why but yon 1 why did (or do) you not 1 ' Why but you pay the 
man ? ' ' Why but you hut him ? ' 

Wiley coat, sb. a short shirt of flannel, with short sleeves, open 
down the front, worn by men, sometimes next the skin and sometimes 
over another garment. 

Wilk, sb. a periwinkle. 

Williard, adj. obstinate ; self-willed. 

Willie Hawkie, sb. the little grebe. Also called Drink-a-penny. 

Willie-wagtail, sb. the wagtail. 

I 2 



116 ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 

Wilyart, Wulyart, adj. bashful ; stupid. 

Win, v. to save or dry hay, turf, &c., by exposure to the wind. 

Wind. (1) ' To get under the wind ' of any affair is to get secret or 
early information about it. 

(2) The following rhyme has regard to the various winds : 

' When the wind 's from the north 
It's good for cooling broth ; 
When the wind 's from the south 
It blows the dust into your mouth ; 
When the wind 's from the east 
It's neither good for man or beast ; 
When the wind 's from the west, 
Then the weather's best. 

Winedins, sb. pi. The head and foot rig in a ploughed field on 
which the horses turn are the winedins. 

Wine 'ere, Wind 'ere ? a call to a horse to turn to the left or near 

side. 
Wink o' sleep, any sleep. ' I didn't get a wink o' sleep for a week.' 

Winlin, sb. a small roll of hay. 

Winnie stroe, sb. a stalk of withered grass. 

Winter dyke, sb. two strong fences of stones or earth crossing each 
other at right angles. These are erected on exposed pastures to shelter 
cattle left out in winter. Also a clothes-horse for drying clothes on. 

Winter Friday, sb. a term for a cold, wretched-looking person. 
Wit, (1) sb. knowledge; intelligence. 

(2) ' He has to seek his wit yet,' said of a fool. 
Witch's cradle, sb. a Lias fossil, Gryphea incurva. 
Wite, v. to blame. 

Wi' the han', favourable; easily done. This expression is taken 
from ploughing experience. When a man is ploughing across a 
sloping place, and has difficulty in getting the earth to lie back, he 
would say it was ' again the han' ; ' if otherwise, he would say it was 
' wf the han'. 1 The horse that walks on the unploughed land is said to 
be ' in the han' ; ' the other horse is called the ' fur horse,' because it 
walks in the furrow. 

Without, adv. unless. ' Without you do it.' 
V izzen, sb. the windpipe. 

Wobble, v. to lather the face before shaving ; to totter in walking ; 
to shake ; to be unsteady on the feet. 

"Wobblin' brush, sb. a shaving brush. 
"Wool cottar, sb. a cormorant. 



ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 117 

Wool fire, wild fire, an eruption on the skin. ' It spreads like wool 
fire,'' a comparison. 

Word, sb. news; a message. ' Word come that his brother was dead.' 
' Did the master leave word when he would he home ? ' 

Words, sb. a falling-out. 'Why did you leave your last place?' 
' Oh, the manager an' me had words? 

Worm month, sb. part of July and part of August ; a fortnight 
before and a fortnight after Lammas. "Everything that has life in 
it lives this month." 

Worm-picked, adj. worm-eaten, as wood. 

'Worse nor lose ye canna,' i. e. you can but lose, so you may 
venture to do it. 

Wraith, sb. a shadowy likeness of a person. 
Wran, sb. a wren. 

Wringin', adj. saturated ; dripping with water. ' I was out in that 
pour, an' I'm all wringing' 

Wrought on, v. worked in the system. ' He took a swelling in his 
knee last July, an' it has wrought on him ever since.' 

Wud, adj. enraged ; mad. 

Won, sb. the wind. 

Wunnher, sb. a sprite' of a child. ' Come here, ye immnher, ye.' 

Wunnhur what ails ye. 'A'll mak ye wunrilmr what ails ye,' a 
threat of a beating or punishment. 

Wunnie claith, sb. winnow cloth, a large cloth on which the grain 
falls when it is winnowed by being tossed in the wind. 

Wur sels, sb. pi. ourselves. 



Yammerin', Yimmerin', v. complaining ; grumbling. 
Yap, (1) sb. a cross, peevish fellow. 

(2) v. A. chicken or young turkey is said to yap when it makes 
repeated calls for food. 

Yappy, adj. thin ; hungry-looking. 

Yarn. ' Take the yarn,' said of herrings when they strike the net. 

Yarwhelp, sb. a bird mentioned by Harris (Hist. Co. Down, 1744). 
It "is something like a woodcock." Called also Yarwhip. 

Yaup, v. to bark ; to cry as a young bird for food. 

Yeat, sb. a gate. 

Yell, adj. dry, as a cow when not giving milk. 



118 ANTRIM AND DOWN GLOSSARY. 

Yelloch, sl>. a yell. 

Yellow-man, .*?&. a kind of toffee made of treacle and flour. 

Yerp, v. to yelp. ,' Whiles a whitterick yerps like a dug,' i. c. a 
stoat sometimes yelps like a dog. 

Yilley-yorlin, Yella-yoit, Yella-yert, sb. the yellow-hammer or 
yellow bunting. 

Yin, adj. one. 

Yin ends erran', on particular or special purpose. ' He went y'm 
ends erran' for it.' 

Yirkin, sb. the side of a boot. 

Yirnin', Yermerin', v. grumbling ; complaining. 

Yoke, Yok, v. to attach a horse to a cart or other vehicle. 

Yirlin, sb. a yellow-hammer. 

You and you else, i. e. you and others like you ; in the same line 
as you are, or the same way of thinking. 

Your day, sb'. your lifetime ; all your days. ' The watch will last 
you your day.' 

You're no fit, you are not able. 

Your uns, sb. your family. 

Yous, pron. ye. ' Yoits can't get commin' through this way.' 

You've only the half of it, a reply to the observation, ' I'm glad 
to have seen you,' meaning ' I am as glad as you are.' 

Yowl, v. to howl. ' The dog yowled when I clodded a stone at him.' 
Yowlin', sb. a howling or yelping noise. 
Yuky, adj. itchy. 



Zinc, sb. This word is sometimes sounded as of two syllables, thus 
ess-zinc. 



BTOGAY: CLAY AND TAYLOR, PRINTERS. 



PE Dickinson, William 

1857 A glossary of words and 

D58 phrases pertaining to the 

1878 dialect of Cumberland 

C 2d ed. , rev. and extended^ 



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